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      • KCI등재

        원저 : 태연혈(太淵穴)의 유침 시간에 따른 체온 변화 -적외선체열촬영(赤外線體熱撮影)을 중심으로-

        이봉효 ( Bong Hyo Lee ),이경민 ( Kyung Min Lee ),박지하 ( Ji Ha Park ),김민서 ( Min Seo Kim ),김산들 ( San Deul Kim ),박병규 ( Byeong Gyu Park ),양현동 ( Hyun Dong Yang ),예성호 ( Sung Ho Yea ),이호정 ( Ho Jung Lee ),최재원 ( Jae 대한경락경혈학회 2012 Korean Journal of Acupuncture Vol.29 No.2

        Objectives: This study was performed to find the desirable remaining time of needle in the acupuncture treatment. Methods: The 21 volunteers were given acupuncture at LU9 vertically and needles were remained for 2 min, 10 min, 15 min, 30 min, respectively. The thermographic change induced by acupuncture was measured with Digital Infrared Thermographic Image at the following acupoints: LU11, LU10, LU9, LU8, LU5, LU1, and PC7. The statistical significance of thermographi change was evaluated using paired t-test and post hoc Wilcoxon test. Results: The most significant changes after acupuncture were produced when needles were remained for 10 min or 15 min. LU11, LU5, LU1, and PC7 were the point at which all of the remaining time produced significant change commonly. At LU11, the biggest change was produced when needle was remained for 15 min, while at LU5, LU1, and PC7, the biggest change was produced when needle was remained for 30 min, and the smallest change was produced when needle was remained for 10 min at all of acupoints of LU11, LU5, LU1, and PC7. The unbalance between left side and right was decreased the most largely in 15 min group. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the desirable remaining time of acupuncture needle might be 15 min.

      • 동충하초 투여가 최대하 운동 시 지방연소에 미치는 영향

        김철우,이용수,이상현,이상호,하민수,윤영조,이재일 한국스포츠리서치 2003 한국 스포츠 리서치 Vol.14 No.4

        The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of Cordyceps militaris on fat oxidation during submaximal exercise. Fifteen healthy male collegiate students(ingestion group, N=7; control group, N=8) participated as subjects after signing an informed consent following overnight, subjects completed maximal graded execise test on treadmill to determine exercise intensity(50%VO2max). To evaluate the fat oxidation using indirect calorimeter, it was performed submaximal treadmill to determine exercise lasting. 40min at 50%VO2max after 5day and consumed Cordyceps militaris on separate days. This study was used 2×4 two way repeated ANOVA to analyze physiological and metabolic variables between two groups and metabolic variables between two groups and four exercise periods(l0min, 20min, 30min 40min), and used Scheffe to post-hoc test. Significance was set at α=.05. The results of this study were as followed: First, there were significantly highest in ingestion group for V02, percentage of fat oxidetion(%fat), fat per kilocarolies(Fkcal), and total per kilocarolies(Tkcal)(p<.05), but respiratory exchange ration(RER) and heart rete(HR) were significantly lower in ingestion group(p<.05). Second, RER, %fat, Fkcal were significantly difference in 10, 20, 30, 40min of exercise period(p<.05). This results suggest that there is the effect of Cordyceps militaris on fat oxidation submaximal exercise. Additionally, to evaluate effect of Cordyceps militaris as ergogenic aid, it should be required the future study that included extend subjects, various dosage, and chronic consumption.

      • KCI등재

        해도형 PET 극세사 트리코트 편성물의 감량 가공 및 블랙 색상의 염색성 평가

        강정민(Jeong Min Kang),김민구(Min Gu Kim),이지은(Ji Eun Lee),고재왕(Jae Wang Ko),김일진(Il Jin Kim),이재년(Jae Yeon Lee),이동진(Dong Jin Lee),고성익(Seong Ik Ko),정대호(Dae Ho Jung),이승걸(Seung Geol Lee) 한국염색가공학회 2020 韓國染色加工學會誌 Vol.32 No.1

        In this study, we conducted alkali hydrolysis on sea-island type PET ultramicrofiber tricot fabric and dyeing according to the various conditions with black disperse dye. Herein, we evaluated the weight loss rate and tensile strength according to the NaOH contents. The optimal alkali hydrolysis treatment conditions were set to 25 %omf NaOH with a treatment time of 60 min at 110 ℃, and average weight loss rate of the PET ultramicrofiber tricot fabric is about 23 %. The dyeing conditions were investigated with different dyeing temperatures(95-135 ℃), dyeing time(20-60 min), dye contents(2-10 %omf), dispersant contents(1-9 g/ℓ), pH buffer solution contents(1-9 g/ℓ), UV-absorbent contents(5-25 %omf) and reduction cleaning process conditions for black color. We obtained the optimum conditions of the dyeing with the dye contents of 8 %omf, the dispersant contents of 1 g/ℓ, the pH buffer solution contents of 1 g/ℓ, the UV-absorbent contents of 10 %omf, the dyeing temperature of 135 ℃ and the dyeing time of 40 min. The light colorfastness of dyed ultramicrofiber PET tricot fabric was good to excellent in the range of 4 to 5.

      • KCI등재

        수학자 이상설이 소개한 근대자연과학: <식물학(植物學)>

        박영민 ( Young Min Park ),김채식 ( Chae Sik Kim ),이상구 ( Sang Gu Lee ),이재화 ( Jae Hwa Lee ) 한국수학교육학회 2011 수학교육논문집 Vol.25 No.2

        본 원고는 2004년 과학사학자 박성래 교수가 독립 운동가이자 한국 근대 수학교육의 아버지로 부르기 시작한 보재 이상설(李相卨, 1870-1917)이 자연과학에 기여한 내용을 다루고 있다. 한국수학사학회지 2009년 11월 호에 자세히 소개된 〈數理〉를 쓴 시기를 전후하여, 같은 시기에 이상설이 붓으로 쓴 것으로 여겨지는 〈植物學>(이상설, 1899)은 총 4면의 초록 필사본이며, 그 대본(臺本)은 〈植物學啓蒙〉 (Edkins, 1886)으로 영국의 Joseph Edkins(艾約瑟, 1823-1905)가 번역하여 1886년에 간행한 〈西學啓蒙〉 16종 가운데 하나이다. 이상설의 〈植物學>은 이 〈植物學啓蒙〉을 읽으면서 그 책의 내용 중 당시의 조 선 학자가 모르고 있던 새로운 내용을 중심으로 메모를 한 것으로 여겨진다. 본 연구에서는 전통산학과 근대서양수학을 연결하는 〈數理〉를 저술했으며. 우리나라의 정규 교과과정에 수학과 과학을 필수과목으로 지정하고, 첫 번째 수학교과서 〈산術新書〉를 발간함으로 당대 최고의 수학자로 평가된 이상설이 쓴 〈植物學〉을 발굴하여 그 내용과 의미를 최초로 분석한다, 이를 통하여 당시 조선의 서양 과학, 특히 식물학에 대한 이해 수준을 분석하고 〈植物學〉의 원전인 〈植物學啓蒙〉 과 <西學啓蒙〉의 저자에 대하여 알아본다. 이는 당시 수학교육자가 자연과학분야에 행한 교육적 기여를 이해 하는데 필수적인 연구이다. This paper deals with contents that Sang-Seol Lee contributed to the natural science in the 19th century Korea. Prof. Sung-Rae Park, the science historian, called Sang-Seol Lee Father of the Modern Mathematics education of Korea. Sang-Seol Lee wrote a manuscript Botany with a brush in late 19th century. Botany was transcribed from Science Primers: Botany (written by J. D. Hooker), which is translated into Chinese by Joseph Edkins in 1886. The existence of Sang-Seol Lee`s book Botany was not known to Korean scientists before. In this paper, we study the contents of Botany and its original text. Also we analyze people`s level of understanding Western sciences, especially botany at that time. In addition, we study authors of 16 Primers for Western Knowledge. We study the contribution of mathematician Sang-Seol Lee to science education in the 19th century Korea.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        신장기능영상용 방사성의약품 Bz - MAG3 (Benzoylmercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine) 의 키트화 및 체내분포

        장영수,김영주,이명철,고창순,이동수,정준기,정재민,조정혁 대한핵의학회 1996 핵의학 분자영상 Vol.30 No.3

        The MAG₃ is a tubular excreting radiopharmaceutical for renal image.We synthe-sized benzoyl MAG₃ (Bz-MAG₃) and made a kit for labeling with Tc-99m. We checked the labeling effeciency of Tc-99m labeled MAG₃ and biodistribution. Labeling efficiency was checked by TLC- SG (acetonitrile/H₂O=2/1). After injecting of 1 mCi of Tc-99M-MAG3 to ICR-mice, Tmax(min), T1/2(min) were obtained in the renogram. Sequencial images (30sec, 2min, 5min, 10min, 15min, 20min) of TC-99m-MAG₃ were compared with those of commercial Tc-99m-DTPA (Du Pont Merck Pharmaceutical Co.) kit. 1) The Rf value of synthesized Tc-99m-MAG₃ was 0.78 and labeling efficiency was 97.5±1.9% (n=10). 2) The dynamic images of the Tc-99m-MAG₃ were better than those of the Tc-99m-DTPA. 3) The Tmax(min.) and T1/2(min.) of Tc-99m-MAG₃ (n=10) were 1.5±0.5 (left), 1.4±0.4(right), and 4.3±1.4 (left), 4.8±2.0 (right), respectivel. The Tmax(min.) and T1/2(min.) of Tc-99m-DTPA (n=7) were 2.7±1.6 (left), 2.7±1.6 right), and 3.8±1.7 (left), 4.5±2.7 (right), rly. The quaility of image and labeling efficiency of the synthesized Bz-MAG3 kit were excellent, that it was supposed to be used in routine clinical work.

      • 쿠싱증후군 환자에서 당 대사 이상 정도에 따른 인슐린 감수성과 인슐린 저항성의 변화

        정인경,김성훈,정재훈,민용기,이명식,이문규,유형준,안규정,노정현,김동준,김광원 대한내분비학회 2003 Endocrinology and metabolism Vol.18 No.4

        연구배경 당질 코르티코이드는 당 대사에 매우 중요한 호르몬으로 내인성 당질 코르티코이드 과다상태인 쿠싱증후군에서는 말초조직에서 인슐린 저항이 증가하고 이를 보상하고자 인슐린 분비의 증가로 고인슐린혈증이 동반된다고 보고되고 있다. 하지만 생체 내에서와 달리 시험관내에서는 췌도세포에 당질 코르티코이드를 장시간 처리하면, 인슐린 분비 및 생합성이직접적으로 억제됨이 확인된 바 있어 쿠싱증후군 환자에서 당뇨병의 원인으로는 아마도 말초조직에서 증가된 인슐린 저항성 뿐 아니라 이를 충분히 보상하지 못하는 췌장에서의 인슐린 분비 저하가 같이 동반되어있지 않을까 하는 가설을 세우게 되었고, 아직까지 당질코르티코이드가 당대사 이상을 일으키는 기전에 대해 쿠싱증후군을 당대사 정도에 따라 인슐린 감수성과 분비능을 분석한 연구는 없었기에 이를 알아보고자 하였다. 방법: 삼성서울병원에서 쿠싱증후군으로 진단 받은 환자 15명을 대상으로 하였다. 이에 대한 대조군으로는 쿠싱증후군 환자와 같은 성별 그리고 체질량지수를 갖은 15명의 건강한 성인을 대상으로 비교 하였다 쿠싱증후군 환자를 대상으로 경구당부하 검사를 통해 당대사 정도를 정상군, 내당능장애군, 그리고 당뇨병군으로 나눈 후 정맥 당부하 검사를 시행하여 각군의 인슐린 저항성과 인슐린 분비능의 지표를 비교하고, 수술 후 쿠싱증후군이 완치된 상태에서 수술 전후의 당대사 지표의 변화를 조사하였다. 결과: 1) 쿠싱증후군 환자 중 정상인은 20%, 내당능 장애는 27%, 그리고 당뇨병은 53%였다. 체질량지수, 나이, 그리고 발병 기간은 세 군간에 의미 있는 차이가 없었으나, 24시간 소변검사의 코르티솔 농도는 당뇨병군에서 의미있게 높았다. 2) 정맥당부하 검사 결과, 인슐린 감수성 지표인 Sl는쿠싱증추린」서 1.58±0.10[×10^(-4)(min^(-1)(μU/mL)^(-1)]로 정상 대조군의 3.37±0.49[×10^(-4)(min^(-1)(μU/mL)^(-1)]에 비해 의미있게 낮았으나(P=0.024), 쿠싱증후군 환자 중 NGT, IGT, DM 군간에 서로 통계적인 차이는 없었다. 3) SG는 정상 대조군과 쿠싱증후군 환자간에는 의미있는 차이가 없었고, 쿠싱 증후군에 있어서 당대사가 악화될수록 감소하는 경향을 보였으나 의미있는 차이는 없었다. 4) 인슐린 분비능의 지표인 AIRg는 정상인에 비해 전체 쿠싱증후군 환자의 경우 증가하는 경향을 보였으나 의미있는 차이는 없었다. 하지만 쿠싱증후군 환자중에서 당대사 상태에 따라 NGT군은 1299 (1297∼1310)(mu/g/min ×10^(-2))로 정상 대조군(368.9±98.6[mu/g/min ×10^(-2)]) 보다도 의미있게 높았고, DM군{202.2 (91.1~371.4) [mu/g/min ×10^(-2)}은 NGT군에 비해 의미있게 낮았다(P=0.0031). 5) 15명중 현재 완치 상태에 있는 6명에 대해 수술전과 후로 비교하였다. 수술 전 당대사 상태가 1명은정상, 1명은 내당능 장애, 그리고 4명은 당뇨병이었으나 수술 후 시행한 경구 당부하 검사상 모두 정상 당대사 상태를 보였다. 6) 수술 후 완치된 환자 6명에 있어 인슐린 감수성지표인 Sl는 수술전에 중앙값이 1.22[×10^(-4)(min^(-1)(μU/mL)^(-1)]로 대조군에 비해 의미있게 감고』어 있었으나(p.0.05), 수술후 10.95 [×10^(-4)(min^(-1)(μU/mL)^(-1)]로 정상 수준으로 회복되었고(P=0.0022), 인슐린 분비능을 나타내는 AIRg [mu/g/min ×10^(-2)] 값도 정상수준으로 회복되었다. 특히 인슐린 분비능의 회복양상은 혈당농도에 따라 판이하게 나타나서, 정상과 내당능장애 상태에 있던 2명은 수술전에 1201 [mu/g/min ×10^(-2)]로 증가되어 있던 AIRg 값이 수술 후 정상 수준으로 감소하였고, 수술 전에 당뇨병 상태에 있던 4명의 경우 245.9 [mu/g/min ×10^(-2)]로 인슐린 분비능이 감고il어 있었는데 이들은 수술 후 모두 정상 수준으로 증가되었다 (P=0.0286). 결론: 쿠싱증후군 환자에서 당대사 이상은 80%로 높은 유병률을 보였다. 모든 쿠싱증후군환자에서 인슐린 감수성은 정상인에 비해 저하되어 있어 말초조직의 인슐린 저항이 선행됨을 시사하며, 인슐린 분비능은 당대사의 정도에 따라 다르게 나타났는데, 정상 당대사군에서는 인슐린의 저항성을 극복할 만큼 정상 대조군보다 더 많은 양의 인슐린 분비를 하다가 고코르티솔혈증이 심할수록 인슐린 분비능의 감소로 당뇨병으로 진행됨을 확인할 수 있었고, 이런 인슐린 저항성과 인슐린 분비장애는 수술 후 다시 회복되는 가역적인변화를 보였다. Background: Glucocorticoid plays an important role in the control of carbohydrate metabolism. Patients with Cushing's syndrome have been reported to have an increased incidence of carbohydrate intolerance due to peripheral insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, although the exact incidence and nature of this disorder have remained unclear. Few results have been published about insulin resistance and insulin secretion according to the level of glucose concentration, or about the reversibility of such defects in patients with Cushing's syndrome. Methods: To assess the effect of glucocorticoid on the insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in Cushing's syndrome, 15 patients with Cushing's syndrome were classified into 3 groups (normal glucose tolerance: NGT, impaired glucose tolerance: IGT, diabetes: DM) according to the degree of glucose tolerance based on the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Insulin modified, frequently sampled, intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT) was performed before and after curative surgery on these patients and on 15 healthy control subjects. Data were evaluated by non-parametric statistical analysis. Results: 1) Among the 15 patients with Cushing's syndrome, 3 (20%) were NGT, 4 (27%) IGT, and 8 (53%) DM, based on OGTT. Twenty-four hour urinary free cortisol (UFC) was significantly higher in the DM group. 2) Insulin sensitivity index (SI) of Cushing's syndrome was significantly lower than that of the control group p=0.0024), but was not significantly different among the three Cushing's syndrome groups of NGT, IGT and DM. 3) Glucose mediated glucose disposal (SG) (Ed- confirm this abbreviation; it does not seem to match the definition) of Cushing's syndrome was not significantly different from that of the control group. 4) Insulin secretion (AIRg) of Cushing's syndrome tended to be high, but it was not significantly different from that of control. However, according to the level of glucose concentration there was significant difference in AlRg among the three Cushing's syndrome groups p=0.0031); AIRg of DM was significantly lower than that of NGT. 5) After surgical treatment, parameters of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were normalized in 6 cured patients; 1 with NGT, 1 with IGT, and 4 with DM, preoperatively. Median SI of all 6 patients was significantly improved up to the normal range postoperatively p=0.0022). Median AIRg of these 6 patients was balanced around that of normal control postoperatively p=0.0286). Conclusion: Eighty percent of patients with Cushing's syndrome had abnormality of carbohydrate metabolism. Insulin sensitivity was significantly decreased in Cushing's syndrome. Insulin secretion was significantly higher only in the NGT and IGT groups of Cushing's syndrome. As the hypercortisolemia is exacerbated, insulin secretion is significantly decreased and causes DM, suggesting that glucocorticoid has a direct or indirect toxic effect on the pancreatic beta cell (J Kor SOC Endocrinol 18:392-403, 2003).

      • KCI등재

        Optical properties of hydrogel contact lens material containing 1-vinylimidazole

        Min-Jae Lee,Dong-Hyun Kim,A-Young Sung 대한시과학회 2014 대한시과학회지 학술대회 Vol.2014 No.05

        Purpose: This study evaluated the physical and optical characteristics of hydrophilic contact lens polymerized with addition of 1-vinylimidazole in the basic hydrogel contact lens material, and in particular, the utility of 1-vinylimidazole as a contact lens material for ophthalmologic devices was investigated. Methods: This study used 1-vinylimidazole with the cross-linker EGDMA (ethylene glycol dimethacrylate), HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and the initiator AIBN (azobisisobutyronitrile) for copolymerization. The polymerization of the contact lens material was conducted through thermal polymerization in 100°C for about 40 mins. To produce the high functional contact lenses, a cast mould method was used. Results: The physical properties of the hydrogel ophthalmic material were investigated by measuring the average value of refractive index, water content and optical transmittance. The refractive index of 1.4330~1.4408, water content of 36.10~38.59%, UV-A transmittance of 90.0~72.2% and UV-B transmittance of 88.6%~64.2% and visible ray transmittance of 89.2~91.8% were obtained. The transmittance for visible light was over 89% in all combinations with 1-vinylimidazole and the transmittance for UV reduced up to a certain level in certain combinations with 1-vinylimidazole. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, the produced copolymer can be estimated to be suitable for use as ophthalmic lens material for UV- blocking effects.

      • 선인장 양심실 보조장치의 설계 및 임상적용을 위한 평가

        민병구,박찬영,최재순,이혁수,황창모,김삼성,윤걸중,김종원,선경,이경갑,정종태,김원곤 제주대학교 인공심장이식연구소 2001 인공심장 연구 Vol.2 No.1

        현재 개발되고 있는 맥동형 이식형 인공심장은 완전이식형 인공심장과 좌심실보조장치 뿐이다. 좌심실보조장치를 장착한 환자의 10~15%가 우심실의 보조를 필요로하고 완전이식형 인공심장의 장착을 위해서는 자연심장을 제거해야하는 상황에서 이식형 양심실보조장치에 대한 필요성이 대두되고 있다. 본 연구진은 완전이식형 인공심장으로 개발된 한국형 인공심장을 개선하여 양심 실 보조장치를 개발하였다. 양심실보조장치는 이동형 작동기식 미케니즘을 이용하고 있으며 에너지 변환장치와 감속기로 구성된 작동기와 혈액주머니, 그리고 내장형 제어기로 구성되어 있다. 선인장 펌프로 명명된 KAH350은 캐뉼라의 연결을 위한 커넥터를 포함하여 길이 177mm, 폭 164mm, 높이 67 이고 무게 780g이며 최대 심박출량은 5L/min 이다. 양심실보조장치로 개발된 선인장펌프는 좌심실보조장치로도 응용이 가능하다. 이식적합성과 생체적합성을 평가하기 위하여 좌심실보조장치로 5회, 양싱실보조장치로 6회의 동물실험을 수행하였다. 각각 최장 28일간 생존하였으며 11회의 동물실험중 장치의 결함에 의한 것이 3회 있었는데 이들은 모두 전자장치의 결함과 방수처리문제였다. 현재 이식적합성과 일박출량을 향상시킨 KAH400모델이 개발중이다. The types of pulsatile implantable artificial hearts that are on the way of development and have been developed are totally implantable artificial heart and implantable left ventricular assist device (LVAD). Approximately 10% to 15% of all patients Implanted with wearable VADs have required right heart support with another device. And it is reluctant to patient who should remove his or her own heart to be implanted with total artificial heart. These situations drive the development of implantable bi-ventricular assist device (BVAD). The Korean BVAD was develophed by modifying the moving actuator type Korean artificial heart. This electro-mechanical BVAD comprises actuator including energy converter and reduction gear train, blood sacs, and internal motor and energy controllers. The KAH350 which is named as 'Cactus Pump' is 177mm in length, 164mm in width, and 67mm in thickness including connectors and nuts. The weight and maximum cardiac output of Cactus Pump is 780g and 5L/min, respectively. The Cactus Pump that was developed as BVAD could be used as LVAD by attaching compliance caps on the 2 ports of one ventricle. The animal experiments were undergone 5 times for LVAD, and 6 times for BVAD. The best records were 28 days survival in both applications. There were 3 times of device failure and they were all associated with electrical connection and hermetic sealing. The KAH400 that has improved anatomical fitting characterisitcs and stroke volume is on development.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재
      • KCI등재

        치면열구전색제의 조건에 따른 법랑질 결합강도에 관한 연구

        이용근,이흥수,이성재,방기숙,최정민,류승호,강민석 대한치과기재학회 1997 대한치과재료학회지 Vol.24 No.1

        In this study, the shear bond strengths and accompanying elastic modulus ratio, displacement at bond failure and work up to fracture of pit and fissure sealants to toothe enamel were analyzed by the following variables, those were acid etching, moisture content of the surface of enamel, dentin bonding agent(species and method), thermocycling, saliva contamination. One kind of chemically cured resin based pit and fissure sealant, two kinds of light cured resin based pit and fissure sealants and one kind of glass ionomer based pit and fissure sealant, and two kinds of dentin bonding agents were studied. The buccal surface of extracted premolars were ground flat with # 600 silicone carbide papers, and the ground surface was treated depending on the experimental conditions. After each treatment, each pit and fissure sealant was filled into plastic tube of 3mm diameter, which were laid on the surface of ground enamel surface, and were cured. Sealant bonded teeth specimens were immersed in 37℃ distilled water form 24 hours. The shear bond strength of sealant to enamel surface was measured with Universal testing machine with the cross head speed of 1mm/min. From the obtained load-deflection curves, modulus ratio, bond strength, displacement at bond failure and work up to fracture were analyzed. From this experiment, the following results were obtained : 1. Comparing the results of standard condition(i. e. acid etching, dry surface, no dentin bonding agent and 300 thermocyling), the elastic modulus ratio of chemically cured resinbased pit and fissure sealant was significantly higher than those of other materials(P<0.05), and the bond strength, displacement at bond failure and work up to fracture of glass ionomer based pit and fissure sealant were significantly lower than those of other materials(P<0.05). 2. The results of ANOVA with the variables of type of material, acid etching, moisture condition of the enamel surface, dentin bonding agents were as follows ; 1) variables showed significant main effect on the shear bond strength of pit and fissure sealant to enamel(P<0.01), 2) type of material, acid etching and moisture condition of enamel influenced the bond strength significantly(P<0.01), 3) type and application methods of dentin bonding agents influenced on the bond strength significantly(P<0.05). 3. There were statistically significant correlation between the work up to fracture and the bond strength, and between the work up to fracture and the displacement at bond failure(P<0.01), and in these cases the correlation coefficient was 0.87.

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