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본 연구의 목적은 학업중단 위기청소년의 학업중단 예방을 위한 또래관계 증진 프로그램을 개발하고 그 효과를 검증하는 것이다. 연구대상은 총 136명의 중학교와 고등학교에 재학 중인 학생이며, 실험집단 67명과 통제집단 69명이었다. 학업중단 예방을 위한 또래관계 증진 프로그램은 총 10회기로 구성되었으며, 그 내용은 ‘친밀감형성’ ‘자존감’, ‘사회기술’, ‘소속감’으로 구성되었다. 연구도구는 학교적응유연성, 또래관계, 공감능력을 사용하였다. 그 결과, 프로그램 실시 후 대기집단에 비해 실험집단의 학교적응유연성이 유의하게 증진되었으며, 또래관계 및 공감능력도 유의하게 향상되었다. 이는 개발된 학업중단 예방을 위한 또래관계 증진 프로그램이 학업중단 위기청소년의 학교적응력을 높이며 또래관계를 증진시키며 공감능력을 증진시키는 데 효과적임을 시사하였다. The purpose of this study was to develop a group counseling program to enhance peer relationships for school dropout prevention of at-risk youth for school drop-out. To accomplish this purpose, through reviewing the literature, the factors of the program were extracted. Also the program was constructed following the systematic counseling program development model. And the program was corrected basing on professionals' consultation. The program constructed by this process was consisted of 10 sessions including 'self-esteem', 'social relationship skills', 'sense of belonging'. The participants of this study were 136 middle and high school students. 67 students were placed in a experimental group, and 69 students were placed in a control group. The instruments used in this study to address the research questions were scales of school resilience, peer relationships, empathy ability. The results were as follows; First, there were significant changes in school resilience in the experimental group. Second, there were significant changes in peer relationships. Third, there were significant changes in empathy ability. These results shows that developed group counseling program to enhance peer relationships can be an effective tool for preventing school dropout.
The biographical study described in this paper discusses seven years of special education efforts for a differently abled adolescent student in Boston public school. This biographical study was conducted from August 2006 to July 2013. The purpose of this biographical study was to investigate and describe the learning components and practices used for the student. The researcher collected data/records and pictures from the educational experiences. The three identified major components were the role of a passionate teacher; the school, curriculum and classroom management; and UDL resources. The importance of these components in constructing a supportive learning environment for the differently abled adolescent student is discussed.
The survey on the practice of the memorial ceremonial food in Chuncheon area showed it varied according to social position of officiator, location(inland or seaside town), and personal condition. The study included the foods prepared for the memorial services on the memorial day, New Year's Day and Chusok. 1. 40,4% of the subjects were in the thirties at their age, 46.6% were high school graduates, 57.3% were the first daughter-in-law, 40.4% had no religion, 30,9% were working at public administration and earned less than 1 to 1,5 million won monthly, 2. 71.7% of the subjects who replied that the ancestor worship service had to be kept were Buddhists, 55.4% of them were high school graduates, and 58.8% of them ran independent businesses. They learned how to practice the ancestor worship service from their mother before marriage or from their parents-in-law after marriage. 3. The older the officiators, the better they wanted to keep the traditional format of the service, but the Christians and Catholics wanted to change the format to western style in the future. 4. 92.7% of them served cooked milled rice. They prepared the soup in the order of beef soup, radish soup and dried Alaskan Pollack soup, 5. Among cooked vegetable dishes, bracken was used the most and balloonflower root, mung bean sprout and spinach followed, Among jeon(pan-fried foods), frozen Alaskan Pollack was used the most and buckwheat, mung bean and meatball followed. 6. They served san-juk(beef kebab) mostly on the ceremony. Among the grilled foods, tofu was the favorite, and croaker followed. 7. Among the fried foods, squid was the favorite, and sweet-potato and shrimp followed. Among the dried foods, they used in the order of dried Alaskan pollack, dried beef and squid. 8. Among the rice cake and traditional confectionery, they used in the order of Yak-sik(sweet rice cake), Gang-jeong(fried glutinous rice cookie), Jeol-pyun and In-jeol-mee. Among a beverage, they served Sik-hye(fermented rice drink) mostly. 9. Among fruits, apples, jujube, chestnut and dried persimmon were served. Among a liquor, Cheongju was served mostly. 10. Soy sauce, salt and salted fermented fish were served, too.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the traditional color sentiment on the contemporary clothing color by studying the pictures of street fashion of Dalian in China, in view of the clothing color of women in their 20-30 years of age having highest purchasing power, along with traditional Chinese color. The clothing color is various in frequency depending on the items in street fashion. Due to the seasonal impact of summer, the most frequent item was one-piece dress with the Multi of various color patterns, followed by White, Black, PB, R and B category. In the top color, the White was most prevalent color due to the seasonal factor, followed by Black, Grey, Multi, R, Y, RP category. Achromatic color is more dominant with the ratio of 7:3, comparing with its counterpart, which consists of R and Y category of V, B, P, VP tone. In the bottom color, Dp tone of PB shows most high frequency, followed by Black. This results illustrate that Chinese women prefer blue jeans and to be looked as slimmer by using of the dark colors. In the accessories, colors of bags and shoes show different results. The bag colors show the high frequency of Dk tone, YR category, and the chromatic colors are little bit dominant than achromatic ones with the ratio of 5.3:4.7. On the contrary, the shoes colors show the highest frequency in Black, the achromatic colors are more dominant than chromatic ones with the ratio of 6.6:3.4. These results somewhat diverge from the international color trend. Color trend in Dalian street fashion in which the high frequency of V tone is observed through all the colors of the items followed by P, VP, Lgr tone in sequence. In the light of Chinese traditional color preference, this result denotes that the traditional color preferences of red, yellow are still affecting the contemporary color choices of clothing in Chinese women. The high incidence of PB category in the bottom and one-piece dress does not seem to have its origin form traditional Chinese color sentiment.
이 연구에서는 사회적 위축 아동 어머니의 민감성을 촉진하거나 방해하는 정서와 유발 변인들을 합의적 질적 분석(CQR)을 통하여 알아보았다. 연구대상은 만 6세에서 13세 이하의 사회적 위축 경향을 가진 아동의 어머니 14명이었다. 연구 결과, 8개의 정서와 22개의 유발 변인이 추출되었는데, 어머니의 민감성을 촉진하는 정서로는 ‘기쁨과 즐거움’, ‘희망감’, ‘편안함’이 있었다. 기쁨과 즐거움을 유발하는 변인은 ‘아동의 성장’, ‘가족 구성원의 성공’, ‘타인의 인정’이었으며, 희망감을 유발하는 변인은 ‘양육의 자신감’과 ‘부모 교육 및 상담’이었다. 마지막으로 편안함을 유발하는 변인은 ‘신체적 편안함’, ‘심리적 편안함’, ‘사회적 지지’이었다. 어머니의 민감성을 방해하는 정서로는 ‘우울’, ‘화’, ‘불안’, ‘조급함’, ‘실망감’이 있었다. 우울을 유발하는 변인들은 ‘심리적 무기력’, ‘신체적 무기력’, ‘자존감의 저하’, ‘타인들의 무시’가 있었으며, 화를 유발하는 변인들은 ‘주변 사람들의 이해 부족’, ‘아동의 부적응 행동’, ‘가정의 불화’, ‘타인과의 비교’이었고, 불안을 유발하는 변인들은 ‘미래에 대한 걱정’과 ‘타인의 비난’이었다. 그리고 조급함을 유발하는 변인은 ‘부모 역할의 책임감’과 ‘아동의 느린 반응’이었다. 마지막으로는 실망감을 유발하는 변인은 ‘기대에 미치지 못하는 아동의 행동’과 ‘기대에 미치지 못하는 학업 성취’이었다. 이 연구는 사회적 위축 아동 어머니의 민감성을 증진시키기 위한 교육 및 상담에 구체적인 정보를 제공할 수 있다는 의의가 있다.
The purpose of this study was to explore how social support, mother's psychological status, and maternal sensitivity affected attachment security in children with disabilities by using the structural equation model (SEM). Subjects were 141 pairs of children with disabilities and theirs mothers. Empirical data was obtained through a series of questionnaires such as marital satisfaction, support from people around, maternal depression, and parenting stress. In addition, maternal sensitivity and attachment security were obtained through a Maternal Behavior Q-set and an Attachment Behavior Q-set. The results were as follows: first, mother's psychological status was fully mediated by social support and maternal sensitivity. Secondly, mother's psychological status had a negative effect on maternal sensitivity, while her maternal sensitivity, in turn, had a positive effect on the child's attachment security. However, maternal sensitivity did not fully mediate between a mother's psychological status and the child's attachment security. These structural relationships were not different between children with pervasive developmental disorders and mental retardation. There were also no significant differences in the structural paths according to children's developmental age.
The objective of this study was to design a group program to prevent smartphone overdependence in adolescents and verify its effects. The program comprises six sessions carried out in the following steps: “Building Relationships and Preparing for Change,” “Preparing for Change,” “Implementing Change,” and “Maintaining Change.” Furthermore, to verify its effects, we applied the program to 109 middle and high school students (51 in the experimental group, 58 in the control group) in Chungcheongnam-do. A significant difference was found in the scores of smartphone overdependence, peer relationships, and self-efficacy between the experimental group and the control group. This study showed that this short-term group program of six sessions had significant effects on reducing smartphone overdependence and improving peer relationships and self-efficacy. The program has significance in that it is a prevention program that reinforces the positive aspects of smartphone use as well as reduces the negative impact of smartphone overdependence.