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Global logistics is to efficiently execute a global supply chain and to provide the real-time status information on global movements of inbound and out- bound goods to supply chain planning systems. While several trans- portation management suppliers that can provide data on inbound and outbound goods within a domestic market, only global logistics solutions can track goods globally, including multi-modal movements and the movement of goods through various consolidation points.Global logistics visibility is composed of several factors, order visibility, inventory visibility, tracking and tracing, event monitoring/alert, flexibility. The important principle of global logistics is that the trend will evolve from optimization of an individual business to optimization of a global network of businesses. Therefore, to optimize of a global network of businesses, all e-logistics services should be carried out by one or more third- party logistics providers and these outsourced logistics require integration of global process activities.
In this paper, a direct adaptive tracking controller based Lyapunov method is designed for a wheeled mobile robots. A wheeled mobile robots have three degrees of freedom and two control variables. Therefore, it is difficult to control a mobile robot using the general linear control. We introduce two kinds of Lyapunov function for the design of the controller and verify the controller. A mobile robots using the designed adaptive direct tracking controller is well-behaved and is easily implemented.
The purpose of this study is to examine the trade e-marketplace to analyse the factors influencing the usage diffusion in the trade e-marketplace through an empirical study.The model and the hypotheses used in this study are taken from the previous researches in relation to the theories of the innovation diffusion and the information system implementation. The results of the empirical study based on the research model and the hypotheses are summarized as follows.Firstly, after analysing the variables, it is found that the decentralization of authority, the CEO's support and concern to the trade e-marketplace, the mutual trust and the mutual cooperation with concerned companies, the power from counter-parties, and also the compatibility concerning legacy system have a statistically significant influence on its usage diffusion. Secondly, the variable of education and training to the traders' staff in relation to the trade e-marketplace shows a partly influential factor on its usage diffusion. Lastly, the variables of market-uncertainty, the competition level within an industry, the level of change-adaptation and management, the mutual immersion and the complexity concerning the system of the trade e-marketplace have no relation with its usage diffusion.
The polymerization shrinkage of dental esthetic filling materials of five kinds of resin composite and three kinds of compomer was measured with a thermal dilatometer (Thermal Dilatometer, DIL 402C, TASC 414/3A Controller, Netzche, Germany) during polymerization with a halogen lamp curing unit (VIP, Bisco, U.S.A.) or a plasma arc curing unit (Flipo, Serial No. P03G02221, Lokki, France). The irradiation time of the halogen lamp was 40, 80 and 120 s with the intensity of 400 ㎽/㎠, and that of the plasma arc was 9 s. The pulse-cure mode with a halogen lamp was 5 s pre-polymerization at 200 ㎽/㎠, 3 minutes wait and then 120 s irradiation at 400 ㎽/㎠. From this experiment, the following results were obtained : 1.Depending on the irradiation source and mode, the amount of polymerization shrinkage after 14 minutes from the start of irradiation was significantly different in some materials. However, there was no significant difference in most of materials (p>0.05). 2.Most of the polymerization shrinkage occurred within two minutes from the start of irradiation except for pulse-cure. 3.In all the materials studied, the amount of polymerization shrinkage after 14 minutes from the start of irradiation was not different between the results from 120 seconds irradiation with the halogen lamp and these from pulse-cure (p> 0.05), and the amounts of shrinkage from a plasma arc was generally lower than those from other curing modes. 4.The amount of polymerization shrinkage after 14 minutes from the start of irradiation was not different between the results from 120 seconds irradiation with a halogen lamp and those from plasma arc (p>0.05) in all the eight materials studied.