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A patient with actinomyces infection of the submandibular soft tissue was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). A 38-year-old woman presented with a right submandibular mass which slowly grew in size over one month. Clinically and radiologically, the lesion was considered as tuberculous lymphadenitis or cellulitis. The polymerase chain reaction for tuberculosis was done by aspirated specimen but the result was negative. The smears of aspiration cytology showed characteristic colonies (sulfur granules) of actinomyces in inflammatory background. After antibiotic therapy for eight months, the patient has been well, showing no detectable mass. This patient was simply and rapidly diagnosed by FNAC and can avoid unnecessary surgical biopsy.
Benign and malignant papillary neoplasms of the breast may be difficult to distinguish in both cytologic and histologic preparations. To define the cytologic features of benign and malignant papillary lesions, we retrospectively reviewed 18 cases of fine needle aspirates from histologically confirmed cases of papilloma or papillary carcinoma of the breast. This study included 3 intraductal papillary carcinomas, 3 invasive papillary carcinomas, and 12 intraductal papillomas. Ail cases were evaluated for presence or absence of papillary fragments, bloody background, apocrine metaplasia, macrophages, and degree of cellularity, atypia, and single isolated columnar epithelial cells. Papillary fragments were present in all cases. The background of the smear was bloody in all 6 carcinomas, but in only 7 out of 12 papillomas. Markedly increased cellularity was present in 4 carcinomas(67%) and 7 papillomas(58%). Single cells were present in 5 carcinomas(83%) and 8 papillomas(67%). The majority of papillomas and papillary carcinomas had mild to moderate atypia, and severe atypia was noted in one case of intraductal papillary carcinoma and one case of invasive papillary carcinoma. Apocrine metaplasia was absent in all cases of papillary carcinomas, but present in 8 papillomas(57%). Macrophages were noted in 4 carcinomas and were present in all cases of papillomas. The constellation of severe atypia, bloody background, absence of apocrine metaplasia and/or macrophages were features to favor carcinoma. Malignant lesions tended to show higher cellularity and more single isolated cells. The cytologic features mentioned above would be helpful to distinguish benign from malignant papillary lesions of the breast. However, because of overlapping of cytologic features, surgical excision should be warranted in all cases on papillary lesions of the breast to further characterize the tumor.
Fine needle aspiration cytology(FNAC) has become a popular method for the diagnosis of a wide variety of both superficial and deep-seated lesions. However, there are few reports about the potential of FNAC for the diagnosis of intraoral lesions. We experienced 44 FNACS from intraoral lesions at Asan Medical Center: 22 from the palate, 6 from the tongue, 5 from the parapharyngeal space, 5 from the lip, 2 from the floor of mouth, 1 from the buccal mucosa, and 3 from other intraoral sites. Histological confirmation was obtained in 32 cases and we analyzed 27 cases excluding 5 cases of inadequate aspirates. Diagnosis was specifically made in 19 of 27 cases(70%) including 1 mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 1 undifferentiated carcinoma, 1 chordoma, 9 pleomorphic adenomas, 1 neurofibroma, and 6 benign lesions. There were three false negative cases(sensitivity, 62.5%) and no false positive cases(specificity, 100%): Two cases diagnosed as "cystic lesion" were confirmed to be mucoepidermoid carcinomas and a case diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma was proved to be adenoid cystic carcinoma. The results of our study suggest that FNAC is a useful technique in the diagnosis of intraoral lesion.
A single degree of freedom system and transmissibility are key concepts in many problems of vibration isolation. In order to apply this approach, however, several assumptions must be satisfied, which are often not realistic. For examples, in practical systems, vibration transmissions at multi-point with multi-degree of freedom(translational and rotational DOF) take place and mobilities or impedances of receiver structures cannot be ignored any more especially over high frequency range. Therefore, a multi-dimensional treatment is required for accurate estimation of dynamic behavior of the system. In this paper, an approach using vibrational power flow is introduced to deal with analysis of multi-dimensional vibration isolation system in a more practical way and in aspects of vibration isolations and vibration path analysis. Procedures of this approach and some results of research for vibrational power path analysis with rotational terms included are presented. Difficulties in this method are also discussed.
Focusing on the boots worn by the Mongolian and Canadian Inuit, this study examines their design characteristics and makes a comparative analysis of the backgrounds and factors of their development in the respective living environments. The Mongolian’s boots, Gutals have wide openings and have their toes perked up to ensure their convenient use for horseback riding and are available either as half-height boots or as full-height boots. Gutals are divided into three types by their composition and use thick cowhide and felt mainly. Meanwhile, different boots for different the Canadaia Inuit tribes are Mukluks. However, the making of their boots register regional characteristics in the elements used in their production such as materials, patterns, production technology, and decoration design. Focusing on these characteristics, the design elements of the boots for Mongolians and for the Inuit in Canada were compared. While they have similar appearances, the boots from the two different regions vary in their materials, composition, colors, details, and manufacturing method. In addition to their design elements, the boots show similarities and differences in how people wear them and for what they use them. The similarities and differences that are revealed through the comparison of the boots for Mongolians and for the Canadian Inuit can explain the development of the shoes cultures as influenced by the ways of life that involve the nomad life and horseback riding vs. hunting and fishing and the natural environments in the areas people moved into.
This study was intended to compare the types of boot-type shoes and the formative characteristics of Mongol and northeastern China, which developed shoe culture that reflected different lifestyles. Precedence research and literature data, fieldwork and survey data, exhibition and video data were utilized as research materials. First, Shilyu, the ancestor of the ethnic minorities in Mongolia and northeastern China, confirmed that the culture of dress and shoes, which were mainly made of animal skins and fish skins obtained through hunting and fishing, was developed. Based on this, the types and characteristics of traditional boot-type shoes of the Mongol tribe and ethnic minorities in northeastern China were examined, and the results of comparing the formative characteristic were as follows. First, it can be seen that Mongolia's Gutal has developed into three forms depending on the method and type; A flat sole with a round type of the toe-cap, A flat sole with the toe-cap raised, A shape in which the sole covers both sides of the foot and foot. Boot-type shoes of ethnic minorities in northeastern China were each made of animal and fish skins to enhance functionality and practicality, and different materials were used according to the seasons. Second, I compared the formative features of each ethnic group's boot-type shoes with the way and purpose of wearing them. As a result, the basic forms are similar, but differences have been seen in such things as subdivided forms, fabrication methods, materials, colors and how to wear them. The difference shown in the formative characteristics means that it has developed into boot-type shoes with different types and characteristics by the function and use of the lifestyle according to the natural and environmental background of the area in which it has lived and to adapt to it. In conclusion, each region's boot-type shoes can be identified as a costume item that is very close to Mongolia's nomadic and horseback riding styles and the lifestyle of ethnic minorities in northeastern China, such as hunting, fishing and ranching.
Xinjiang, China is one of the most important places where numerous ethnicities have experienced cultural exchanges and acculturation. This paper focuses on the culture of shoes of various ethnicities native to Xinjiang in the ancient times. The shoes, as a unique part of each culture helps to understand the cultural exchange of the region. In this paper this begins with the classification of the shoes and further investigate the factors of transformation. The shoes of the region are classified into three basic types: sandals, slip-ons, and boots. To Consider the formed aspect by the type of shoe, the boots had appeared earlier than slip-ons. In other words, boots were worn from about 4000 years ago, which suggests that it is the reflection of their climate and geography as well as the nomadic and pastoral lifestyle. The styles of the boots had developed from simple covering of the feet and ankles, through an early styles made of leather, woolen material and felt, and finally to the boots of the various designs and material in the 3th century, which suggest the cultural exchanges through the Eurasian continent. Another type of shoes, slip-ons, have appeared since the 2nd century BCE, which seem to have been introduced by influencing of the continuous expansion of the Han dynasty into the West. As Xinjiang region was became a trade route of international merchants on the Silk Road, and silp-ons have been more developed by influencing of its circumstance. The advent of slip-ons is the result of the social changes including the imported culture, the changes in lifestyle, and the economic development which the caravan trade brought about. Summarizing of the aspect of shoes changing in Xinjiang, the people who had lived in there wore boots only. With going into West of Han dynasty, slip-ons which had originated of Chinese Culture were introduced in Xinjiang and then, those two types of shoes were worn by the people of there. The cause of coexisting of two type shoes in Xinjiang, were presumed to be influenced of changing their life style that a nomadic life in ancient was changed gradually to be a trading post on Silk Road.