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The purpose of this study is to show the problems of Chomsky's Wh-movement rule and to solve them by using Readjustment rule. In the first chapter, I mentioned the general characteristics of Wh-movement and showed the problems of explanatory adequacy in it. In the second chapter, I represented the couter-examples of Wh-movement rule; espacially, in case of manner-of-speaking verbs, factive verbs, sentential subjects, and the relationships between anaphora 'it' and that-clauses. In the third chapter, I analyzed complex NP by using Readjustment rule. Likewise, I accepted Readjustment rule to analyze the problems of Wh-movement. In conclusoin, the syntactic problems of Wh-movement in English can be more effectively analyzed on the basis of Readjustment Rule. Therefore, the characteristics of Chomsky's Wh-movement rule can be clearly interpreted by using Readjustment rule.
Ïduq qut Gaochang king, one of the Qocho Uyghur descendants leaving the 《Epitaph of Ïduq qut Gaochang King》 in the 14th century, is the descendant of Bugu Jun(僕固俊) that set up the government, so-called Qocho Uyghur, in Turfan after 866. Even under the ruling of Mongolian Empire in the 14th century, he want to succeeded to Qocho Uyghur’s tradition. Bugu(僕固) tribe that he belonged to was one of the Turkish tribes that led a nomadic life in the past Mongolia. They not only grew during the ruling of Tang after the collapse of the Empire of Turks in the middle of 7th century, but were one of the powerful parties also in the period of Uyghur’s nomadic khaghanate(745~840). And they have long-lasting history setting up the government only after the mid-9th century and maintaining it for over 300 years. Ïduq qut Gaochang king remembered and wrote down this past historical experience as name of the myth of ‘Bögü qaghan’, the progenitor. This memory of his was not only related with Uyghur lived in the Mongolia that had close ties with himself among the historical issues that the past Turks made, but was associated with the effort to connect the legitimacy of Turkish nomads started from Gaocha (高車) in the 5th century with himself. Therefore, in order to systematize his own historical consciousness, Ïduq qut Gaochang king completed the myth about ‘Bögü qaghan’ mobilizing and synthesizing various motives. In that place, first, he emphasized the Tuul River of Mongolian steppe related to the mainland of Bugu tribe, and also borrowed the faith of a divine mountain(聖山) along with the joint of the two rivers(兩河). And he put emphasis on the divinity of the progenitor through the combination of divine trees(神樹) and sunlight(日光) that may have been related with the ultimate religious system of the steppe as well as the doctrine of Manichaeism. Moreover, explaining the existence of five sons from divine trees(木生五子) and his youngest sibling, Bögü qaghan, he tried to show their ties as a party in the past. This process was meant to identify the past traditions by combining the mythological motives of the steppe in northern Asia including the past Turks. And at the same time, it was also the process to justify the Bugu tribe that transmitted the legitimacy in the history. Therefore, Ïduq qut Gaochang king could make the tradition of ‘Uyghur’ of his own through the arrangement of the progenitor’s myth, and later, this created another historical substance of ‘Uyghur’.
Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim. has been successfully used as an oriental medicine for various diseases including allergic disorders. Histamine is a major factor on various allergic responses and it is reported that histamine was released from mast cells by sensitization of allergens. In this study, ethanol extracts from E. senticosus Maxim. were prepared and the composition was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The eleutheroside B as a primary effective component of E. senticosus was contained approximately 225 mg/kg in root bark extracts. The extracts were found to significantly inhibit compound 48/80-induced histamine release form mast cells in dose dependent manner. However the extracts had low cytotoxicity on the mast cells with MTT assay. These results showed that E. senticosus Maxim. extracts may be the effective materials on inflammatory disorders.
Objectives: The purposes of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of epilepsy and to estimate the cost of epilepsy in Korea, 2010. Methods: This study used a prevalence based approach to calculate the cost of epilepsy. Claims data from the Korean national health insurance and data from the Korea health panel, the Korea National Statistical Office’s records of causes of death, and labor statistics were used to estimate the cost of epilepsy. Patients were defined as those who were hospitalized or visited an outpatient clinic during 2010 with a diagnosis of epilepsy (International Classification of Diseases 10th revision codes G40-G41). Total costs of epilepsy included direct medical costs, direct non-medical cost and indirect costs. Results: The annual prevalence of treated epilepsy was 228 per 100 000 population, and higher in men. The age-specific prevalence was highest for teenagers. The total economic burden of epilepsy was 536 billion Korean won (KW). Indirect cost (304 billion KW) was 1.3 times greater than direct cost (232 billion KW). By gender, the male (347 billion KW) were more burdened than the female (189 billion KW). The estimated cost in young age younger than 20 years old was 24.5% of the total burden of epilepsy. Conclusions: A significant portion of the economic burden of epilepsy is borne by people in young age. To reduce the economic burden of epilepsy, effective prevention and treatment strategies are needed.
In this paper, we introduce a newly developed photogrammetric software for automatic generation of high quality geo-products and its performance assessment carried out using various satellite images. Our newly developed software provides the latest techniques of an optimized sensor modelling, ortho-image generation and automated Digital Elevation Model (DEM) generation for diverse remote sensing images. In particular, images from dual- and multi-sensor images can be integrated for 3D mapping. This can be a novel innovation toward a wider applicability of remote sensing data, since 3D mapping has been limited within only single-sensor so far. We used Kompsat-2, Ikonos, QuickBird, Spot-5 high resolution satellite images to test an accuracy of 3D points and ortho-image generated by the software. Outputs were assessed by comparing reliable reference data. From various sensor combinations 3D mapping were implemented and their accuracy was evaluated using independent check points. Model accuracy of 1~2 pixels or better was achieved regardless of sensor combination type. The high resolution ortho-image results are consistent with the reference map on a scale of 1:5,000 after being rectified by the software and an accuracy of 1~2 pixels could be achieved through quantitative assessment. The developed software offers efficient critical geo-processing modules of various remote sensing images and it is expected that the software can be widely used to meet the demand on the high-quality geo products.
Oblique angle deposition (OAD) is a physical vapor deposition where incident vapor flux arrives at nonnormal angles. It has been known that tilting the substrate changes the properties of the film, which is thought to be a result of morphological change of the film. In this study, OAD has been applied to prepare single and multilayer TiN films by cathodic arc deposition. TiN films have been deposited on cold-rolled steel sheets and stainless steel sheet. The deposition angle as well as substrate temperature and substrate bias was changed to investigate their effects on the properties of TiN films. TiN films were analyzed by color difference meter, scanning electron microscopy, nanoindenter and x-ray diffraction. The color of TiN films was not much changed according to the deposition conditions. The slanted and zigzag structures were observed from the single and multilayer films. The relation between substrate tilting angle (α) and the growth column angle (β) followed the equation of tanα = 2tanβ. The indentation hardness of TiN films deposited by OAD was low compared with the ones prepared at normal angle. However, it has been found that H3/E2 ratio of 3-layer TiN films prepared at OAD condition was a little higher than the ones prepared at normal angle, which can confirm the robustness of prepared films.
The short, unclear record that says after Ju-Qu-Shi(沮渠氏) power was defeated by Northern Wei(北魏) in the mid-fifth century, he escaped to southern Altai(金山) Mts. and became an ironworker of Rou-Ran(柔然), makes it uncertain where Ashina clan(阿史那氏) occurred and when and why he moved to southern Altai Mts. In order to fill the temporal gap of that short record and figure out the birthplace and original residence of Ashina clan, this study newly examines another myth that says Ashina clan occurred when ten sons born by a female wolf in the enormous basin in the hole of the cave in the mountain located in the north of Turfan (Gao-chang-Guo, 高昌國) married the local women. And connecting the two records temporally, this study examines their feasibility as data, and also it re-examines and connects the extracts found as facts with the result of the field trip and previous research results. As a result, unlike the previous view that the birthplace of Ashina clan was in the base of Tian-shan(天山) Mts. in southern Jimsar(吉木薩爾), this study found the description of a large basin inside the hole of the cave in the mountain located in northern Turfan and the result that the Barköl(巴里坤) basin in the eastern mountain range of Tian-shan Mts. with similar topography could be the birthplace. Moreover, this could be more concertized through the process of arranging the fierce political competition around Tian-shan Mts. before and after the sixth century when Ashina clan living in the Barköl basin could not but move to the southern Altai Mts.. Therefore, by re-examining the birthplace of Ashina clan, this study could systematize the early history of Türks(突厥) more clearly which had been left as the time of mythology with no proper understanding. In other words, Ashina clan occurred in the Barköl basin in the late sixth century and had to move to southern Altai Mts. around 508 during the war between Gao-Che(高車) and Rou-Ran. After he grew up, he subjugated Gao-Che in Jimasar at the northern Tian-shan Mts. and secured power and also defeated even Rou-Ran in the steppe of Mongolia to found the nation in 552. All this process is closely connected to the competition between Chinese dynasties, Rou-Ran, Ephtalite, Gao-Che, Tu-Yu-Hun(吐谷渾), and many other Oasis powers divided into the north and the south in the Tian-shan Mts. region.
Background: A numerical simulation was carried out to investigate the difference betweeninternal and external heat-flux distributions at the reactor vessel wall under in-vesselretention through external reactor vessel cooling (IVR-ERVC). Methods: Total loss of feed water, station blackout, and large break loss of coolant accidentswere selected as the severe accident scenarios, and a transient analysis using the elementbirth-and-death technique was conducted to reflect the vessel erosion (vessel wall thicknesschange) effect. Results: It was found that the maximum heat flux at the focusing region was decreased atleast 10% when considering the two-dimensional heat conduction at the reactor vessel wall. Conclusion: The results show that a higher thermal margin for the IVR-ERVC strategy can beachieved in the focusing region. In addition, sensitivity studies revealed that the heat fluxand reactor vessel thickness are dominantly affected by the molten corium pool formationaccording to the accident scenario
Accurate channel information is essential fordesigning mobile communication system. The wirelesschannel has been actively investigated with the evolutionof the cellular based mobile system. The major concernof the research is moved from path loss, at the earlystate, to multipath environment. To develop precisemultipath channel model, time delay and fadingphenomenon are analyzed by channel impulse response. To make a wireless channel model, the statisticalmethods that measure channel directly, and thedeterministic methods using simulation are used. Okumura, Hata, and COST-231 are early models utilizedto develop wireless communication systems, and suchmodels are gradually improved to SCM, SCME, WINNERPhase I and II. For the next generation wireless system,millimeter-wave band currently draws much attentiondue to the lack of idle band in present mobile frequencyband. However, many issues still remain to exploit thisband for mobile communication including high pathloss, excessive penetration and diffraction losses, energyabsorption from atmosphere, etc. 이동통신 시스템을 설계하는데 정확한 채널 정보는 필수적이다. 셀룰러 기반의 이동통신 시스템이 빠르게 발전함과 더불어 무선 채널에 대한 연구 또한 활발하게 진행되어 왔다. 경로 손실은 가장 기본적인 채널 파라미터로서 초창기부터 많이 다루어졌고, 이후 다중경로 채널의 정확한 모사가 중요해짐에 따라 채널 임펄스 응답을 통하여 시간 지연과 페이딩 특성 등을 분석하였다. 하지만 실제 모든 통신 환경에 대하여 직접 측정할 수는 없기 때문에, 환경의 일부를 측정하고 분석하는 통계적 방법이나 모의실험을 통한 확정적 방법 등을 통하여 특정 환경을 대표할 수 있는 채널 모델을 만들어 활용하게 되었다. Okumura와Hata, COST-231 등의 초기 채널 모델은 환경에 따라 쉽게 적용 가능한 경로 손실 모델로서 널리 활용되었고, 이후에는 통신시스템의 넓은 주파수 대역, 다중 안테나 등을 고려한 채널 임펄스 응답 모델로서 SCM과 SCME, WINNER Phase I과 II 모델등이 단계적으로 제시되었다. 차세대 무선 이동통신에서는 지금보다 훨씬 높은 데이터 전송률을 목표로 하기 때문에 보다 넓은주파수 대역이 필요할 것으로 예상하고 있지만, 현재 활용하는 주파수 대역에는 유휴 대역이 많지 않다. 따라서 밀리미터파 대역이 하나의 대안으로 주목을 받고 있지만, 높은 경로 손실과 강한 직진성으로 인한 투과 및 회절 손실, 대기에서의 흡수 등 실제 시스템 적용까지는 여전히 고려해야 할 문제가 많이 남아있다.