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본 연구는 金正喜(1786~1857)가 ‘大家’가 되는 데에 있어 작가 자신의 창조적 역량 외에 다른 어떤 외부 요인이 작동했는가를 究明하기 위해 기획되었다. 이를 위해 김정희가 재세 연간 및 사후에 어떤 이들과 역학 관계를 맺으면서 조선 최고의 예술가로 추앙받게 되었는지를 논의하였다. 아울러 김정희의 제자 許鍊(1809~1892)이 어떻게 김정희의 추숭 작업을 통해 그 이름을 세상에 널리 알렸는가를 논의하는 한편 1930년대 이래 미술 경매 시장에서 김정희의 작품이 점하는 위상에 대해 분석했다. 이는 궁극적으로 김정희 스스로가 자신의 이미지를 어떻게 구현하고자 했는지, 또한 그것을 후대에 누가 계승하였는지, 현대에 김정희에 대한 평가가 어떻게 이루어졌는지를 검토하는 작업이 될 것이다. This article examines what kind of external factors contributed to Kim Chŏnghŭi's being a celebrated artist besides his own artistic creativity. In order to do so, this study first focuses on the social relations Kim managed to forge not only with his companions but also with artistic patrons and clients, by whom Kim became revered as the best Chosŏn artist both in his lifetime and posthumously. In addition, this study sheds light on the role played by one of Kim's followers, Hŏ Ryŏn, in raising Kim's public profile by circulating reproductions of Kim's masterpieces in lower prices after Kim's death. Ultimately, this study will be an attempt to elucidate Kim Chŏnghŭi's self-image in the art society, its inheritance by his followers, and its impact on the contemporary evaluation on him.
Background and Purposes: Over the past three decades, numerous studies performed in Korea have reported that job stress is a determinant risk factor for chronic diseases and work disability. Every society has its own culture and occupational climate particular to their organizations, and hence experiences different occupational stress. An occupational stress measurement tool therefore needs to be developed to estimate it objectively. The purpose of this study is to develop and standardize the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS) which is considered to be unique and specific occupational stressors in Korean employees. Subjects and Methods: Data were obtained from the National Study for Development and Standardization of Occupational Stress (NSDSOS Project: 2002-2004). A total of 12,631 employees from a nationwide sample proportional to the Korean Standard Industrial Classification and the Korean Standard Occupational Classification were administered. The KOSS was developed for 2 years (2002-2004). In the first year, we collected 255 items from the most popular job stress measurement tools such as JCQ, ERI, NIOSH and OSI, and 44 items derived from the a qualitative study (depth interview). Forty-three items of KOSS, in the second year, were retained for use in the final version of the KOSS by using Delphi and factor analysis. Items were scored using conventional 1-2-3-4 Likert scores for the response categories. Results: We developed eight subscales by using factor analysis and validation process: physical environment (3 items), job demand (8 items), insufficient job control (5 items), interpersonal conflict (4 items), job insecurity (6 items), organizational system (7 items), lack of reward (6 items), and occupational climate (4 items). Together they explained 50.0% of total variance. Internal consistency alpha scores were ranged from 0.51 to 0.82. Twenty-four items of the short form of the KOSS (KOSS-SF) were also developed to estimate job stress in the work setting. Because the levels of the subscales of occupational stress were gender dependent, gender-specific standard norms for both the 43-item full version and the 24-item short form using a quartile for the subscales of KOSS were presented. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that KOSS might be an appropriate measurement scale to estimate occupational stress of Korean employees. Further and more detailed study needs to be conducted to improve the validity of this scale.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
연구목적 : 본 시험의 목적은 임상시험 시작전에 연구자들을 대상으로 PANSS Workshop을 통하여 PANSS, ESRS에 대한 국내에서의 표준화 작업을 구축하고 새로운 정신병 치료제인 리스페리돈의 효과와 안정성을 재확인하여 리스페리돈 사용에 대한 적정화를 이루는데 있다. 연구방법 : 1996년 4월부터 1996년 9월까지 국내 39개 대학병원 정신과에 입원중인 혹은 증상이 악화되어 입원하는 정신분열병 환자 377명을 대상으로 다시설 개방 연구를 시행하였다. 1주일간의 약물 배설기간을 가진후, 리스페리돈을 8주간 투여하였고, 기준점, 1주, 2주, 4주, 그리고 8주후에 평가되었다. 용량은 제1일에는 리스페리돈 1mg씩 1일 2회, 제2일에는 2mg씩 1일 2회, 제3∼7일에는 3mg씩 1일 2회 투여하였다. 이후 환자의 임상상태에 따라 임의로 증량할 수 있으며, 최대 일일 16mg을 초과하지 않도록 하였다. 추체외로 증상을 조절하기 위한 투약을 허용하였다. 임상증상 및 부작용의 평가는 PANSS(Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), CGI(Clinical Global Impression) 그리고 ESRS(Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale)을 사용하였다. 연구결과 : 377명중 343명(91%)이 8주간의 연구를 완결하였다. 치료 종결시점인 8주후 PANSS 총점수가 20% 이상 호전된 경우를 약물 반응군으로 정의할때, 약물반응군은 81.3%였다. 리스페리돈에 반응하는 예측인자로는 발병연령, 이전의 입원 횟수, 유병기간이 관련 있었다. 리스페리돈은 1주후부터 PANSS양성, 음성, 및 일반정신병리 점수상에 유의한 호전을 보여 효과가 빨랐다. CGI의 경우도 기준점에 비해 1주후부터 유의한 감소를 나타내었다. ESRS의 경우, 파킨슨 평가점수는 기준점과 비교해 투여 1주, 2주, 4주후 유의하게 증가되었다가 8주후 기준점과 차이가 없었다. Dystonia 평가점수는 1주후만 유의한 증가를 보였으며, dyskinesia 평가점수는 유의한 차이가 없었다. 혈압, 맥박수의 생명징후 및 일반 혈액학 검사, 생화학적 검사, 심전도 검사에서 유의한 변화는 없었다. 결 론 : 이상의 다시설 개방 임상 연구를 통해 리스페리돈은 정신분열병 환자에서 양성증상뿐만 아니라 음성증상 및 전반적인 증상에도 효과적인 것으로 사료된다. 보다 명확한 평가를 위해서는 다른 항정신병약물과의 이중맹검 연구가 필요할 것으로 생각되며, 또한 장기적 치료에 대한 평가도 함께 이루어져야 하겠다. Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of risperidone in the treatment of Korean schizophrenic patients. Method : This multicenter open study included 377 schizophrenic patients drawn from 39 university hospitals. After a wash-out period of 1 week, the schizophrenic patients were treated with risperidone for 8 weeks and evaluated at 5 points ; at baseline, and 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. The dose was increased from 2mg/day(1mg twice daily) to 6mg/day(3mg twice daily) during the first week and adjusted to a maximum of 16mg/day over the next 7 weeks according to the patient's clinical response. Medication to control extrapyramidal symptoms was permitted. The psychiatric and neurological status of the patients was assessed by PANSS, CGI, and ESRS scales. Results : 343(91%) of 377 patients completed the 8-week trial period. Clinical improvement, as defined by a 20% or more reduction in total PANSS score at end point, was shown by 81.3% of patients. The predictors of response to risperidone were associated older age, shorter duration of illness, fewer previous hospitalization. Risperidone had rapid onset of action ; a significant decrease of the total PANSS and three PANSS factor(positive, negative, general), and CGI was already noticed at the end of first week. For the ESRS, parkinsonism rating scores were significantly increased until week 4 comparing with baseline. Dystonia rating scores were significantly increased until week 1, and dyskinesia rating scores were not significantly changed during the study. Laboratory parameters including vital sign, EKG, hematological, and biochemical values showed no significant changes during the trial. Conclusions : This study suggests that risperidone is generally safe and effective against both the positive and negative symptoms in our group of patients.
목적 : 경피적 관동맥 중재술은 최근 양적 및 질적으로 급격한 발전을 보였지만 시술 시 천자부위의 혈관 합병증은 아직 해결해야 할 문제점이다. 저자들은 대퇴동맥을 통한 경피적 관동맥 중재술을 환자에게 천자부위 지혈을 위한 혈관폐쇄기구인 안지오실의 안전성과 유용성을 고식적인 용수 압박법과 비교 연구하고자 하였다. 방법 : 2002년 4월부터 2003년 5월 사이에 삼성서울병원 심장혈관센터에서 대퇴동맥을 통한 경피적 관동맥 중재술을 성공적으로 시행한 200명의 환자(안지오실 사용군: A군, 100명, 고식적 용수압박법 사용군 B군, 100명)를 대상으로 시술 후 주요 합병증 및 경한 합병증, 지혈 후 환자가 자리에 앉기까지의 시간, 보행개시 가능시간, 총 재원 기간과 시술 1주 후의 합병증을 전향적으로 조사하여 비교 연구하였다. 결론 : 두 군에서 연령, 성별, 기저질환, 심혈관 질환의 위험요소, 시술의 종류, 시술 중 사용한 헤파린의 양, clopidogrel의 양, ticlopidine의 양, 지혈 시 수축기와 확장기혈압, ACT (activated clotting time)는 차이가 없었다. A군이 B군에 비해 시술 후 자리에 앉기까지의 시간 (A군: 4.3±0.3시간, B군: 13.7±0.8시간, p=0.004) 및 보행개시까지의 시간(A군: 6.8±0.5시간, B군: 18.8±2.1시간, p=0.013)이 유의하게 짧았다. 시술 후 주요 합병증은 두군 모두에서 관찰되지 않았으며, 경한 합병증의 전체발생은 A군에서 유의하게 적었다(A군: 28명, B군: 19명, p=0.003). 반상출혈의 경우는 A군에서 유의하게 낮았지만(A군: 3명, B군: 12명, p=0.01), 혈종, 출혈의 발생은 두군간에 차이가 없었다. 총 재원기간에는 두 군간에 차이가 없었다(p=0.239). 시술 1주 후 경과관찰에서 주요합병증은 역시 두 군 모두에서 관찰되지 않았으며, 경한 합병증의 전체발생은 두 군에서 차이가 없었다(A군: 15명, B군: 13명 p=0.418), 반상출혈의 빈도는 차이가 없었지만 혈종의 발생은 A군에서 더 낮았다(A군: 2명, B군:6명, p=0.004). 두 군 모두에서 출혈은 발생하지 않았다. 결론 : 대퇴동맥을 통한 경피적 관동맥 중재술을 시행한 환자에서 안지오실의 사용은 고식적 용수 압박법에 비해 환자의 침상 안정시간을 줄여 조기 활동개시가 가능하게 하였으며 국소합병증의 위험도를 일부 낮추어, 시술에 따른 환자의 불편을 현저하게 감소시킬 수 있다고 할 수 있을 것으로 기대된다. Background : Although the number and the quality of percutaneous coronary intervention have been recently increased dramatically, the vascular complication at puncture site is still the major cause of patients' morbidity. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of newly of newly-developed collagen-based arterial closure device, Angioseal after transfemoral percuatenous coronary intervention. Methods : This study was designed as a prospective single center non-randomized comparative study. A total 200 patients undergoing transfemoral percutaneous coronary intervention were enrolled between April 2002 and May 2003. They were divided into two groups; Angioseal group (group A, n=100) and manual compression group (group B, n=100). The baseline clinical and angiographic characteristics were reviewed. The time to sit up, the time to ambulation, the duration of hospital stay, major and minor vascular puncture site complications were monitored. The patients were followed-up for 1 week after procedure by telephone. Results : The baseline clinical characteriwtics, clinical diagnosis, cardiocascular risk factors, typesof procedure, doses and numbers of anticoagulants were similar between two groups. The blood pressure and activated clotting time were also similar. The time to sit up (group A: 4.3±0.3 hours, group B: 13.7±0.8 hours, p=0.004) and the time to ambulation (group A: 6.8±0.5 hours, group B: 18.8±2.1 hours, p=0.013) were shorter in group A. No major vascular complications were noted. The incidence of hematoma and bleeding were not significantly different between two groups. The incidence of ecchymosis, however, was significantly lower in group A (group A:12%, group B: 3%, p=0.001) The duration of gospital stay was similar between groups. During 7 days of follow-up period incidence of hematoma was significantly lower in group A (p=0.004). Although the incidence of ecchymosis was not significantly different between two groups. Conclusion : The angioseal may be associated with earlier ambulation and less patients' morbidity with low incidence of local complication rate compared to manual compression after transfemoral percutaneous coronary intervention.
Biodegradable retinal fixation devices obtain mechnical fixation of the retina with desirable chorioretinal scarring and with the potential for local, sustained release of antimetabolites and steroids to inhibit proliferative vitreoretinopathy. We manufactured a biodegradable retinal tack with barb that was designed in order to prevent intrusion from implantation of retinal tacks. This study was carried to evaluate the efficacy for retinal fixation and the capability for sustained release of drugs with a newly designed biodegradable retinal tack Biodegradable retinal tacks were made of polymers of glycolic acids and were designed with barbs in a shape to prevent the disinsertion. Biodegradale retinal tacks are divided into 3 parts, a conical portion that is inserted into the sclera, a cylinder portion that remains in the vitreous, and a neck portion between the pin and the cylinder. The tapered conical end was manufactured to allow easy insertion through the retina and choroid into the sclera. A cylinder portion was manufactured with a tapered angle that fixes firmly into the orifice of 19 gauge spinal needle. A neck portion, 0.4 mm in diameter, was designed to prevent disinsertion from following implantation of retinal tack. The applicator was a 19 gauge spinal needle and its orifice was prepared to 15°angle to accept the tapered cylinder portion of the retinal tack. The retinal tacks, secured in the needles, were passed through the formed vitreous and inserted into the retina, choroid, and sclera and were released by pushing the internal needle, usually within 2-3mm of the medullary ray of the posterior rabbit retina A retinal tack was placed in each of 8 pigmented rabbit eyes. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy and fundus photography were performed periodically from 1 day to 8 weeks after surgery. Eight eyes were enucleated and studied by light microscopy at 8 weeks. Biomicroscopic evaluation of the animals revealed edemas adjacent to the retinal surfaces immediately after insertion of the biodegradable retinal tacks in all the animals. These edemas disappeared after 1 week. The first noticeable change in the size of retinal tacks was shown after 2weeks. The size of the retinal tacks gradually got smaller, decreasing to about one-half at 4 weeks and about one-third at 8 weeks. All retinal tacks remained in inserted places without any movement for an 8 week period. On light microscopy, epiretinal proliferations were seen to extend into the vitreous cavity. Cellular capsules that lined the inner aspect of the scleral defect caused by tack insertion were found. However the adjacent retina had a normal cytologic appearance and architecture in all specimens. We manufactured a biodegradable retinal tack that is designed to prevent intrusion from implantation of retinal tacks. All biodegradable retinal tacks reduce in size with time, but no retinal tacks extruded from the inserted place. The newly designed biodegradable retinal tack can be used for retinal fixation and may be used as a vehicle for the introduction of pharmacologic agents to prevent the cellular events that promote proliferative vitreoretinopathy.
The bcl-2 proto-oncogene encodes a 26 kD protein that promotes cell survival by blocking apoptosis. The bax protein is a member of the bcl-2 familly, now known to form heterodimers with the bcl-2 protein. The ratio of bax to bcl-2 is be critical in determining the fate of the cell in response to stimuli that can induce apoptosis. Extract of Pulsatilla Koreana (SB-31) showed promising antitumor activity in vitro with Topo I inhibitory action. In the present study, the relationship between apoptosis and the apoptosis related proteins, bcl-2 and bax were investigated in human leukemic cell lines HL-60, U-937 and CEM-CM3. All anticancer drugs(adriamycin, etoposide, camptothecin, SB-31) induced extensive apoptosis in HL-60, U-937 cells and CEM-CM3 cells. The expression of bcl-2 and bax protein were determined in cell lines by western blotting before and after incubation with anticancer drugs at different time points. 1) In HL-60 or U-937 cell lines, down regulation of bcl-2 and up-regulation of bax were found after incubation with ADR, VP-16 or camptothecin. 2) In HL-60 or U-937 cell lines, no significant change in bcl-2 or bax protein expression resulted after incubation with SB-31. 3) In CEM-CM3 cells, virtually no change was noted in bcl-2/bax expression after incubation with ADR, VP-16, camptothecin or SB-31. It is suggested that different leukemic cell lines use different pathways of apoptosis activation and a given cell may utilize different pathways of apoptosis activation in response to different cytotoxic agents.
Condylar hyperplasia is a self-limiting condition characterized by a slowly progressing, enlargement of the mandible that results in facial asymmetry and a crossbite malocclusion. The facial asymmetry, open bite or crossbite, and radiographic evidence of an enlarged condyle confirm the diagnosis of condylar hyperplasia. The etiology of the condition is unknown. This condition usually first becomes apparent during the second decade of life, when one condyle continues to grow while the other is no longer active. Radiographically, the condyle may appear enlarged or the neck of the condyle may be elongated or both may occur, Sometimes, however, no radiographically demonstrable condylar abnormality will be noted. Surgical correction with subcondylar osteotomy is the treatment of choice. We have observed two cases of condylar hyperplasia occurred in the mandibular condyle of 24-year-old and 35-year-old women. We obtained that two cases were shown the followed results; 1. Clinically, both cases was unilaterally developed on C/C area, with temporomandibular disorders and pain, facial asymmetry and malocclusion. 2. Radiographically, hyperplastic mass confined to the condyle. 3. Histopathologically, these cases shown increased hypertrophic region in parts, and lamellated bone with irregular trabeculae.
Purpose: Angiogenesis is important for the proliferation and the metastasis of solid tumors. The growth of a solid tumor is widely recognized to depend on the process of neovascularrozation. Without angiogenesis, tumors cease to grow beyond even a few milimeters in diameter. It has been shown that tumor vascular density is an independent prognostic marker in several types of human tumors and is known to correlate with poor prognosis. To date, many angiogenic factors have been identified, such as transforming growth factor-α(TGF-α), transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β), fibroblast growth factor family(FGF), vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF), platelet derived endothelial cell growth factor(PD-ECGF), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), and angiogenin. Hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) is the second most common tumor in Korean males and is known as a typical hypervascular tumor with frequent portal vein invastion. The authors identified the expreesion of VEGF, TGF-β1, and b-FGF in HCC specimens and evaluated the relationship between these growth factors and the clinicopathologic characteristics of HCC. Method: We reviewed the medical records of 30 patients who were diagnosed as hepatocellular carinoma treated with hepatic resection between January 1994 and December 1998 in Soonchunhyang University Chunan Hospital. The selection of the cases was decided according to the condition of paraffin block fixation. The prognostic factors such as age, sex, tumor size, concentration of serum α-fetoprotein, presence of liver cirrhosis, presence of tumor emboli in portal vein, TMN stage, amount of transfusion during the operation, hepatitis B virus(HBV) infection, and Edmonson-Steiner(E-S) grade were investigated. Relationship between the prognostic factors and the immunopathologic expression of the TGF-β1, b-FGF, and VEGF was examined. Result: Thirty patients (24 males, 6 females) were included in the current study. The patient's mean age was 50.6 years and the age ranged from 36 to 65 years. The mean size of the tumor was found to be 5.2cm. All the patients were follewed up for 7 to 63 months. Child's classification A patients were 23(76.7%)cases, B patients were 7(23.3%)cases, and C was none. Immunohistochemical staining of HCC tumor mass in VEGF expression patients were 17(56.7%), b-FGF expression patients were 10(33.3%), and TGF-β1 expression patients were 10(33.3%). VEGF expression or more than one positive expression among the three factors correlated with tumor size and the stage of HCC but did not correlated with other clinicopathological characteristics. TGF-β1 and b-FGF did not correlate with any clinicopathological characteristics. Conclusion: The results suggest that the expression of VEGF or more than one positive expression among the three factors in HCC cells may be a significant prognostic factor of HCC.