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This study Is to forecast the damage of smallpox as a biological weapon and to measure the effect of potential responses (quarantine, vaccination and cure) to the spread of smallpox infection when a smallpox bioterrorism attack occurs. We designed the smallpox spreading simulation model through the literature study on a basis of some existing infectious disease models such as SIR, SEIR model by using Vensim program. In order to evaluate the performance of responses to smallpox, we measure the total infection population, infection sustaining duration, average infection rate and the infection spreading behavior of the smallpox. This study can help those who are related to the bioterrorism forecast the present and possible demage, and take more effective actions for minimizing the damage by smallpox bioterrorism.
The force-distance (F-D) curve in AFM analysis is a useful technique in the field of biophysics and surface science for measuring the physical/chemical properties of a substrate. Herein, the dependence of Vz on the F-D curve has been described via a theoretical investigation confirmed with measured data. The results show the attractive force was gradually reduced above a Vz of 5 μm/s by increasing the external repulsive force loaded onto the cantilever. To obtain a non-distorted F-D curve, one of two methods should be used: to analyze F-D curve under Vz of 1 μm/s or use of a short/stiff cantilever.
Hemangioma is the most common tumor occuring in infancy as a well-circumscribed, strawberry-like mass. Hemangiomas evolve in three phases ; postnatal endothelial proliferation (about 12 months), variable stability, and slow involution(around 18 months to 10 years). In most instances, the diagnosis of common hemangioma can be established on the basis of the history and physical examination. Ultrasound, when combined with color doppler imaging and doppler spectral analysis of vascular channels, can be so much useful to predict the exact nature of tissue content and the characteristics of vascular flow in hemangiomas. This technique has many advantages such as non-invasiveness, relatively low cost, no need for heavy sedation. Doppler ultrasound can reflect the changes in echogenecities and flow patterns according to the respective evolutional phases of hemangiomas. Color doppler ultrasound were performed to 20 infants and children with clinical hemangiomas. We investigated the peak systolic velocity(PSV) and resistive index(RI) of feeder arteries in hemangiomatous lesions. PSVs and RIs showed differences in their mean values between the patients under 1 year old and those older than I year old of age. The compression therapy and/or oral steroid therapy were applied to 10 patients, who showed high PSVs and low RIs, on the purpose of reducing in-flow. After at least 6 months' treatment, we noticed the decreased PSVs together with increased RIs in 7 patients showing clinical improvement. Color doppler ultrasound should be one of the optional imaging modalities for various items; assessment of evolutional phases in hemangiomas, decision of treatment modalities and evaluation of treatment effects to hemangiomas.
The diffuser which is conventionally adapted to MBR, has problem that decreasing the cleaning effect of membrane module by inflexible air supply due to the occlusion of sludge from diffuser hole. To solve this problem, diffuser structure of submerged module should be improved to discharge sludge which is flow into the diffuser for prevent occlusion in the diffuser. In this study, the structure of the diffuser was reformed to open lower part for preclusion the blocking. And the outlet diameter of the diffuser was drawn through the condition for the depth of water and air rate, to prevent air-leak condition of improved diffuser. Moreover, application is evaluated by comparing test with occlusion effect of the conventional and improved diffuser. From the results, air-water boundary changes are steady with changes of water depth and it shows linear relation about air rate. By using this linear numerical formula, the height of diffuser's outlet can be decided. Also, it displays that it can prevent the occlusion effect during the comparing test. Hereafter, if this diffuser is applied to practical MBR process, the occlusion problem of diffuser will be disappeared.