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목 적: 이 연구의 목적은 담석의 단순 X-선촬영소견에 의한 석회화 양상과 초음파소견 양상에 따라 MTBE에 대한 용해도가 어떻게 달라지는지를 밝혀내어 이 치료법에 대한 적응예를 선별하는데 도움이 되도록 하는데 있다. 대상 및 방법: 75명의 환자로부터 얻은 담낭 담석 75개를 대상으로 단순 X-선촬영과 초음파촬영을 하였다. 단순 X-선촬영소견상 나타난 석회화 양상에 따라 담석을 lucent, central calcification, diffuse calcification, laminated calcification 등 4가지 그룹으로 나누었다. 또 초음파소견을 담석의 전연의 모양과 내부에코양상에 따라 5개 그룹으로 나누어 전연이 arc 모양의 강한 에코를 내면서 내부에코가 없는 것을 그룹 1, arc 모양의 전연에코와 함께 초생달 모양의 내부에코를 보이는 것을 그룹 2, 담석의 대부분에 균질한 내부에코가 보이는 것들을 그룹3, 불균질한 내부에코를 보이는 것들을 그룹4, 담석전체의 윤곽이 나타나고 균질한 내부에코가 담석안에 가득차는 것들을 그룹 5라고 하였다. 다음 각각의 담석을 MTBE에 담구어 6시간 동안 용해시켰다. 이때 두 시간 간격으로 용해되로 남은 담석의 무게를 측정하였다. 이렇게 얻은 성적을 토대로 담석의 영상소견과 용해속도와의 관계를 후향적으로 분석하였다. 결 과: 단순 X-선촬영상의 석회화 형태에 따라 나눈 4개의 그룹들 중 lucent, central calcification의 두 그룹의 담석들은 MTBE에 잘 녹았으며 diffuse, laminated calcification의 두 그룹의 담석들은 잘 녹지 않았다.(p<,05). 초음파소견에 따라 5개로 나눈 그룹들은 다양한 용해도를 보였으나 그룹들 사이에 통계적인 의미가 있는 차이는 없었다. 그러나 석회화 양상중 잘 녹지 않았던 형태의 담석들 (diffuse, laminated calcification)을 제외한 후에는 초음파그룹5의 담석들(담석의 전체 윤곽이 그려지고 균질한 내부에코가 차는)은 거의 녹지 않은데 반해 나머지 그룹들의 담석들은 잘 녹는 뚜렷한 차이를 보였다(p<,05). 결 론: 단순 X-선촬영상 방사선투과성이거나 석회와 양상이 central인 담석으로서 초음파소견상 그룹5(전체윤곽이 그려지면서 균질한 내부에코가 꽉 차는 담석들)에 속하지 않는 담석들은 MTBE 용해술의 대상이 될 수 있다고 본다. Purpose : The purpose of this study was to determine whether in vitro plain radiography and ultrasonography(US) could predict the outcome of gallstone dissolution with methyl tert-butyl ether(MTBE).Materials and Methods : The plain radiography and ultrasonography of 75 gallstones removed at surgery from 75 patients were obtained. The plain radiographic findings were grouped by their calcification pattern as group 1 :lucent, group 2:central, group 3:diffuse and group 4:laminated. The ultrasonographlc findings were grouped by their echo pattern as group 1 :arc shaped, clearly defined surface echo followed by distinct acoustic shadow, group 2 :strong surface echo with gradually attenuating meniscus shaped inner echo, group 3. strong surface echo with fill -in pattern of internal echo, group 4 strong surface echo with irregular inner echo and group 5:entirely discerning circumsference, homogeneous internal echotexture. After imaging, the gallstones underwent MTBE dissolution for 6 hours. The residual weight of each stone was measured every 2 hours. The correlation between imaging findings and dissolution rate was retrospectively analysed.Results : The radiolucent and central calcification stones were dissolved rapidly as compared with the diffuse and laminated calcification stones(p(.05). There was no statistically significant difference among the groups based on ultrasonographic findings alone. However, after exclusion of the certain calcification groups that were resistent to dissolution-diffuse or laminated calcification stones-all US groups except one that shows wholly circumscribed margin and homogeneous fill -in pattern of internal echo dissolved well to average 20% or less of the original weight(p(.05).Conclusion: MTBE dissolution can be tried in stones that meet both ultrasonographic (not a stone with homogeneous fill -in pattern of internal echo) and plain radiographic (radiolucent or cental calcification stone)criteria.
This study aims to illuminate in detail the way that the farmers provided and paid the general taxes during the early Japanese colonial regime, and the role of the village as a local community in those days. Through this study, the meaning of the community-responsibility system or the collective tax-payment system, by which the government imposed the general taxes collectively on the community instead of on the individual family, will be manifested. It will also be emphasized that from the view of agricultural life, the tax-collection by collective responsibility was the result of compromise between the government and the farmers, and that it was not the `old heritage' of the pre-modern but a concrete practice of the local autonomy. The target of this article is Jeollanam-do, Gurye-gun, Toji-myeon, Omi-dong. The Ryu family in this village is rich in the materials which illustrate the problem in this article. In Joseon dynasty, every family had its `household-name'. Those names were necessary for the collection of services or tributes. However, the family in the lower classes such as servants and shamans did not have any household-name. This was because the local community named families on the basis of class distinctions. Therefore whether a family of Omi-dong had its household-name could tell the social status of that family. This system determined how a family was treated within the community. A fourth of the total families in Omi-dong were treated as lower classes with poor social recognition. It was a village in which class discrimination remained strong. Most families in Omi-dong possessed little or no land. They didn't have any houses, and lived in rent-houses of their landlord. Most farmers paid tenancy fee and rent. Moreover, as they cultivated very little land, they were always lacking provisions. They suffered from poverty and debt. In such situations, many families left Omi-dong. Meanwhile, the poor from other village came to live in Omi-dong. Omi-dong was a village with the moving and moving population. Not a year passed without people coming to and leaving the village. Despite the mobility of the population, and its severe poverty, the people were required to attend public events and charged various taxes and fees. All of the central and local taxes of Omi-dong were paid for by the $quot;co-labor$quot; of the community members, and the further taxes were discriminately imposed on each family according to the scope and the level of its wealth. This was called a $quot;household grade system.$quot; This system was developed from the $quot;community payment system,$quot; which originated from the effort to overcome the abuses of $quot;personal taxation$quot; imposed on individuals. This was also the realization of $quot;egalitarian taxation,$quot; by which taxes were imposed discriminately with consideration of the degree of wealth of each farming family. It resulted from the rise of $quot;local autonomy.$quot; The village community's autonomy arose from the grassroots. However, the Japanese government abolished this autonomy by assigning a legal administrative unit. This was for the effective exploitation of Korea as a colony. The villages became controlled outposts of and agricultural suppliers to the Japanese regime.
Objective : The study was designed to find out current state of conservative treatment modalities for cervical pregnancies in korean. Method : 64 cases of cervical pregnancies reported by the joining of The Korean Society of Obstetrics & Gynecology from 1960 to 2000 and the 10 cases at Chungnam National University Hospital were analyzed retrospectively. Results : The average age of the 74 cases was 31.7±6.6 years, and the average gestational age at the time of diagnosis was 8.3±3.4 weeks. The average duration of hospitalization was 8.2±4.8 days. Most (67/74) of the patients had previously experienced delivery or abortion. Out of the 74 cases, 36 had total hysterectomy; 4 cases had curettage; 12 were used only methotrexate; 11 had combined curettage and methotrexate; 10 cases had Foley catheter ballooning after curettage. From the 1960's to the end of 1980's, 33 (84.6%) cases out of 39 were performed hysterectomy. Whereas mainly conservative methods, in particular methotrexate treatment, were performed in the 1990's. Among the conservative modalities, Foley catheter ballooning after curettage had the shortest length of hospitalization with 4.3 days. Conclusion : After comparing the conservative methods for treating cervical pregnancies, it was found that methotrexate treatment was performed the most; however, Foley catheter ballooning after curettage seems to be an excellent treatment option.
Dermoid cysts are the most common type of ovarian neoplasms occurring during a woman's reproductive life and account for 25% of all premenopausal ovarian neoplasms. Intraoperative spillage of dermoid cyst materials may lead to febrile morbidity, ileus, peritonitis, adhesion or fistula formation. Rarely, malignant element spillage, if present, may also lead to cancer dissemination. The management of dermoid cyst is controversal. Recently, laparoscopic surgery for ovarian cysts has been increasingly accepted. But, in view of the high risk of intraperitoneal rupture of large sized cysts, many surgeon still prefer the laparotomic approach. Recently, we did laparoscopic salphingo-oophorectomy to the patient having 20cm sized dermoid cyst. Intraoperative spillage of cyst material occurred, but patient recovered without any postoperative complication. So, we present this case with brief review of the literatures.
Sulfur is a simple element, and has been known as an important component of various enzymes and other organic substances. It was once used in the pyrotherapy of dementia praecox and general paresis and a small dose of it was used in neurosis. The author conducted an animal experiment to investigate the effect of sulfur on blood alcohol level, because many investigators have suggested that many psychotropic drugs elevated blood alcohol level in rabbits. The experiment was done on mature rabbits of both sexes. The control group was given alcohol alone, and the experimental groups were given various oral doses of sulfur, that is, 100mg/kg for 5 days, 100mg/kg for 10days, 200mg/kg for 5 days and 200mg/kg for 10 days, respectively, defore alcohol administration. The last dose was given one and a half hour before alcohol administration. In all groups, 5.0ml/kg of 20% ethanol solution was given intravenously. And at 15 and 45 minutes after alcohol injection blood specimens were obtained by cardiac puncture. The blood alcohol levels were determined by Cavett's method. As the results, comparing with the control group, sulfur, when administered in a dose of 100mg/kg of body weight daily for 5 days, did not change the blood alcohol level significantly at both 15 and 45 minutes after alcohol administration. But, sulfur, when administered in a dose of 100mg/kg of body weight daily for 10 days and 200mg/kg of body weight daily for 5 days, elevated the blood alcohol level significantly at 15 minutes after alcohol administration but not at 45minutes, and when administered in a dose of 200mg/kg of body weight daily for 10 days elevated the blood alcohol level significantly at both 15 and 45 minutes after alcohol administration. It is concluded that sulfur elevates the blood alcohol level in rabbits when the dose is sufficient, and the duration is long enough.
This study was carried out estimating the dry deposition flux of SO_2 at eight urban areas in Korea during one year of 1996. To calculate the deposition flux, deposition velocities were calculated by turbulence parameters estimated from routine meteorological data. Also, hourly averaged SO_2 concentrations which calculated from air pollution monitoring data of each city were used. The dry deposition velocities were mostly higher in the coastal areas than the other areas, which would be caused by relatively strong wind. And, they were high in the daytime because of turbulence activities. The deposition flux of SO_2 is mainly related to the atmospheric concentration. The annual average SO_2 concentration and the deposition flux were 22.62ppb and 1510.52g/㎢/hr at Pusan respectively. Also, the flux was higher in winter than other season, which was a significant contribution of exhausted fuel for heating. While the deposition velocity was high to 0.688㎝/sec at Yosu in case of strong wind and small cloud cover, the deposition flux was high to 1597.4g/㎢/hr at Pusan in case of weak wind and small cloud cover.
목적 : 본 연구는 배양액의 에너지원 조성이 생쥐 초기배 발달에 미치는 효과에 대하여 알아보고자 하였다. 연구 방법 : 총 271개의 생쥐 2-세포기 배아를 채취하여 다음과 같이 4가지의 실험군으로 나누어 96시간 동안 배양을 실시하였다. 실험군 Ⅰ (n=61)은 DMEM-G (DMEM with glutamine)만으로 배양하였으며, 실험군 Ⅱ (n=64)는 DMEM-GGP (DMEM with glutamine, glucose and pyruvate)만으로 배양하였다. 실험군 Ⅲ (n=72)는 DMEM-G로 48시간 동안 배양한 후 DMEM-GGP 배양액으로 교체하였고, 실험군 Ⅳ (n=74)는 DMEM-GGP로 48 시간 동안 배양한 후 DMEM-G 배양액으로 교체하였다. 각 실험군에 대한 배아의 발달 양상은 24시간 간격으로 관찰하여 기록하였다. 결과 : 배양 24시간 후 3-세포기 이상 단계의 발달은 실험군 Ⅱ (87.5%)와 Ⅳ (86.5%)에서 실험군 Ⅰ (59.0%)과 Ⅲ (62.5%)에 비하여 유의하게 높은 것으로 나타났다. 배양 48시간 후 상실기 배 이상 단계로의 발달은 실험군 Ⅱ (79.7%)와 Ⅳ (86.5%)에서 실험군 Ⅰ (34.4%)과 Ⅲ (37.5%)보다 유의하게 높은 것으로 나타났다. 배양 72시간 후 총 배반포기 배로의 발달은 실험군 Ⅳ (74.3%)에서 실험군 Ⅰ (49.2%)과 Ⅲ (45.8%)에 비하여 유의하게 높은 것으로 나타났다. 배양 96시간 후 확장 배반포기 배 (expanded blsatocyst) 이상 단계로의 발달은 실험군 Ⅳ (70.3%)에서 실험군 Ⅰ (32.8%), Ⅱ (53.1%) 및 Ⅲ (40.3%)에 비하여 유의하게 높은 것으로 나타났다. 결론 : 생쥐 초기배 발달에 있어서 DMEM-GGP로 배양을 시작하여 배양 48시간 후에 DMEM-G로 교체해준 실험군에서 가장 효과적인 것으로 나타났으며 이를 토대로 향후 사람의 보조 생식술에도 적용하여 더 높은 임신율을 기대할 수 있을 것으로 사료된다. Objective : The objective of this study was to examine the effect on development of mouse preimplantation embryos in culture media with different composition of energy sources in vitro culture. Methods : Two hundred and seventy one two-cell embryos were cultured in four different culture system for 96 hours. Group Ⅰ (n=61) was cultured in DMEM-G (DMEM with glutamine) only, group Ⅱ (n=64) was cultured in DMEM-GGP (DMEM with glutamine, glucose and pyruvate) only, group Ⅲ (n=72) was cultured for 48 hours in DMEM-G and then transferred to DMEM-GGP and group Ⅳ (n=74) was cultured for 48 hours in DMEM-GGP and then transferred to DMEM-G. Development of embryos in each group was observed every 24 hours. Results : After 24 hours, the rate of development ≥3-cell was significantly higher in group Ⅱ (87.5%) and Ⅳ (86.5%) compared with group Ⅰ (59.0%) and Ⅲ (62.5%). After 48 hours, the rate of development into ≥morula stage was significantly higher in Group Ⅱ (79.7%) and Ⅳ (86.5%) compared with group Ⅰ (34.4%) and Ⅲ (37.5%). After 72 hours, the rate of development into blastocyst was significantly higher in group Ⅳ (74.3%) compared with group Ⅰ (49.2%) and Ⅲ (45.8%). After 96 hours, the rate of development into ≥ expanded blastocyst was significantly higher in group Ⅳ (70.3%) compared with group Ⅰ (32.8%), Ⅱ (53.1%), and group Ⅲ (40.3%). Conclusion : Mouse preimplantation embryos development was the most effective in culture system with DMEM-GGP for 48 hours and then transferred to DMEM-G.