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Subdural empyema is relatively uncommon condition. characterized by purulent collection in the subdural space. Having presented a fulminating clinical course with very high morbidity and mortality. it is conconsidered as a neurosurgical emergency. In recent years, the mortality of subdural empyema has significantly diminished due to rapid diagnosis, aggressive antibiotic therapy and timely surgical intervention. The condition remains a diagnostic challenge ; CT scanning cannot be relied upon although the use of intravenous contrast and more modem scanner has improved the diagnostic yield. MRI offers earlier and more accurate diagnosis of computed tomographically suspected lesion. We report cases of subdural empyemas. which were diagnosed with MR and operaton. We treated one case successfully and the other postoperative case unsuccessfully owing to a delayed diagnosis.
Actinomycosis is an uncommon chronic suppurative disease characterized by multiple abscess, draining sinuses, abundant granulation, and dense fibrous tissue, caused by the actinomyces organisms. It occurs in three major sites: cervicofacial, abdominal, and thoracic. The abdomen is the second most common involved site in previous studies, and there are three ways this organism can affect the gastrointestinal tract: through a blood-borne infection, by swallowing, or by proliferation at a more distal intestinal area. Abdominal actinomycosis is an unusual disease but remains an important differential diagnosis in patients with abdominal mass. Obtaining the diagnosis is difficult and rarely made preoperatively, but provide the key to its management. Medical therapy is effetive in eradicating the disease; however, because of the large amount of reactive fibrosis formed by the infection, it requires long-term therapy. Surgical treatment may be essential in many cases, primarily when malignancy cannot be excluded or if extensive necrotic tissue exists. There are a few description for actinomycosis involving omentum. We report a case of patient with omental actinomycosis, suspected to have a malignancy requiring an exploratory laparotomy with resection.
Until recently, colorectal polyps were classified predominantly as hyperplastic or adenomatous. While adenomatous polyps are well-characterized precursor lesions of adenocarcinomas, hyperplastic polyps have been considered as benign lesion. However, some hyperplastic polyps with serrated morphology of the crypts have been recognized to have distinctive features and these polyps were termed ‘serrated adenomas’. Recent data show that sessile serrated adenomas (SSA) might be the precursors of serrated colonic cancers, underlining the necessity of identifying them. SSA is approximately 3% of all polyps, commonly appears as flat or sessile and yellowish due to mucus production. In the pathogenesis of SSA, progression to high grade dysplasia or early invasive carcinoma may be associated with serrated neoplasia pathway different from adenoma-carcinoma sequence. We report a case with a colon polyp diagnosed as sessile serrated adenoma with high grade dysplasia after endoscopic submucosal dissection.
아조벤젠 그룹을 포함한 측쇄형 고분자 필름(PDR1)에서 광 유도된 이방성을 실시간적으로 조사하였다. 수평, 수직한 흡수율의 변화를 광 유도된 복굴절의 기록, 감쇠, 소거, 완화 과정에 따라 측정하여, 매질 내의 아조벤젠 분자의 정렬상태와 복굴절과의 관계를 광 이성화과정으로 설명하였다. 또한 기록빔의 세기를 따른 수직, 수평한 흡수율의 변화와 유도된 복굴절의 관계를 조사하였다. The photo-induced anisotropy for a polymeric film(PDR1) containing azobenzene group as side-chain was investigated dynamically. The change of absrobances with parallel and perpendicular components was measured in recording, decaying, erasing and relaxation processes of photo-induced birefringence, so the relation between the alignment of azobenzene groups and the birefringence was well explained according to the photo-isomerization. Also, the dependence of the photo-induced birefringence on intensity of recording beam was investigated with changes of both absorbance and birefringence.
A plane strain finite element model is developed to simulate turning with continuous chip formation using adaptive remeshing during the thermal-mechanical coupled analysis. Comparisons between the experimental and simulation results for cutting forces are performed to validate FE analysis results. Influences of machining parameters such as depth of cut, cutting speed and feed rate on cuting force and shear angle are analyzed by Taguchi method. The more depth of cut and feed rate result in the increase of cutting forces, but the rates of increase are decrease due to the larger shear angle. As the cutting speed increases, von Mises stress of workpiece near the tool tip decreases because the strength of specimen decreases at high temperature above 500℃. This thermal effect on cutting force is negligible because the affected area is very localized and the average values of von Mises stress in the shear plane are the same among the diverse cutting parameters.
목적 : 수부의 중수지 관절 탈구의 관혈적 정복이 필요했던 예에서는 정복을 방해하는 구조물에 대해 분석하고 도수 정복이 가능했던 예에서는 성별 및 탈구 형태에 따른 특성에 대해 알아보고자 하였다. 대상 및 방법 : 총 27예의 수부 중수지 관절 탁구 환자 (무지 11예, 이지 14예, 소지 2예)를 대상으로 연구하였다. 탈구된 중수지 관절의 정복을 방해하는 해부학적 구조는 수술시에 확인을 하였으며, 도수 정복이 가능하였던 예들에서도 연령과 손상된 구조물, 그리고 최종적인 임상 결과를 평균 7개월간 추시 관찰하였다. 결과 : 무지 중수지 관절의 탈구 11예 중 파열된 전방 관절낭, 수장판과 단무지 굴건의 파열을 동반한 복합 탈구가 8예 있어 관혈 정복을 시행하였으며, 2예에서만 도수 정복이 가능하였다. 관절염이 있던 1예는 관절 유합술을 시행하였다. 다른 수지의 중수지 관절의 탈구는 Kaplan의 개념에 따라 탈구를 수술 정복하였고 파열된 수장판을 복원하였으며, 1예에서 수술시 표재 중수 횡인대만의 절개와 이완으로 정복할 수 있었다. 소지 중수지 관절 탈구의 2예에서 파열된 요측 측부인대가 수술시 관찰되었고 이를 복원하여 수지의 불안정성을 예방하였다. 이들의 최종 결과는 특별한 운동 제한이나 불안정성 없이 좋은 결과를 보였다. 결론 : 적절한 국소 마취하에 도수 정복을 1~2회 시행할 수 있지만 단순 정복이 가능한 탈구가 부적절한 견인으로 정복이 불가능한 복합 탈구로 진행할 수 있다. 그리고 복합 탈구는 대부분 관혈적 정복이 필요하기 때문에, 정복 방해 구조물에 대한 충분한 이해와 적절한 조치가 필요하다. Purpose : To analyse the obstacles to prevent the reduction for dislocation of the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joints of the hand and evaluate the relationship between the sex and dislocation type in closed reduction case. Materials and Methods : Total 27 cases of MP joint dislocation of the hand (11 cases of thumb, and 14 index and 2 little finger) were reviewed retrospectively. The anatomical structures to prevent the reduction were confirmed at operation and the cases which were reduced immediately were also analysed for their ages and differences of damaged structures, and finally their complications or outcome were reviewed for average 7 months after reduction. Results : In 11 cases of thumb MP joint dislocations, the complex dorsal dislocations in which the protruded metacarpal neck was caught by buttonhole of torn anterior joint capsule, volar plate and FPB were reduced by open method in 8 cases, and closed reduction was done in 2 cases but one old case required arthrodesis. In other finger MP joint dislocations, the Kaplan's concept to prevent the reduction was confirmed. But reduction of torn volar plate and incision of transverse metacarpal ligament were sufficient to reduce the dislocation with gentle longitudinal traction during the operation. In two cases of little finger MP joint dislocation, the ruptured radial collateral ligaments were noted after open reduction and it must the repaired to prevent the finger instability later. Their overall end results were good without any significant restriction of MP joints motions and finger instabilities. Conclusion : One or two times of closed reduction with proper local anesthesia could be tried, but simple reducible dislocation can be converted to complex irreducible ones by the inappropriate traction method, and so proper reduction technique by closed or even in open way is important with the knowledge of anatomical obstacles to prevent the reduction of the metacarpophalangeal joints.
It is neccesary to facilitate the developments of the systems, principles and instructions of guarding in order that the security guard be able to meet the needs of the environments of guarding regardless what kind of government system our country may be. The guard also need the nationality and brilliant brains rather than the political power so that the guarded be safe always and everywhere and all people in the country feel peaceful and safe, which requires it that every bodyguard investigate and develope the new technology of guarding through reasonable and scientific methods. And I think followings are necessary for the development and advance of future the Security guard : the strong relations with the related organizations, the education facilities for supporting good and strong bodyguards, the related information bureau with mood image against the internation terror croups, and professionalization for better adaption in the idustralized various society, and the department for study on the principles of guarding. In addition to those, it would be important to be equipped with enough amarments and strong wills. Anyway, the next 21th century requires big change of the everyone's opinions on guarding and it would not be impossible to provide complete guard with only the system of guard itself, so it needs everyone's help. Of course will it require the professionals of Information technology too, in the future information society. I suggest that it need to combine various functions and specialize each fuction of the security guard at the same time. Then it would be more easy to maintain the system to prevent the future dangers, so to acomplish the complete guarding system. As a conclusion, it would be possible to meet the 21th environment of guarding only with the scientific, reasonable and specialized guard system.
주관절 손산 중 상완골 내 상과 골절은 단독으로 혹은 주관절 탈구와 동반되어 발생하는 것이 일반적이다. 저자들은 15세 남자 환자의 좌측 요골 두 아탈구가 동반된 상완골 내 상과 골절을 경험하였다. 도수 정복을 시도하였으나 요골 두 아탈구의 정복을 얻을 수 없어 관혈적 정복술로 치료하엿다. 6개월추시 결과 후휴증이 없는 정상적인 관절 상태를 확인할 수 있었다. 연령, 원인 , 손상 기전으로 분석해 보면 이 동반 손상은 발생하기 매우 어렵고, 문헌 탐색 결과 현재까지 동일한 증례를 찾아볼 수 없었으므로 보고하는 바이다. It has been known that fracture of medial epicondylar apophysis of distal humerus may be isolated of associated with elbow deslocations. We have experienced a case which medial epicondylar fracture of the distal humerus was associated with subluxation of the radial head. Initially, we had tried reduction of subluxated radial head by closed method, but failed. Finally open reduction gad been performed. At 6 month after open reduction, clinical and radiological result were excellent. As it is difficult for those associated injuries to occur simultaneously and the similar cases never have been reported yet, we would like to present this case with a review of the literature.
본 연구는 분말상 원료(전분, 대두분)의 저장유통시 품질변화를 건전성과 안전성 측면에서 검토하여 식품의 기준 ·규격 설정f.」 합지적으로 반영하고자 하였다. 전분과 패두분의 이물을 검사하고, 2종 대두분(중국산, 미국산)을 ?0일간 IS'c와 30t에 저장하면서 성상, 수분, 산가, 과산화물가, 지방산 조성,아플라톡신 BB의 생성여부를 분석하였다. 중국산 대두분 30'』 저장군에서 50일 이후 곰팡이가 발생한 것 이외에 모든 시료에서 양호한 성상을 나타내었고, 전분과 대두닥 모든 시료에서 이물은 검출되지 않았다. 산가는 중국산과 미국산 시료간에 편차를 보여 증국산 30"C, 50일 저장시료에서 약 10배끙도 증가하였고, 과산화물가는 저장 90일후 15'E 저장군은 약 2.3배, 30'c 저장군은 3배정도 증가하였다. 대두분의 주요 지방산은 linoleic acidf18. 2), oleic acid(18 : 1), palmitic acid(16 : 0)이었으며, 3개월 저장에 따른 지방산 함량의 변화는 미미하였다. 아플라톡신 B₁은 모든 시료에서 검출되지 않았다. The objective of this study was to investigate auality changes of type raw materials(starch, soy flour) during various storage conditions. Starchflour(source of China, U.S.A) were slfred under two temperature(15'C, 30'c) forSensory evaluation, (o.reign material test, moisture content, acid value, peroxide ualue,composition, aflatorin Bi were analyzed. China soy flour(stor·ed 30'f) was contaminated by fungj on 50 days. Except for soy flour contardnated by fungi, sensory characteristics were not changed and foreign mater;als were notdetected. Acid value of China soy flour(stored at 30'C, 90 days) was about 10 times higherlevel before storage and acid value was more influenced by source(China, USA). Peroxide valuewas in proportion with the storage period slightly. The major fatty acid of soy flour waslinoleic acid(18 . 2), an(3 the change of fatty acid composition was not observed. Aflatoxlrl Blwas not detected.