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In this study, we assimilate 2-m air temperature data with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) regional Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) using the WRF-NMM model forecast as a first guess. Single time analysis experiments are conducted to test the impact of 2-m air temperature data on the analysis system and the results are compared with the control run without using 2-m air temperature data. The effort is focused on understanding the characteristics of observation innovations of the 2-m air temperature data. Modifications to background errors and a simple test of nonlinear quality control are also considered. The incorporation of a comprehensive near-surface observation operator based on Monin-Obukhov similarity theory is described and tested for possible operational use with the NCEP regional GSI system. The results from this new forward operator are compared with those from the existing simple forward operator. According to the results, mesonet 2-m temperature data were found to have a considerable amount of outliers compared with other 2-m temperature data. The nighttime western and central US domains indicated a model warm bias. Stations with large innovations are distributed uniformly in the nighttime western and central domains,while they are mainly located in the large cities in the daytime eastern domain. The statistical analysis of observation innovations showed that introduction of the new forward model can reduce root-mean-square errors in observation increment statistics. The results of a short assimilation experiment indicate that the new forward operator can be employed as a short-term strategy for near-surface data assimilation in the NCEP
This paper concerns the intersemiotic transference in the drama adaptation. To ensure the adaptation process, the Korean remake dramas and Japanese dramas are examined. As a theoretical frame, Jakobson’s Intersemiotic translation and the Pierce’s Triadic model are incorporated with the Eco’s Rhizome model, and the research model is developed. Two sets of drama - the comic cartoon Nodame Cantabile’s Japanese live action [Nodame Cantabile] (2006) with Korean adaptation [Cantabile Tomorrow] (2014), and the Japanese family drama [I’m Mita, Your Housekeeper] (2011) with the Korean adaption [The Suspicious Housekeeper] (2013) are compared. The research model confirms the transference of features, showing the process of how the semiotics of a given sign is altered and displayed in the target culture with respect to the linguistic, cultural, social and thematic attributes, etc.. Regardless of the cultural and spatial proximity, the same content code does not guarantee the same reaction, because one code is a complex of feature sets and the transference makes a new combination of features. Therefore, the intersemiotic transference shows the interpretant’s selection process of salient features and rearranging the feature sets, so that it has advantages to recognize the differences residing in the system. The result of this analysis shows the difference in feature sets and it raises a question whether the dramas considered in this paper might take clichés as a stabilizing device for cultural attributes at the expanse of freshness. In the same context, the result implies the importance of social attributes, the need to incorporate the viewers’ changed tastes and changed social milieu.
Hypoglossal nerve palsy after general anesthesia is an exceptionally rare complication, which has varied etiology. We present a case of unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy resulting from repeated airway intervention for general anesthesia. A 57-year-old woman was scheduled to undergo modified radical mastectomy. During endotracheal intubation, the patient had Cormack’s grade III—a severe airway condition. After the first intubation attempt failed, the intubation was attempted a second time using a stylet inside the endotracheal tube with cricoid pressure; this attempt was successful. In the evening of the operation day, the patient complained of dysarthria and dysphagia. Physical examination revealed deviation of the tongue to the right, which may have been caused by traumatic hypoglossal nerve injury. This case reviews the pathophysiology, prevention, and management of hypoglossal nerve palsy.