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      • KCI등재

        이은주의 "Grand Fugue for Orchestra"에서 사용된 12음에 의한 푸그 기법

        이은주 이화여자대학교 음악연구소 2002 이화음악논집 Vol.6 No.-

        This essay is abstracted from my dissertation, the Grand Fugue for Orchestra with Analysis. While my doctoral dissertation has put emphasis on sectional analysis of Grand Fugue for Orchestra, this essay was intended to develop a new theory on the fugue based on twelve notes. The essay consists of two parts. The first part, the preliminary theory for the composition of the Fugue, focuses on PTO, the basis for the fugal theory in preparation for the second part. The second part, explains the theory about the fugue in depth by analyzing pitch structures and rhythm along with the structure of articulations. The relation of Subject and Answer to traditional Fugue derives from complementary relationship between Tonic and Dominant of traditional Fugue. The relationship between Subject and Answer resulting from functional harmony was inaccurate owing to the change of tonality by the real Answer and the transformation of melodic line by the tonal Answer. Grand Fugue for Orchestra maintains the concept and principle of the traditional fugue by combining both techniques of tonal and real answer, and reconstructs the form applicable to the twelve-tone music theory. In addition to this, it expands into the new 24-tone congregate theory the traditional theory used up to now. Furthermore, the pitch structure of Grand Fugue is applied to both the rhythm and the articulations. The theory in this composition should not be limited to the present composition only, but also can be used as a generalized theory applicable to any fugal composition with twelve-tone.

      • KCI등재후보

        대사증후군 노인의 운동지속 영향요인

        이은주 국제문화기술진흥원 2018 The Journal of the Convergence on Culture Technolo Vol.4 No.2

        본 연구의 목적은 대사증후군 노인의 운동유지 여부에 따라 운동유지에 대한 영향요인을 확인하기 위해 시행 된 횡단적 조사연구이다. 본 연구의 대상자는 총 136명이며, 자료의 수집은 대사증후군 노인의 운동유지 영향요인을 알아보기 위해 운동유지, 운동기대감, 운동 관련 환경, 운동 사회적지지, 운동자기효능감에 대한 도구로 수집되었다. 수집된 자료는 SPSS Win 20.0 program을 사용하여 requency, X2, t-test, Logistic regression으로 분석하였다. 연 구 결과 연령, 운동기대감, 운동자기효능감이 이들의 운동유지 영향요인임이 밝혀졌다. 이러한 결과는 대사증후군 노 인의 운동유지를 위해서는 내적 동기에 해당하는 자기효능감을 함양시키고 운동기대감을 증진시키는 것이 중요하다 고 할 수 있다. 또한 대사증후군 노인을 위한 건강증진프로그램을 계획할 때 운동에 대한 결과를 알려주고 이에 대한 이점을 부각시켜 스스로 운동을 잘 해낼 수 있도록 계획해야 하는 데에 본 연구결과가 기초자료로 활용할 수 있음이 기대된다. The purpose of this study was to identify factors affecting maintenance of exercise among elderly with metabolic syndrome. In order to achieve this purpose, the study design was used a cross-sectional survey. Study participants were a total of 136 elderly with metabolic syndrome and they completed the questionnaire consisted of outcome expectations, exercise self-efficacy, exercise social support, physical activity environment, and exercise maintenance. The data was analyzed using frequency, X2, t-test, and Logistic regression by SPSS Win 20.0 program. The study results had shown that factors affecting maintenance of exercise among elderly with metabolic syndrome, were gender, outcome expectation, and exercise self-efficacy. This study results indicated that the personal motivation such as self-efficacy and outcome expectation among elderly with metabolic syndrome was the most important factor to maintain their exercise. Therefore, we should consider on developing health promotion program to enhance the personal motivation such self-efficacy and outcome expectation for elderly with metabolic syndrome. In addition, this results would used to develop adequate nursing strategies for taking care them in the community.

      • KCI등재

        성취목표지향성의 종단적 변화와 안정성

        이은주 한국심리학회 2014 한국심리학회지 일반 Vol.33 No.2

        본 연구의 목적은 상태-특성이론을 바탕으로 성취목표지향성의 변화에 작용하는 상태와 특성의 문제를 규명하는데 있었다. 이를 위해 개인의 성취목표지향성이 내포하고 있는 특성적 요인과 상태적 요인을 구분하고, 성취목표의 유형 중 어느 목표가 종단적으로 보다 안정적이고, 또 어느 목표가 상대적으로 변화가능한지 알아보았다. 한국교육개발원의 한국교육종단조사 2~4차년도 데이터를 사용하여 잠재 특성-상태-상황(TSO)모델을 적용하여 분석한 결과, 성취목표지향성은 특성적 요인과 상황적 요인을 모두 포함하는 개념으로 이해하는 것이 타당한 것으로 나타났다. 잠재상태 성취목표지향성의 변량 중 특성적 요인과 상황적 요인을 구분한 결과, 모든 성취목표 유형에 걸쳐 상황적 요인이 차지하는 변량(60~70%)이 특성적 요인(30~40%)보다 컸다. 특히 특성적 요인이 차지하는 비중은 숙달접근 목표에서 가장 높았으며, 상황적 요인이 차지하는 비중은 숙달목표나 수행목표에 상관없이 회피목표에서 가장 높았다. 즉, 숙달접근목표가 상대적으로 가장 안정적인 목표이며 회피목표가 시간의 흐름에 따라 변화가능성이 가장 높음을 의미한다. 본 연구의 의의 및 후속연구에 대한 제언이 논의되었다. This study posits that achievement goal endorsement is likely to be stable to some degree, but it is also likely to exhibit change across time. A longitudinal state-trait approach was utilized in the present study to examine the stability of achievement goal orientation. With a sample of 5,847 eighth graders followed over 3 years, the present study used a latent trait-state-occasion(TSO) model(Cole, Martin, & Steiger, 2005) to isolate the trait and state components. Results showed that TSO model was the best representation for achievement goals, validating that the achievement goal measures included both state and trait components. Over three years, the percentages of variance explained by the state component (60~70%) were greater than that explained by the trait component(30~40%) across four goals; State components were higher than trait components across all types of achievement goals. The portion of the variance attributed to the occasion-specific variable was higher in both mastery-avoidance and performance- voidance goals than mastery-approach goals. Regardless of mastery or performance goal, avoidance goals are more reactive to the situation, whereas mastery-approach goals are more similar to enduring disposition in their expression of stability. The implications of the present findings are discussed.

      • KCI우수등재

        여성에서 허리둔부 둘레 비와 비만 관련 질환의 예측

        이은주,김상만,권혁찬,이득주,조남한,정윤석 대한비만학회 1996 The Korean journal of obesity Vol.5 No.1

        We have examined 2833 women to determine the role of recruited body fat distribution on the risk of various chronic diseases. All the subjects were pooled from the Health Care Center who took the annual health exarnination from March. 1995 through Feb. 1996. Waist and Hip was measured and correlated with the frequency of chronic diseases. In order to evaluated the WHR(waist to hip ratio) as an independent factor on morbidity, analysis of covariance was applied in the 3 groups of WHR(normal; 0.65∼0.79, moderate; 0.80∼0.89, severe; 0.90∼1.20) adjusied for age and BMI. The risk of various diseases were also analyzed on women with abdominal obesity, defined by WHR abave 0.80, by logistic regression adjusted wi1h age and Bmi. This study indicated that almast 20% of women were obese, defined by BMI above 25.1kg/㎡, and 83.2% of them had aMominal obesity. The least number of disease prevalence among the women were at thr whose WHR less than 0.8. However those women with this WHR great the 0.8 had statistically significant increase in rnorbidity. Cardiovascular risk, cumulative risk of hypertention, 1nw LDL/HDL ratio, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, was 1.5 with 95% confidence intervai of 1.171.93 in women with WHR higher than 0.8. Risk of diabetes was 4.61 with 95% confidence interval of 2.13.98 in women with WHR higher than 0.8. Risk of fatty liver, gall stone, gastrointestinal diseases, gynecologic diseases, hypertriglyceridemia were 2.01(1.08∼3.47), 2.48(1.81∼4.81), 1.23(1.03∼1.46), 1.22(1.06∼1.43), and 8.30(3.73∼18.88) respectively. WHR was independent risk factor for these diseases in women. We suggest that obese women shauld measure WHR and subgroup them when WHR above 0.8 as the potential risk group for above chronic diseases and must apply further preventtve measures.

      • KCI등재

        건조 상추 에탄올 추출물의 항염증 활성

        이은주,서유미,김용현,정정욱,성화정,손호용,박종이,김종식 한국생명과학회 2019 생명과학회지 Vol.29 No.3

        Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most popular green leafy vegetables, and it contains various beneficial components including polyphenolic compounds and has been known to possess various biological functions such as anti-microbial, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we prepared ethanol extract of dried lettuce (DLE) and investigated its anti-inflammatory activity. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of DLE, nitric oxide (NO) production was measured in LPS-activated mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. DLE significantly suppressed NO production in these cells without affecting cell viabilities while resveratrol was used as a positive control. DLE dramatically decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory genes such as iNOS and COX-2 at the mRNA and protein levels and reduced the expression of several cytokines including IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1F6, TNF-α, CSF2 and CXCL10. In addition, DLE suppressed phosphorylation of MAPKs and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 indicating DLE shows its anti-inflammatory activity via regulating MAPKs pathway and NF-κB pathways. And also, DLE reduced the production of reactive oxygen species in a dose-dependent manner. DLE increased HO-1 protein expression, and also increased the nuclear translocation of Nrf2. Overall, our results suggest that lettuce down-regulate various pro-inflammatory genes and have its anti-inflammatory activity via regulating MAPKs, NF-κB, and Nrf2/HO-1 pathways. 상추는 가장 선호하는 녹색 채소 중 하나이다. 상추는 폴리페놀성 화합물을 비롯한 다양한 성분을 함유하고 있으며, 항균, 항산화, 항염증 등의 생리활성을 가지고 있는 것으로 알려져 있다. 본 연구에서는 건조상추의 에탄올 추출물(DLE)을 제조하고 이들의 항염증 활성을 연구하였다. DLE의 항염증 활성을 측정하기 위하여 LPS로 활성화된 마우스 대식세포 RAW 264.7 세포주에서 nitric oxide (NO) 생성을 측정하였다. DLE는 세포주의 생존에는 영향을 미치지 않으면서 NO 생산을 현저하게 저해하였다. DLE에 의해 염증 유전자인 iNOS와 COX-2의 유전자와 단백질의 발현이 모두 감소하였으며, 6개의 염증관련 cytokine 유전자(IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1F6, TNF-α, CSF2, 그리고 CXCL10)의 발현이 모두 감소하였다. 또한, DLE의 처리는 MAPKs 경로의 인산화를 모두 저해하였으며, NF-κB p65의 핵으로의 이동을 저해하였다. 이러한 결과는 DLE의 항염증 활성은 MAPKs 경로와 NF-κB 경로를 조절함으로써 이루어짐을 시사한다. 또한, DLE는 농도의존적으로 reactive oxygen species (ROS)의 생산을 저해하였으며, hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) 단백질의 발현을 증가시켰으며, HO-1의 전사조절인자인 Nrf2의 핵으로의 이동을 증가시켰다. 결론적으로, 이러한 연구결과는 DLE가 염증관련 유전자의 발현을 감소시키며, MAPKs, NF-κB, 그리고 Nrf2/HO-1 등 다양한 경로를 조절함으로써 항염증 활성을 가지는 것을 제시한다.

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