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Fatigue growth analysis of surface cracks is performed accounting for the relation of effective stress ranges (Ua, Ub). And fatigue tests by axial loading(R=0.05) were carried out to investigate fatigue crack growth behaviors of short cracks in 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel at room temperature by using flat specimen with a small artificial notch. A combined surface replica and photomicrograph technique was applied to obtain quantitative data. All the data of the fatigue crack growth rates obtained in the present tests are analyzed as a function of the stress factor range about a semielliptical crack.
In this study, the growth rate of surface cracks (da/dN) during the retardation period was analyzed in terms of effective stress intensity factor range() obtained by using the proposed effective plastic zone concept. Effective stress intensity factors obtained by using the effective plastic zone concept were smaller than those obtained by using Willenborg analysis. On the growth rate of surface cracks analyzed by, the dependence of overload stress levels appears. On the growth rate by obtained by Willenborg analysis, there is a linear relationship with two different slops between da/dN and. However, on the growth rate by obtained by the proposed effective plastic zone concept, there is a linear relationship between da/dN and that coincides with the results of constant amplitude loading.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Lonicera japonica(LJ) could inhibit LPS-induced type I IFN production. Methods: To evaluate inhibitory effect of LJ on type I IFN, we examined type I IFN, IRF-1, 7 and IL-10 production on LPS-induced macrophages using real time RT-PCR. Next, we observed the interaction of type I IFN, IRF-1, 7 and IL-10 using IL-10 neutralizing antibody. Finally we examined the activation of STAT-1, 3 using western blot. Results: LJ inhibited Type I IFN expression of mRNA and increased IL-10 expression of mRNA. Also LJ inhibited the level of IRF-1, 7 mRNA and the nuclear translocation of IRF-3. Further more, LJ reduced the activation of STAT-1, 3 which are involved in continuous secretion of immune cytokines. Blockade of IL-10 action caused a significant reduction of type I IFN and IRF-1, 7 than LPS-induced LJ pretreatment. Conclusions: LJ inhibits LPS-induced production of type I IFN by IL-10. This study may provide a clinical basis for anti-inflammatory properties of LJ.
Purpose: To evaluate the change of residual volume of eye drop after instillation in patients with 23-gauge microincisionvitrectomy surgery (MIVS). Methods: Patient who were treated 23-gauge MIVS from November 2014 to July 2015 were included. The residualvolume was defined as the amount of remnant eye drop in patient’s eyes after instillation, calculated as thedifference between instillation volume and spilled volume of eye drop. Calculation of residual volume of eyedrop was performed one day before surgery, and daily from postoperative day 1 to day 5. Results: Forty consecutive patients were included. The residual volume of eye drop decreased from 30.3 ± 1.4μL at baseline to 13.0 ± 1.5 μL at day 1, 18.3 ± 1.6 μL at day 2, 24.7 ± 1.5 μL at day 3, and 27.9 ± 1.4 μL in day 4,postoperatively (p < 0.001, respectively). The volume at postoperative day 5 was 29.4 ± 1.3 μL, but it was notdifferent from the volume at baseline (p = 0.105). The change of residual volume was significantly correlatedwith postoperative chemosis (r = 0.672, p < 0.001) and effected by the number of quadrant with postoperativechemosis (p < 0.05). Conclusions: This study shows that postoperative residual volume of eye drop after instillation decreased untilpostoperative day 4, and postoperative chemosis affects the change of residual volume. Thus, checkingproper use of eye drops and teaching about instillation technique by physician is necessary for patients with23-gauge MIVS.
The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze information on the major scoring paths, success rate by shooting type, assist, steal, block, and goalkeeper defense rate by shooting type in the 2019 World Women's Handball Championship. Based on the research results, the following conclusions were drawn. First, as a result of the analysis of the scoring route, 1st the Netherlands and 2nd Spain had 6m shots and 7m shots the most. Second, in the success rate analysis results by shooting type, the top 6 teams showed 7m shot, breakthrough shot, and fast shot. Third, according to the result of assist frequency analysis, the fourth place in the competition Norway scored the most assists among the six teams. Fourth, as a result of the steel frequency analysis, Norway scored the most with 5.2 on average among the six teams. Fifth, as a result of analyzing the goalkeeper defense rate by shooting type, it was found that all 6 team’s goalkeepers had the highest defense against 9m shooting. Therefore, for an in-depth analysis of the game strategy, it is considered that it is necessary to understand the characteristics of individual player’s performance and collect information will be followed by a follow up research in the future. 이 연구의 목적은 2019년 세계여자핸드볼선수권대회에서 상위 6개 국가에 대한 전력분석으로 주요득점 경로와 슈팅 유형별 성공률, 어시스트 빈도, 스틸, 블록, 슈팅 유형별 골키퍼 방어율에 대한 정보를 수집하여 분석하였다. 연구결과를 바탕으로 다음과 같은 결론을 얻었다. 첫째, 득점 경로 분석결과, 대회 1위 네덜란드와 2위 스페인은 6m슛과 7m슛이 가장 많았으며, 3, 4, 5, 6위에서도 6m슛이 가장 많이 나타났다. 둘째, 슈팅 유형별 성공률 분석결과에서는 상위 6팀 모두 7m슛, 돌파슛, 속공슛 등으로 나타났다. 셋째, 어시스트 빈도분석 결과 기록에 의하면 대회 4위의 노르웨이가 6팀 중 가장 많은 어시스트를 기록했다. 넷째, 스틸 빈도분석 결과 6개 팀 중 노르웨이는 평균 5.2회로 가장 많은 스틸을 기록하였다. 다섯째, 슈팅 유형별 골키퍼 방어율을 분석한 결과 6팀 골키퍼 모두가 9m 슈팅에 대한 방어율이 가장 높은 것으로 나타났다. 따라서, 심층적인 경기전략분석을 위해서는 선수 개인 경기력에 대한 특성파악 및 정보 수집을 통하여 향후 후속연구로 진행될 필요가 있다고 생각된다.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the improvement of students' interest and general proficiency of English through cultural understanding. To achieve this purpose, two classes of the 2nd grade in the informational high school were divided into the experimental class and the control class. The Grammar-Translation Method was used for the control class and a cultural learning - compare and contrast Korean culture and American culture - was taken for the experimental. After various cultural differences were studied, surveys of students' attitude and reading and listening test were taken. The results from this study were as follows: Firstly, students' interest in English was improved through learning the American culture that was related to the content of each lesson. Secondly, English reading and communicative skills were improved by learning about cultural aspects. Therefore, it can be said that teaching culture stimulates students' interest and motivation for learning English and helps students retain such affective attitudes. And English communicative skills were improved as well.