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Background/Aims: The aim of this study was to examine the recent clinical trends and antibiotic susceptibilities of the causative microorganisms in renal and perirenal abscesses, and to elucidate the factors associated with treatment strategies. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 56 patients who were diagnosed with renal and perirenal abscesses at our hospital from January 2000 to September 2007. Results: The mean age of the patients was 53.5 years, and a female predominance of patients (75%) was observed. Diabetes mellitus (44.6%) was the most common predisposing condition. The mean duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 11.6 days, and fever (75%) was the most common symptom. Escherichia coli (44%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (28%) were common pathogens, and the rates of susceptibility of E. coli isolates to ampicillin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and imipenem were 18.2%, 27.3%, 72.7%, 72.7%, 63.6%, 63.6%, and 100%, respectively. Abscesses were classified according to the location as follows: renal abscess (n=31, 55.4%) and perirenal abscess±renal abscess (n=25, 44.6%). In the renal abscess group, the infection rate of gram-negative organisms was higher than in the perirenal abscess group. Patients were also divided according to the treatment modality: antibiotics only (n=20, 35.7%) and percutaneous intervention or surgery (n=36, 64.3%). Patients who had a perirenal abscess or a large renal abscess required more invasive treatment. Conclusions: This study revealed somewhat different results from those of previous studies. Clinical and microbial differences were observed between the renal and perirenal abscess groups. Abscess location and the size of the renal abscess were the factors associated with treatment strategies.
Background/Aims: Increased left atrial (LA) size has been proposed as a predictor of poor cardiovascular outcome in the elderly. In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between LA size and stroke in subjects of all ages who presented with preserved left ventricular systolic function (LVSF) and sinus rhythm (SR), and investigated the relationships between LA size and other echocardiographic parameters of diastolic function. Methods: A total of 472 subjects were enrolled in the study (161 men, 311 women) and divided into the stroke group (n=75) and control group (n=397). A conventional echocardiographic study was then performed. Subjects with valvular heart disease, atrial fibrillation, or coronary heart disease were excluded. Results: The mean subject age was 65.2±5.1 years in the stroke group and 65.6±5.9 years in the control group. Mitral inflow pattern and E & A velocity showed no significant relationship with stroke (p=NS, p=NS, respectively). Left ventricular mass index and LA dimension were significantly related to stroke (p=0.003, p=0.023, respectively), and hypertension showed a marginal relationship with stroke (p=0.050). Age was not related to stroke in the present study (p=NS). Conclusions: The LA dimension is significantly related to the incidence of stroke. Therefore, strategies for prevention of stroke in patients with preserved LVSF and SR should be considered in cases of LA enlargement. (Korean J Intern Med 2009;24:24-32)
Bong-Chun,Moon,Jae-Hee,Jeong,Yeon-Joo,Choi,Jung-Eun,Kim,Hyun-Ji,Seo,E-Hyun,Shin,Bong-Gu,Song,Hee,Il,Lee,Seung-Hyun,Lee,Kyung-Hee,Park,Won-Jong,Jang 대한미생물학회 2009 Journal of Bacteriology and Virology Vol.39 No.4
This study investigated the presence of nucleic acids of various Rickettsial agents in ticks collected in Jeju Island, Korea from June 2007 to August 2008, through the nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analysis of partial citrate synthase (gltA), Rickettsial outer membrane protein B (ompB), and 17-kDa genes. Examination of the 1,584 ticks showed that the subspecies distribution of Haemaphysalis longicornis was 99.81% (n=1,581) and H. flava was 0.19% (n=3). A total 224 out of 250 pools from one to 15 ticks were found to be positive in ompB-PCR assay (minimal infection rate 141 ticks/1,000 tested). From the positive samples, 26 were analyzed by gltA- and 17-kDa-PCR assays. The nucleotide sequences of the ompB- and gltA-PCR products showed a high degree of similarity with those of the Rickettsia japonica (98.7~99.2% and 98.7~99.3%, n=25) and R. monacensis (99% and 99.7%, n=1). However, analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the 17-kDa-PCR amplicons showed that the sequences of the 25 PCR amplicons were more close to R. marmionii (99.4~100%) than R. japonica (98.6~99.1%). These findings suggest that various rickettsial diseases could be transmitted via the bite of tick vectors in Jeju Island, Korea.
We investigated the prevalence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia- syndrome virus (SFTSV) and geographical distribution of ixodid ticks from 25 regions of the Korea during 2011-2012. We collected 25,940 ixodid ticks with 3 genera and 7 species using dry ice bait trap and flagging. Among them, Genus Haemaphysalis, Ixodes and Amblyomma counted 25,821 (99.5%), 118 (0.5%) and 1 (<0.0%). Genus Haemaphysalis consisted of 4 species, H. longicornis (90.4%), H. flava (9.2%), H. formosensis and H. hystricis (<0.1%). Genus Ixodes consisted of 2 species, I. nippoenesis (0.4%) and I. persulcatus (0.1%). Only one Amblyomma testudinarium was collected. The highly infested sites were grassland (50.1%) and mixed stand forest (20.3%). Minimum infection rate (MIR) of SFTSV in H. longicornis was 0.5% in Korea and this rate was similar to that in China (0.46%). Our results showed that H. longicornis is a major vector of SFTSV and its surveillance will be needed at high risk area.
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Sung-Hee JWA and Sung Bong CHO The establishment of the rule of law in the social and economics spheres is fundamental towards effective and practical reform of a country's legal and institutional environment. Such reform must take place under the rule of law, and not through human or administrative discretion. We claim that establishing ‘a law-governed economy,' which is defined as the operation of an economy under the rule of law, is an indispensible feature for Korea's proper economic reform. In Korea, many factors presently hinder the establishment of a law-governed economy, of which the most important are the persistent government intervention into markets, the government's excessive discretionary power, the weak check and balance among the three government branches, the absence of regulatory bodies' independence, the unclear division of labor among government bodies, and the ‘egalitarian trap' embedded in the Korean culture. We argue in this paper that political reform is a prerequisite to a law-governed economy. There should be a conscious effort to remove entry and exit barriers in political markets, as well as reduce significantly its high-cost structure. Through such a process, and by improving the country's economic institutional environment, more effective economic reform, especially of corporations, will then become possible. Regarding corporate sector reform, there is a need to establish a proper market disciplinary system by strengthening the monitoring roles of various market participants, thus replacing the existing regulatory framework that aims to directly control corporate behavior.
We investigated the distribution of ixodid ticks in severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) case reported areas using flagging method from May to November 2014 in Korea. We collected 13,471 ixodid ticks with 2 genera and 3 species. Among them, Genus Haemaphysalis and Ixodes accounted for 99.9% (13,455) and 0.1% (16), respectively. Genus Haemaphysalis consisted of 2 species, H. longicornis (96.2%) and H. flava (3.7%). I. nipponensis was only collected in Genus Ixodes. H. longicornis was the dominant species (over 90%) in most study areas. Ixodid ticks were evenly distributed at various environmental sites, such as residences, hills, grassfields, fields, graves, copses, other sites. The further study on SFTSV infection in ixodid ticks will be needed.