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Background and Purpose Loneliness is a significant concern among the elderly, particularly in societies with rapidly growing aging populations. While loneliness may influence neuropsychological function, the exact nature of the association between loneliness and neuropsychological function is poorly understood. Methods We evaluated 50 elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 33 without cognitive dysfunction with respect to demographics, clinical characteristics, cognitive and functional performance, depression scale, and loneliness scale. The associations between loneliness and neuropsychological assessments were evaluated. Results Although loneliness was not associated with cognitive or functional performance, it was correlated with depression in elderly patients. For elderly patients with MCI, depressive symptoms were reported more frequently in individuals with a high degree of loneliness (p<0.05). Conclusions Neither cognitive performance nor functional performance is associated with loneliness; however, loneliness is associated with depressive symptoms in elderly patients with MCI.
The ability of 80% ethanol extracts from five medicinal plants, Aralia continentalis, Paeonia suffruticosa, Magnolia denudata, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, and Schizonepeta tenuifolia, to neutralize hydroxyl radical, peroxyl radical and peroxynitrite was examined using the total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) assay. Peroxyl radical was generated from thermal homolysis of 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (ABAP); hydroxyl radical by an iron-ascorbate Fenton reaction; peroxynitrite by spontaneous decomposition of 3-morpholinosydnonimine N-ethylcarbamide (SIN-1). The oxidants generated react with α-keto-γ-methiolbutyric acid (KMBA) to yield ethylene, and the TOSC of the substances tested is quantified from their ability to inhibit ethylene formation. Extracts from P. suffruticosa, M. denudata, and S. tenuifolia were determined to be potent peroxyl radical scavenging agents with a specific TOSC (sTOSC) being at least six-fold greater than that of glutathione (GSH). These three plants also showed sTOSCs toward peroxynitrite markedly greater than sTOSC of GSH, however, only P. suffruticosa revealed a significant hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity. Seven major active constituents isolated from P. suffruticosa, quercetin, (+)-catechin, methyl gallate, gallic acid, benzoic acid, benzoyl paeoniflorin and paeoniflorin, were determined for their antioxidant potential toward peroxynitrite, peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals. Quercetin, (+)-catechin, methyl gallate, and gallic acid exhibited sTOSCs 40~85 times greater than sTOSC of GSH. These four components also showed a peroxynitrite scavenging capacity higher than at least 10-fold of GSH. For antioxidant activity against hydroxyl radical, methyl gallate was greatest followed by gallic acid and quercetin. Further studies need to be conducted to substantiate the significance of scavenging a specific oxidant in the prevention of cellular injury and disease states caused by the reactive free radical species.
Background and Purpose The importance of health-related quality of life (HrQoL) has been increasingly emphasized when assessing and providing treatment to patients with chronic,progressive, degenerative disorders. The 39-item Parkinson’s disease questionnaire (PDQ-39)is the most widely used patient-reporting scale to assess HrQoL in Parkinson’s disease (PD). This study evaluated the validity and reliability of the translated Korean version of the PDQ-39(K-PDQ-39). Methods One hundred and two participants with PD from 10 movement disorder clinics at university-affiliated hospitals in South Korea completed the K-PDQ-39. All of the participants were also tested using the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE), Korean version of the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale (K-MADS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and non-motor symptoms scale (NMSS). Retests of the K-PDQ-39 were performed over time intervals from 10 to 14 days in order to assess test-retest reliability. Results Each K-PDQ-39 domain showed correlations with the summary index scores (rS=0.559-0.793, p<0.001). Six out of eight domains met the acceptable standard of reliability (Cronbach’s αcoefficient ≥0.70). The Guttman split-half coefficient value of the K-PDQ-39summary index, which is an indicator of test-retest reliability, was 0.919 (p<0.001). All of the clinical variables examined except for age, comprising disease duration, levodopa equivalent dose, modified Hoehn and Yahr stage (H&Y stage), UPDRS part I, II and III, mood status (KMADS), cognition (K-MMSE), daytime sleepiness (ESS) and (NMSS) showed strong correlations with the K-PDQ-39 summary index (p<0.01). Conclusions The K-PDQ-39 has been validated for use in the Korean-speaking PD population. The questionnaire is a valid and reliable assessment tool for assessing the HrQoL of Korean PD patients.
The antioxidant potential of commercial beverages against peroxyl radical was determined using the Total Oxyradical Scavenging Capacity (TOSC) assay. Peroxyl radicals generated from thermal homolysis of 2,2’-azobis-amidinopropane oxidize α-keto-γ-methiolbutyric acid to ethylene, which is monitored by gas chromatography. The TOSC of each beverage is quantified from its ability to inhibit ethylene generation relative to a control reaction. Nine different beverages (green tea, jasmine tea, black tea, instant coffee, brewed coffee, cocoa mix, oolong tea, prune juice, and grape juice) were selected for this study. Their antioxidant capacities per a cup-serving (125 mL) were measured and compared to peroxyl radical scavenging capacity provided by a recommended daily dose of ascorbic acid (90 mg) dissolved in the same volume of water. The greatest antioxidant capacity was found in brewed coffee, which was followed, in decreasing order, by prune juice, instant coffee, green tea, cocoa mix, grape juice, jasmine tea, black tea, oolong tea, and ascorbic acid. There was an almost 7-fold difference in the TOSC between brewed coffee and ascorbic acid. The data suggest a potential role for commonly consumed beverages in lowering the risk of pathophysiologies associated with peroxyl radical-mediated events. The antioxidant potential of commercial beverages against peroxyl radical was determined using the Total Oxyradical Scavenging Capacity (TOSC) assay. Peroxyl radicals generated from thermal homolysis of 2,2’-azobis-amidinopropane oxidize α-keto-γ-methiolbutyric acid to ethylene, which is monitored by gas chromatography. The TOSC of each beverage is quantified from its ability to inhibit ethylene generation relative to a control reaction. Nine different beverages (green tea, jasmine tea, black tea, instant coffee, brewed coffee, cocoa mix, oolong tea, prune juice, and grape juice) were selected for this study. Their antioxidant capacities per a cup-serving (125 mL) were measured and compared to peroxyl radical scavenging capacity provided by a recommended daily dose of ascorbic acid (90 mg) dissolved in the same volume of water. The greatest antioxidant capacity was found in brewed coffee, which was followed, in decreasing order, by prune juice, instant coffee, green tea, cocoa mix, grape juice, jasmine tea, black tea, oolong tea, and ascorbic acid. There was an almost 7-fold difference in the TOSC between brewed coffee and ascorbic acid. The data suggest a potential role for commonly consumed beverages in lowering the risk of pathophysiologies associated with peroxyl radical-mediated events.
Post-stroke movement disorders are uncommon, but comprise an important part of secondary movement disorders. These exert variable and heterogeneous clinical courses according to the stroke lesion and its temporal relationships. Moreover, the predominant stroke symptoms hinder a proper diagnosis in clinical practice. This article describes the etiology, treatment options and prognosis of post-stroke movement disorders.
本論考は若菜上巻以後の物語における光源氏の老いが皮相的なものから実体を獲得してゆくことを論じたものである。若菜上巻以後の光源氏の老いは衰退と成長の両義性を帯びる。衰退と成長は登場人物の主観的な視点による区分と大まかに言えるが、女三の宮の婿選びにおいては光源氏自身も老いを両義的に捉えている。一方、若菜上巻における女三の宮の婿選びに見る光源氏の内面は薄雲巻や玉鬘十帖に連なるものがある。薄雲巻や玉鬘十帖と同じく、若菜上巻の光源氏は自らの老いを自覚しながら好色をも持っている。このような若菜上巻において光源氏の老いは、柏木と女三の宮の密通事件を知ったのちのそれに比べると皮相的なものである。 In this paper, I looked at how the aging process is handled in The Tale of Gen-ji after the "Wakana, Part Ⅰ". Hikaru Gen-ji who is 40-year-old character in "Wakana, Part Ⅰ", has many possibilities on his aging. The character's aging could be growth and decline. On the other hand, the inner side of the character is still drawn to be unchanged from the past, as he entered the early stage at the age of 40. The internal thinking of Hikaru Gen-ji is in stark contrast to the inside of the character in "Kashiwagi". The aging of Hikaru Gen-ji is a serious issue following the adultery which is committed by a young character, which's name is Kashiwagi, which suggests that Hikaru Gen-ji's perception of aging was superficial. In other words, it represents a change of the perception of time which has occurred inside of Hikaru Gen-ji.
This paper is a case study of diagnosis using the MMSS self-narrative diagnostic test tool. In November 2021, the manual was officially distributed through the workshop, “MMSS Magic Mirror for the Story-in-depth of Self V.1.1 for the general public to spread the story of life in a healthy and happy way.” The results of self-narrative diagnosis and diagnostic counseling were analyzed for three middle-aged women in their 50s and 60s. The effects that could be confirmed through the MMSS self-narrative diagnosis can be stated through clarification, dimensionalization, and self therapy. First, clarification is that the diagnosis results are expressed by paying attention to the characters in the story so that the characteristics of the self-narrative can be understood contextually within the framework of existence and relationship. Second, dimensionalization was able to comprehensively identify the characteristic features of the self-narrative through the analysis of the correlation between each work and each item. Third, it was confirmed that the self therapy has the effect of objective reflection on the participant itself through diagnostic counseling. Based on the theory of literary therapy, MMSS self-narrative diagnosis can be an effective tool for diagnosing and describing the characteristics of the participant’s self-narrative by identifying the narratives that the participant accesses well and those that are not, and analyzing the characteristics of the narrative. 본 논문은 MMSS 자기서사 진단 검사도구를 활용한 진단 사례 연구이다. 2021년 11월에 워크숍을 통해 공식적으로 매뉴얼이 배포된 「인생이라는 스토리를 건강하고 행복하게 펼쳐가기 위한 MMSS 자기서사 진단지(Magic Mirror for the Story-in-depth of Self) 일반인용 V.1.1」을 활용하여 50, 60대 중년 여성 3명을 대상으로 자기서사 진단과 진단상담을 실시한 결과를 분석하였다. MMSS 자기서사 진단을 통해 확인할 수 있었던 효과는 명료화, 입체화, 자가치료로 나타낼 수 있다. 첫째, 명료화는 진단 결과를 이야기 속의 캐릭터에 주목하여 진술함으로써 자기서사의 특성을 존재성과 관계성의 틀 속에서 맥락적으로 이해할 수 있도록 하였다는 것이다. 둘째, 입체화는 각 작품들 간, 각 문항 간 연관성에 대한 분석을 통해 자기서사의 특징적인 모습을 종합적으로 확인할 수 있었다는 것이다. 셋째, 자가치료는 진단상담을 통해 참여자 스스로도 객관적인 성찰의 효과를 가짐을 확인할 수 있었다. MMSS 자기서사 진단은 문학치료학의 이론을 바탕으로 하여 참여자가 잘 접속하는 서사와 그렇지 못한 서사를 확인하고 그 서사의 특성을 분석함으로써 참여자의 자기서사의 특성을 진단하고 서술하는 데 효과적인 도구가 될 수 있다.