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The influence of misalignment is investigated to improve the fatigue strength of U-type trough ribs at field welded joints in steel bridge decks. A 3-point bending fatigue test and finite element analysis were conducted on full-scale specimens. Small-scale specimens with a backing strip were also made and examined with a fatigue test and FEA to estimate the influence of misalignment. The result of the static loading test for the full-scale specimens showed that the position of maximum stress is in the bottom corners of the U-rib. It is known that fatigue cracks initiate from the inner surface of the U-rib and propagated to the outer surface, and larger misalignments contributed to a shorter fatigue life for the U-rib, based on the result of the fatigue test. The fatigue life is drastically reduced when the magnitude of misalignment is increased, as shown in the results of the fatigue test on small-scale specimens with a backing strip, and fatigue cracks usually occurred at the root of base metal. The result of stress analysis on small-scale specimens showed that the stress concentration at the root of base metal increases in proportion to larger misalignment, and the semicircular shape of the root is less subject to stress concentration than the right angle root type.
Hwabyung (火病), also called “UlHwabyung (鬱火病),” refers to a disease in which anger accumulates that occurs when a person is unable to express resentment and anger. This study proposes that “Hwabyung” can be a window through which to observe modern Korean society. We will use Hwabyung as a spear, with literary works on one side and the reality of our society on the other. The expression that someone is suffering from “Hwabyung” means that there are people who suffer from resentment and anger in a society. Through these characters in literary texts and real-life newspaper articles, we will be able to glimpse what factors in our society and culture acted as the cause of the Hwabyung. In the 20th century, Hwabyung was represented in variety of ways reflecting the changes of the times. In the 1960s, the wounds of war and displacement were expressed as a person suffering from Hwabyung. In the 1970s, the pain of laborers was also revealed by it. In the 1980s, the wounds left by the Gwangju Uprising and the democratization process gave rise to Hwabyung. “Hwabyung” is closely related to our society’s history. When we look at Hwabyung in this context, we can hear the voices of patients suffering from it. This is because what we must ultimately look at is not the disease itself, but the people and society. It is important to find and sympathize with a person suffering from Hwabyung in novels. Reading literary texts and sharing feelings of empathy and solidarity will be the first step in healing Hwabyung. 화병(火病)은 분노가 누적된 질병을 말하며, ‘울화병’이라고도 한다. 화병은 억울한 마음과 분노를 바깥으로 드러낼 수 없을 때 걸리게 되는 질병이다. 본 연구는 ‘화병(火病)’이 현대 한국 사회를 들여다볼 수 있는 창이 될 수 있다고 생각한다. 화병을 창으로 삼되, 그 창의 한 편에는 문학 작품을 두고 다른 한 편에는 우리 사회 현실을 두게 될 것이다. 누군가가 화병을 앓고 있다는 표현은 한 사회 내에 억울함과 분노를 겪는 사람들이 존재한다는 의미이다. 우리는 이러한 인물들과 현실의 신문 기사들을 통해, 우리 사회문화의 어떤 것들이 화병의 원인으로 작용했는지를 엿볼 수 있을 것이다. 20세기 우리 역사에서 화병은 시대의 변화와 함께 다양한 양상으로 드러난다. 1960년대는 전쟁과 실향의 상처가 화병으로 표출되고, 1970년대에는 노동자의 고통이 화병으로 드러난다. 1980년대는 광주와 민주화가 남긴 상처가 화병이 되었다. ‘화병’은 우리 사회의 역사와 매우 밀접하게 연관지어 보아야 하는 대상이다. 역사의 맥락 위에서 화병을 바라볼 때, 우리는 화병을 앓고 있다고 하는 환자의 목소리를 들을 수 있다. 우리가 결국 바라봐야 하는 것은 질병 그 자체가 아니라, 사람과 사회이다. 문학 작품 속에서 화병을 앓고 있는 인물을 발견하고 공감하는 일은 그래서 중요하다. 문학 작품을 감상하고, 공감과 연대의 감정을 공유하는 것은 화병을 치유하는 첫 걸음이 될 것이다.
Fatigue strength of welded joint between angle shape shear connector and bottom plate in steel-concrete composite slab was investigated by fatigue tests. Fatigue tests were performed on push-out shear specimens. Local stress around the welded joint was also investigated by FEA. In fatigue tests, fatigue cracks initiated and propagated at the welded toe. The fatigue cracks were caused by stress concentration at the welded joints due to the local bending deformation of bottom plate. This local bending deformation was analytically simulated by FEA carried out on slab members in practice. After these investigations, it was confirmed the stress level at the welded joint was small and much less than the fatigue limit even when the design truck loads were applied.
Background: Diffusion tensor MRI (DTI) is a new imaging technique and enables us to analyze the structural damage of fiber pathways and to monitor the time course of Wallerian degeneration of the pyramidal tract in stroke patients. We used DTI to investigate structural changes of the infarct area and the associated descending corticospinal tract in patients with subcortical infarct. Methods: We examined 24 consecutive patients who presented with acute single cerebral infarct in the subcortical area and who also had undergone an MRI study within 7 days after symptom onset. Clinical outcome was assessed using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at admission, 7 days, 14 days and 30 days and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at admission and 30 days. Each of the indices was achieved by post processing the acquired DTI data and correlated with the NIHSS. Results: In infarct region, fractional anisotropy (FA) was significantly decreased compared with matched-contralateral regions (0.39 vs. 0.53, p<0.001). In the distal to the infarct, FA was significantly decreased at internal capsule (0.62 vs. 0.64, p=0.019), not at pons (0.51 vs. 0.53, p=0.103). The decrease of anisotropy at infarct region correlated positively with the NIHSS at 7, 14 and 30 days and mRS at 30 days after stroke, but the decrease of anisotropy at internal capsule did not correlate with the NIHSS. Conclusions: This study shows the potential of DTI to detect and monitor the structural degeneration of fiber pathways and to establish the prognosis in patients with acute subcortical cerebral infarct.
We propose a novel post-processing algorithm and its very-large-scale integration architecture that simultaneously uses the passive and active stereo vision information to improve the reliability of the three-dimensional disparity in a hybrid stereo vision system. The proposed architecture consists of four steps — left-right consistency checking, semi-2D hole filling, a tiny adaptive variance checking, and a 2D weighted median filter. The experimental results show that the error rate of the proposed algorithm (5.77%) is less than that of a raw disparity (10.12%) for a real-world camera image having a 1,280 × 720 resolution and maximum disparity of 256. Moreover, for the famous Middlebury stereo image sets, the proposed algorithm’s error rate (8.30%) is also less than that of the raw disparity (13.7%). The proposed architecture is implemented on a single commercial field-programmable gate array using only 13.01% of slice resources, which achieves a rate of 60 fps for 1,280 × 720 stereo images with a disparity range of 256.