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This study examines the dynamics surrounding women's voices in the realm of politics and social movements in contemporary Japan, and against this backdrop, the context and aspects of the recent “K-feminism” literary boom in Japan from a perspective of cultural translation. More specifically, by examining each context of and the correlations among democracy without women, the relative weakness of feminism as a social movement, and the reception of “K-feminism,” the study explores how the women’s voices in the realm of politics, social movements, and culture are being transmitted and connected. In Japanese democracy, which is characterized by the absence of women, there is a structure in which women's voices are not adequately reflected in setting the social agenda. On the other hand, compared with the women’s movement and feminism developed in various forms in the 1970s and 1980s Japan, Japanese feminism in the 1990s lost its popular base as the advent of the post-feminist situation and gender backlash interlocked. Moreover, as feminism was incorporated into the realm of academia, it failed to address the everyday feminist agenda. Under this circumstance, it can be said that it was “K-literature” led by the novel, Kim Jiyoung, Born 1982 by Cho Nam-Joo that transgressed the boundaries of language and penetrated this void through translation. Thus, the reception of “K-feminist” literature in Japan is a response to the vacuum created in the development of Japanese feminism, namely, the absence of everyday language to talk about feminist issues. It remains to be seen what direction Japanese society and democracy will take while appropriating the linguistic resources of “K-feminist” literature. 본고는 현재 일본의 정치와 사회운동의 영역에서 여성의 목소리가 놓여있는 역학 구도를 살펴보고, 이를 배경으로 최근 일본에서 대두한 ‘K 페미니즘’ 문학 붐의 맥락과 그 양상을 문화번역적 관점에서 고찰하는 것을 목적으로 한다. 더 구체적으로는, 여성이 부재한 민주주의, 사회 운동으로서의 페미니즘의 상대적 약세, ‘K 페미니즘’의 수용이라는 각각의 맥락과 이들 사이의 상관관계를 검토하면서, 정치, 사회 운동, 문화의 영역에서 여성의 목소리가 어떻게 발신되고 상호적으로 접속되고 있는지를 가늠해 보고자 한다. 여성의 부재를 그 특징으로 하는 일본형 민주주의에서는 여성의 목소리가 사회적 의제화에 충분히 반영되지 못하는 구조가 있다. 한편, 1970년대~1980년대에 다양한 형태로 전개된 여성운동과 페미니즘에 비해, 1990년대 이후 일본의 페미니즘은 포스트페미니즘 상황의 도래와 젠더 백래시가 맞물리면서 대중적 기반을 상실했고, 아카데미즘의 영역으로 편입되면서 일상의 페미니즘 의제에 대처하지 못했다. 이러한 상황에서, 번역을 매개로 언어의 경계를 넘어 그 공백을 파고든 것이 82년생 김지영 을 필두로 하는 ‘K 문학’이었다고 볼 수 있을 것이다. 다시 말해, 일본에서의 ‘K 페미니즘’ 문학의 수용은 일본형 페미니즘의 전개 속에서 생겨난 공백, 즉, 페미니즘적 문제를 이야기하기 위한 일상 언어의 부재에 부응하는 형태로 나타나고 있다고 볼 수 있다. 일본 사회가 ‘K 페미니즘’ 문학이라는 언어적 자원을 전유하면서 어떠한 방향으로 나아갈지, 일본 민주주의의 향방이 주목된다.
Purpose: This study aimed to examine the impact of alcohol use on the antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence of Koreans living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods: A total of 144 HIV-infected Koreans older than the age of 19 years who had been receiving antiretroviral drugs for at least 3 months were surveyed. Alcohol use was identified as nonhazardous, binge, hazardous, and alcohol dependent as determined by the Alchol Use Disorder Identification Test- Korea (AUDIT-K). ART adherence was defined according to the components of adherence motivation, adherence knowledge, and 95% medication adherence using the modified Morisky scale. Collected data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis for each component of therapy adherence. Results: Of all participants, 13.9% were binge drinkers, 17.4% were hazardous drinkers, and 4.2% were alcohol dependent. For low adherence motivation, the odds ratio for the hazardous drinkers was 7.47 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.72-32.41; p = .007] and for the alcohol dependent, it was 12.61 (95% CI: 1.38-115.38; p = .025) when compared with the nonhazardous drinkers. For medication adherence under 95%, the odds ratio for binge drinkers was 4.65 (95% CI: 1.15-18.92; p = .032), for hazardous drinkers was 8.05 (95% CI: 2.08-31.20; p = .003), and for the alcohol dependent was 27.67 (95% CI: 2.12-360.51; p =.011). Conclusion: It is recommended that Korean institutions and governments develop specific mediation and counseling programs that include alcohol use-related monitoring for the improvement of the ART adherence of people living with HIV.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to create soil contamination maps using QGIS (Quantum Geographic Information System) and suggest selection methods for soil pollution sources for preferential investigation in a soil contamination survey. Method: Data from soil contamination surveys over five years in Gyeonggi-do Province, South Korea (2013- 2017) were used for making soil contamination maps and analyzing the density of survey points. By analyzing points exceeding the concern level of soil contamination, soil pollutant sources for priority management were identified and selection methods for preferred survey points were suggested through a study of the model area. Results: A soil contamination survey was conducted at 1,478 points over five years, with the largest number of surveys conducted in industrial complex and factory areas. Soil contamination maps for copper, zinc, nickel, lead, arsenic, fluoride, and total petroleum hydrocarbons were made, and most of the survey points were found to be below concern level 1 for soil contamination. The density of the survey points is similar to that of densely populated areas and factory areas. The analysis results of points exceeding the criteria showed that soil pollutant sources for priority management were areas where ore and scrap metals were used and stored, traffic-related facilities areas, industrial complex and factory areas, and areas associated with waste and recycling. According to the study of the model area, the preferred survey points were traffic-related facilities with 15 years or more since their construction and factories with a score of 10 or more for soil contamination risk. Conclusion: Soil contamination surveys should use GIS for even regional distribution of survey points and for the effective selection of preferred survey points. This study may be used as guidelines to select points for a soil contamination survey.
Glioblastoma multiforme is one of the most common and aggressive tumors in central nervous system. It often possesses characteristic necrotic lesions with hemorrhages, which increase the chances of exposure to thrombin. Thrombin has been known as a regulator of MMP-9 expression and cancer cell migration. However, the effects of thrombin on glioma cells have not been clearly understood. In the present study, influences of thrombin on glioma cell migration were examined using Boyden chamber migration assay and thrombin-induced changes in MMP-9 expression were measured using zymography, semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and Western blotting. Furthermore, underlying signaling pathways by which thrombin induces MMP-9 expression were examined. Thrombin-induced migration and MMP-9 expression were significantly potentiated in the presence of wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, whereas MAPK inhibitors suppressed thrombin-induced migration and MMP-9 expression in C6 glioma cells. The present data strongly demonstrate that MAPK and PI3K pathways evidently regulate thrombin-induced migration and MMP-9 expression of C6 glioma cells. Therefore, the control of these pathways might be a beneficial therapeutic strategy for treatment of invasive glioblastoma multiforme.
Background and Objectives: Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy is recommended as the primary tool for prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in symptomatic patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction. There is a paucity of information on whether this recommendation is appropriate for the Korean population with severe heart failure. Subjects and Methods: The study group consisted of 275 consecutive patients (mean age 65 years, 71% male) who met the ICD implantation criteria for primary prevention (left ventricular ejection fraction ≤30% and New York Heart Association functional class II or III). We analyzed the clinical characteristics and outcomes of an ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICMP) group (n=131) and a non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICMP) group (n=144). The outcomes of these 2 groups were compared with the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial II (MADIT-II) conventional and Defibrillators in the Non-ischemic Cardiomyopathy Treatment Evaluation (DEFINITE) standard therapy groups,respectively. Results: Eighty patients (29%) died during a follow-up period of 40±17 months. The NICMP group had better all-cause mortality rates than the ICMP group (19% vs. 40%, p<0.001), however both groups had a similar incidence of SCD (7% vs. 10%, p=0.272). The 2-year all-cause mortality and SCD for the ICMP group were similar to those of the MADIT-II conventional therapy group (20% vs. 20%, 7% vs. 10%, respectively,all p>0.05). All-cause mortality and the incidence of SCD in the NICMP group were comparable to those of the DEFINITE standard therapy group (13% vs. 17%, 6% vs. 6%, respectively, all p>0.05). Conclusion: Korean patients with severe heart failure in both the ICMP and NICMP groups had all-caused mortality and risk of SCD comparable to patients in the MADIT-II and DEFINITE standard therapy groups. Therefore, the primary prevention criteria for ICD implantation would be appropriate in both Korean ICMP and NICMP patients.
Despite highly favorable conditions for cooperation, South Koreaand Japan have experienced almost constant diplomatic conflictsince the end of the Cold War, in large part because of unresolvedhistory disputes. Through the theoretical approach of symbolic politics,I examine the substance of these conflicts and the processes bywhich specific group identities affect policymaking in and the relationshipbetween the two countries. Based on three case studies Isuggest that diplomatic conflicts are the result of identity clashesbetween a group of Japanese conservative elites and the South Koreanpublic, manifested through the elite-led process of symbolicpolitics in Japan and the mass-led process in South Korea. Thesefindings help analysts understand the patterns that these conflictsexhibit and assess the prospects for future reconciliation betweenSouth Korea and Japan.
By a development of car navigation systems and mobile or positioning technology, it increases interest inlocation based services, especially pedestrian navigation systems. Updating of digital maps is important becausedigital maps are mass data and required to short updating cycle. In this paper, we proposed change detectionfor different network data-sets based on areal feature matching. Prior to change detection, we defined type ofupdating between different network data-sets. Next, we transformed road lines into areal features(block) thatare surrounded by them and calculated a shape similarity between blocks in different data-sets. Blocks that ashape similarity is more than 0.6 are selected candidate block pairs. Secondly, we detected changed-block pairsby bipartite graph clustering or properties of a concave polygon according to types of updating, and calculatedFréchet distance between segments within the block or forming it. At this time, road segments of KAIS mapthat Fréchet distance is more than 50 are extracted as updating road features. As a result of accuracy evaluation,a value of detection rate appears high at 0.965. We could thus identify that a proposed method is able to apply tochange detection between different network data-sets. 차량용 내비게이션의 빠른 확산과 스마트폰 등 개인 단말기의 측위 기술 발달로 사용자 중심위치기반서비스, 특히 보행자 내비게이션 서비스에 대한 관심이 증대되고 있다. 보행자 내비게이션 서비스를 위한 핵심정보인 수치지도는 대용량이고 짧은 갱신주기를 요구하는 경우가 많아 수치지도의 효율적인 갱신이 중요한 이슈가 된다. 본 연구에서는 구축시기가 상이한 이종의 도로망 데이터 셋에 형상유사도 기반 면 객체 매칭을 적용하여 변화 탐지하는 기법을 제안하였다. 변화탐지에 앞서 이종의 도로망 데이터 셋의 면 객체 매칭에서 탐지될 수 있는 갱신 유형을 정의하였다. 면 객체 매칭 기반 변화 탐지를 위하여 이종의 두 도로망 데이터 셋의 선형인 도로객체를 이들로 둘러싸인 면인 블록으로 변환하였다. 변환된 블록을 중첩하여 중첩된 블록 간의 형상유사도를 계산하고, 이 값이 0.6 이상인것을 후보 블록 쌍으로 추출하였다. 객체 유형별로 이분 그래프 군집화와 오목다각형 특성을 적용하여 정의된 갱신유형별 블록 쌍을 탐지하고, 해당 블록 쌍을 구성하거나 내부에 있는 도로 세그먼트 간의 프레셰 거리를 계산하였다. 이때, 프레셰 거리가 50 이상인 도로명주소기본도 도로구간의 도로객체가 갱신 도로객체로 추출된다. 그 결과0.965의 높은 탐색율을 보여 제안된 기법이 이종의 도로망 데이터 셋의 선형 객체의 변화탐지에 적용될 수 있음을확인할 수 있었다.
This study investigated if the meta-worry and thought suppression mediated the relationship between normal worry and pathological worry. Two hundred nine one undergraduate students participated in this study. They were asked to complete the questionnaires about anxiety thought inventory (AnTI), whiter bear suppression inventory (WBSI), worry anxiety questionnaire (WAQ). The results indicated that through the structural equation modeling, the partially mediation model about the influence of meta worry and thought suppression between normal worry and pathological worry was confirmed. The results suggest that if people assess worrying as uncontrollability and danger, they are apt to thought suppression. Finally, implications and limitations of this study and suggestions for future study were addressed. 본 연구에서는 보편적인 인지적 현상인 정상 걱정이 어떤 경로를 통해 병리적인 걱정에 영향을 주는지에 대해 이해하고자 하였다. 본 연구의 가설은 정상 걱정이 병리적인 걱정에 영향을 미치는데 있어 상위 걱정과 사고억제가 매개하는지를 검증하였다. 대학생 291 명에게 불안사고 척도, 사고억제 척도, 걱정불안 척도에 대한 질문지를 실시하고, 이 변인들 간의 관계를 구조방정식 모형 접근법을 사용하여 분석하였다. 구조방정식 분석 결과, 정상 걱정인 각각의 사회적 걱정과 건강 걱정이 병리적인 걱정에 영향을 미치는데 있어 상위 걱정과 사고억제가 부분 매개하는 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 결과를 바탕으로 걱정은 보통의 사람이라면 누구나 하는 보편적인 인지적 현상이지만, 걱정을 통제할 수 없고 위험하다고 생각할 경우 이러한 상위 걱정을 억제하기 위해 노력하게 되고 이런 사고억제가 오히려 불안을 증폭시킬 수 있다는 것을 시사한다. 마지막으로 본 연구의 시사점과 제한점 및 추후 연구를 위한 제언을 논의하였다.