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In order to examine differences of panic and psychiatric symptoms between panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder, the author compared 26 subjects with generalized anxiety disorder( contxol group) and 121 subjects with panic attacks(patients group), and 61 subjects with panic disorder(panic disorder group) and the others(panic group), who visited the neuropsychiatric clinic of Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital. Subjects with panic disorder were shown to have dyspnea, dizziness and fear of death more frequently than controls. Mean severity of symptoms in dyspnea, dizziness, trembling and fear of death were higher in patients with panic disorder than those in controls. Compared to controls, patients with panic disorder exhibited elevated score of phobic anxiety on self rating SCL-90-R
Phytic acid, making up 1-5% of the composition of many plant seeds and cereals, is known to form iron-chelates and inhibit lipid peroxidation. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), as an indication of lipid peroxidation, were measured in beef round, chicken breast, pork loin, and halibut muscle after the meats were stored for 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days at various temperatures [frozen (-20℃), refrigerator (4℃), and room temperature (25℃)]. Phytic acid effectively inhibited lipid peroxidation in beef round, chicken breast, halibut, and pork loin muscle (p$lt;0.05). The inhibitory effect of phytic acid was dependent on concentration, storage time, and temperature. At frozen temperature, the inhibitory effect of phytic acid was minimal, whereas at room temperature, the inhibitory effect of phytic acid was maximal, probably due to the variation of the control TBARS values. At the concentration of 10 mM, phytic acid completely inhibited lipid peroxidation in all the muscle foods by maintaining TBARS values close to the level of the controls, regardless of storage time or temperature (p$lt;0.05). The rate of lipid peroxidation was the highest in beef round muscle, although they had a close TBARS value at 0 day. Addition of phytic acid to lipid-containing foods such as meats, fish meal pastes, and canned seafoods may prevent lipid peroxidation, resulting in improvement of the sensory quality of many foods and prolonged shelf-life.
지역의 지식생태계 구축과 지역 엘리트 육성이라는 국립대학의 본질적 과제는 최근 상당한 도전 가 운데 직면해 있다. 이에 정부는 ‘거점국립대 집중 육성’을 주요 국정과제 중 하나로 채택하고 재정적 지원 역시 큰 폭으로 확대하였다. 하지만 재정 지원의 타당성에 대해서는 의견이 분분하다. 본고는 9개 거점국립대의 재정 현황을 서울소재 주요 사립대와의 비교 분석을 통해 가능한 객관적으로 평가해 보 고자 하였다. 이에 따르면, 학생 1인당 교육비에 있어서 거점국립대는 이미 서울소재 주요 사립대 수준 에 도달한 것으로 나타났다. R&D 지출과 장학금을 제외한 학생 1인당 ‘실제 순교육비’에 있어서는 소 폭 뒤처지는 것으로 나타났으나 그 격차는 빠르게 해소되고 있었다. 하지만, 이러한 수렴은 거점국립대 의 재정 개선보다는 주요 사립대의 재정 악화에 기인한 것으로 판단된다. 등록금 동결로 인해 국내 고 등교육 전반이 심각한 재정적 위기 가운데 처해 있음을 확인하고, ‘국립대학 육성사업’뿐만 아니라 다 방면의 고등교육 재정 확충 노력이 절실함을 강조한다. National universities’ essential task of building a regional knowledge ecosystem and fostering local elites has recently faced considerable challenges in South Korea. In response, the government has adopted the “full enrichment of major national universities” as one of its major state affairs tasks and expanded its financial support significantly. However, there are differing opinions on the feasibility of financial aid. This study evaluates the financial status of nine major national universities in South Korea through a comparative analysis with major private universities in Seoul. According to the analysis, the major national universities have already reached the level of major private universities in Seoul. In terms of net educational expenditure per student, excluding R&D spending and scholarships, the major national universities were found to lag slightly behind the level of major private universities in Seoul, but the gap was quickly narrowing. However, it was confirmed that the convergence was due to the worsening financial conditions of major private universities rather than the financial improvement of the major national universities. Confirming that the nation’s higher education system is in a serious financial crisis due to the tuition fee freeze, we emphasize the urgent need for efforts to expand financial resources for higher education in various areas as well as to continue the “National University Fostering Project.”
This study aims at the descriptive methods and characteristics of modern literary history of North Korea(1900 ~ 1945). The literary history of North Korea shows the following characteristics. 1. The literary history of N.K. aims at mainly the idealogical education of the common people. 2. That literary history excludes the personal opinions and methodologies of writers of history, because it depends upon the literary theories and the literary policy of Communist Party. 3. The literary history of N.K. is described by pragmatic theories more than expressive theories. Therefore it searches for the analysis of themes mainly but slights the analysis of forms and styles of literature. 4. The periodical divisions are focused on the centries, the dynasties, the ages by theories of Ordnungsbegriff. Therefore it concentrates upon not the internal changes of literature but the external changes. 5. The starting point of modern literature is regulated at the latter half of the 19th century and the starting point of renewed modern literature is the year 1926. 6. The literary history of N.K. rejects the theories of traditional breaking and cultural transplantation but accepts the theory of traditional succession and the materialism. 7. The principle of exclusion and inclusion is applied to the territory of description. Oral literature and words of singsong are included and the classical concept of songs and poems is applied in that history. On the contrary, the writers and the literary trends of thought are localized upon socialist realism. But 「Cho-sun Mun-Hak Gae-gyan」(1986) magnified the territory of description. 8. The literary history of N.K. attaches importance to the drama, the juvenile literature, the proletarian literature and the anti-Japanese literature. 9. The methodology of description is historicism, Marx-Leninism and subjectivism (「Ju-che Sa-sang」). It attaches importance to socialist realism, revolutionary romanticism and the theories of opposition and characterization.
Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in nasal growth after the implementation of a preoperative nasal retainer in patients with bilateral incomplete cleft lip. Methods Twenty-six infants with bilateral incomplete cleft lip and cleft palate were included in the study. A preoperative nasal retainer was applied in 5 patients from the time of birth to 2.6–3.5 months before primary cheiloplasty. Twenty-one patients who were treated without a preoperative nasal retainer were placed in the control group. Standard frontal, basal, and lateral view photographs were taken 3 weeks before cheiloplasty, immediately after cheiloplasty, and at the 1- and 3-year postoperative follow-up visits. The columella and nasal growth ratio and nasolabial angle were indirectly measured using photographic anthropometry. Results The ratio of columella length to nasal tip protrusion significantly increased after the implementation of a preoperative nasal retainer compared to the control group for up to 3 years postoperatively (P<0.01 for all time points). The ratios of nasal width to facial width, nasal width to intercanthal distance, columellar width to nasal width, and the nasolabial angle, for the two groups were not significantly different at any time point. Conclusions Implementation of a preoperative nasal retainer provided significant advantages for achieving columellar elongation for up to 3 years postoperatively. It is a simple, reasonable option for correcting nostril shape, preventing deformities, and guiding development of facial structures.
Heavy Rainfall event accompanying with Mesoscale Convective Systems(MCSs) inducing flash flooding and Muan and Kunsan Airport closing over Jeollabuk-do area was investigated this study. Comparing to previous study(I), this heavy rainfall event was characterized by much abundant moisture from Typhoon, strong conditional convective instability, and cluster type MCSs. It almost impossible to make accurate forecasting of precipitation amounts and life cycle of MCSs unless proper analysis.
The purpose of this research is to explore the logic of sensation and its educational implications. Deleuze made up his mind to become the pupil who would learn the art in order to break through the state of the philosophical stringency. He judged the art to be the other of the philosophy, and among the genres of the art, he chose with prudence the modern painter Bacon and his paintings. Deleuze wanted to know, from Bacon’s paintings and his interviews with Sylvester, how it was possible to create new sensations. His work F. Bacon: logique de la sensation published at 1981 is the result of his experience as a learner about Bacon’s paintings and words. The theory on the genesis of sensation is convertible to the theory on the pedagogy of sensation under two conditions, the creativity of sensation and the profundity of genesis. If there were not Bacon’s paintings and words which gave rise to new sensation, there would not be Deleuze’s theory on the pedagogy of sensation. At the same time, if there were not Deleuze’s learning, Bacon’s works would remain the possible. The logic of sensation is not only applicable to the theory on painting or art, but to the philosophy that has the task to create new concepts. Furthermore, the logic of sensation can give the science of education a model of fusion/convergence education. 철학자 Gilles Deleuze는 철학의 한계를 돌파하기 위하여 철학의 타자인 예술에 접근하며 스스로 배우는 자가 되기로 결심한다. 그는 예술 장르 중에서도 가장 신체-감각적인 회화에, 회화 중에서도 회화의 전 역사를 요약하는 현대 회화에 주목한다. 그중에서도 그는 화가 Francis Bacon의 회화와 인터뷰를 선택하여, 그로부터 감각의 논리를 길러낸다. 베이컨의 회화와 인터뷰로부터 어떻게 새로운 감각과 창조적 사유가 생성될 수 있는지 알아낸 들뢰즈는 그 결과를『프란시스 베이컨: 감각의 논리』라는 저서로 발간한다. 이 저서에 개진된 그의 감각의 논리는 회화가 새로운 감각을 어떻게 생산하는가에 관한 이론이면서, 동시에 철학이 회화에 매혹되고 그로부터 자극을 받아 창안한 이론이기도 하다. 그리하여 감각의 논리는 회화와 철학 모두에게 ‘감각의 사유발생의 논리’가 된다. 이처럼 들뢰즈에게 있어서 예술은 개념의 창안을 목적으로 하는 철학에 대하여 발생적 기반이 된다. 들뢰즈의 감각의 논리는 하나의 회화론이나 예술론에 그치지 않고, 개념의 창안을 과업으로 하는 철학에도 중요한 모델이 되며, 몇 가지 조건을 부가하면 교육의 논리에 적용될 수 있다. 그리고 감각의 논리는 교육학 분야에 있어서도, 철학과 예술과의 융복합교육에 중요한 시사점을 제공할 수 있다.
The purpose of this study is to discuss the value and role of religion in connection with the philosophical concept of eros. In addition, based on the concept of eros, which plays a central role in Plato's philosophical thinking, the subject of discussion is expanded and unfolded into the relationship between the finiteness of human existence and the role of religion. The contents of this study were as follows. First, the concept of eros has the character of critically reflecting on the current state. Second, thinking of eros has the character of a work that unites two disconnected objects. Third, in the character of eros thinking, there was a potential for a regression to one's original form as well as a dual and mesophilic meaning. The results of this study were as follows. First, there was an alternative reason for thinking of eros that presents hope for life to modern people suffering and despair in today's society. Second, religion was able to make the future of modern people positive by realizing the values of communication and coexistence only when it was based on the thinking of eros. 이 연구의 목적은 종교 본연의 가치와 역할을 에로스(eros)라는 철학적 개념과 연계하여 논의한다. 또한 플라톤의 철학적 사유에서 중심적인 역할을 담당하는 에로스 개념을 근간으로 하여 논의의 주제를 인간 존재의 유한성 문제와 종교의 역할이라는 관계로 확대하여 전개한다. 이 연구의 내용은 다음과 같았다. 첫째, 에로스 개념은 현재의 상태를 비판적으로 성찰하는 성격을 지녔다. 둘째, 에로스적 사유는 단절된 두 개의 대상을 하나로 묶는 작업으로서의 성격을 지녔다. 셋째, 에로스적 사유의 성격에는 이중적이면서도 중간자적인 의미와 함께 자기 본연의 모습으로의 회귀라는 의미도 잠재되어 있었다. 이 연구의 결과는 다음과 같았다. 첫째, 에로스적 사유에는 오늘날 사회에서 고통받고 절망하는 현대인에게 삶의 희망을 제시하는 대안적 사유가 있었다. 둘째, 종교도 에로스적 사유를 근간으로 할 때 비로소 소통과 공존의 가치를 구현하여 현대인의 미래를 긍정적으로 만들 수 있었다.