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Purpose: Few studies have reported ovarian cancer risks in Korean patients with the BRCA1/2 mutation. We investigated the prevalence of ovarian cancer in Korean women at high risk for hereditary breast-ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome and reviewed the clinicopathological factors of ovarian cancer. Methods: Female subjects who were enrolled in the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer study were included.The questionnaire included a personal and family history of cancer. The BRCA1/2 mutation and CA-125 level were tested at the time of enrollment. A transvaginal ultrasonogram (TVUS) was recommended for subjects with an elevated CA-125 level. Results: A total of 1,689 patients were included.No ovarian cancer was newly diagnosed by CA-125 level or TVUS during the enrollment. The prevalence of ovarian cancer was 1.71% in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and 0.39% in non-carriers. Among 11 patients with ovarian cancer, five had the BRCA1 mutation and one had the BRCA2 mutation. The most common histopathological type was serous cystadenocarcinoma.No difference in clinicopathological findings between BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and non-carriers was observed. Conclusion: The prevalence of ovarian cancer was 58-fold elevated in women at high-risk for HBOC syndrome and 146-fold elevated in the BRCA1 subgroup, compared with the Korean general population. Further investigation with a long-term follow-up is required to evaluate BRCA1/2 gene penetrance.
Among many adverse effects of docetaxel, fluid retention is a well recognized, cumulative side effect, but severe fluid retention is rare. We report here on a case of docetaxelinduced severe fluid retention with peripheral edema, pleural effusion, severe ascites and pericardial effusion in a 41-yearold woman. She had been treated with 3 cycles of docetaxel 9 days previously and she was admitted to our hospital due to abdominal distention and mild dyspnea. Radiologic studies revealed pleural effusion, severe ascites and a small pericardial effusion. Diuretics were given for 21 days. The pleural effusion was resolved after treatment with diuretics for 2 days, but the ascites wasn’t resolved until 14 days of diuretics. After treatment with diuretics for 21 days, all the symptoms of the patient were completely resolved. Early detection is mandatory and diuretics are very effective for patient suffering with docetaxel-induced severe fluid retention.
Purpose: Breast cancer is heterogeneous disease and the response to chemotherapeutic agents is also heterogeneous from patient to patient. Chemotherapy response assay is in vitro test that is performed to evaluate the degree of tumor growth inhibition by chemotherapy drugs. In this study, we performed the chemotherapy response assay using adenosine triphosphate (ATP-CRA) in breast cancer patients and assessed the clinical availability. Methods: Sixty five breast cancer patients were enrolled in this study. Cancer cells were evenly divided and treated with commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs in breast cancer (doxorubicin, epirubicin, 5-fluorouracil, paclitaxel, docetaxel, vinorelbine, and gemcitabine). To verify in vitro ATP-CRA indirectly, we analyzed the correlation between cell death rate (CDR) of doxorubicin and epirubicin, and between doxorubicin and paclitaxel. We also analyzed the mean CDR of doxorubicin, epirubicin and paclitaxel by HER2 status. Results: We could successfully perform the ATP-CRA in 60 patients (95.2%). In all cases, we can get the results within 7 days. The range of CDR was very wide, from 0 to more than 50%, except gemcitabine. Epirubicin showed the highest mean CDR (39.9%) and doxorubicin, paclitaxel in order. According to the chemosensitivity index, paclitaxel is the most frequently first-ranked and doxorubicin, epirubicin in order. Correlation coefficient between the cell death rate of doxorubicin and epirubicin is 0.4210 and 0.1299 between paclitaxel and doxorubicin. In HER2 positive group, mean CDR of paclitaxel, epirubicin and doxorubicin was higher than in HER2 negative group, even though epirubicin and doxorubicin were not statistically significant (p=0.018, p=0.114, p=0.311, respectively). Conclusion: ATP-CRA showed heterogeneous results in individual patients. ATP-CRA was successful and can be performed within short time period. According to our in vitro study, it showed similar results with in vivo study but for the clinical use, the prospective randomized controlled trial should be preceded.
Purpose: We wanted to assess the clinical efficacy of breastspecific gamma imaging (BSGI) as compared with that of conventional imaging modalities (mammography, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging) as a preoperative examination for patients with breast cancer. Methods: From April to May 2009, a retrospective review was performed for the prospectively collected 143 patients who were diagnosed with breast cancer. All the patients received a conventional imaging examination and BSGI before definitive surgery. The patients underwent BSGI with intravenous injection of 30 mCi of 99mTc-sestamibi through the contralateral antecubital vein. After 10 minutes, the craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique images were obtained. All the imaging findings were correlated with the final pathologic examination. Results: The mean age of the patients was 49.7±9.4 years (range, 27-77). In 143 patients, 166 malignant lesions were identified by pathologic examination (invasive cancer: 96 (67.1%), ductal carcinoma in situ 14 (9.8%) and invasive cancer with carcinoma in situ 33 (23.1%). The conventional imaging modalities found 166 malignant lesions and BSGI found 156 malignant lesions. The rate of correspondence was 94.0% between the conventional imaging modalities and BSGI for malignant lesions. For BSGI, there were 4 false positive findings and 10 false negative findings. BSGI found no occult cancers that were missed by conventional imaging modality. For making the diagnosis of axillary lymph node metastasis, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 33.3%, 92.1%, and 69.9% for BSGI, and 55.6%, 77.5%, and 69.2%, for ultrasonography, respectively. Conclusion: BSGI may have the potentiality to make a correct diagnosis in breast cancer patients. However, in this study, it seems that BSGI is not superior to conventional imaging modalities. BSGI is not a standard method to evaluate breast cancer lesions before surgery.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify biopsychosocial predictors of the quality of life in breast cancer patients. Disease factors (disease stage, type of surgery, type of treatment, family history), personal factors (age,education level, income), and psychosocial factors (psychological symptoms, optimism, self-esteem, husband’s support, cancer coping) were included in biopsychosocial predictors. Methods: A total of 128 breast cancer patients were recruited. Subjects were assessed by the Optimism Scale, the Selfesteem Scale, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Breast Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-BR23), the Symptom Checklist-90-Revision (SCL-90-R), and the Korean Cancer Coping Questionnaire (KCCQ). Results: Disease factors and personal factors were not different between the high and low quality of life group. But the psychosocial factors were significantly different. Somatization, anxiety, depression, interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, and phobic anxiety showed significantly lower scores in the high quality of life group than the low group. Optimism, self-esteem and husband’s support showed significantly higher score in the high quality of life group than the low group. In a stepwise multiple regression analysis, not disease factors and personal factors but the psychosocial factors significantly predicted the quality of life in breast cancer patients. Especially, somatization and depression significantly predicted the quality of life. Conclusion: Among psychosocial factors, somatization and depression were the most significant predictors of the quality of life in breast cancer patients. These results supported psychosocial intervention should be needed to breast cancer patients, in order to improve the quality of life.
Purpose: The extracellular domain (ECD) of the HER-2/neu oncoprotein, whose molecular weight is the range from the 95 kD to 105 kD, is shed into the blood from the cell surface via, proteolysis by a metalloprotease. A monoclonal antibody immunoassay has been developed for measuring the circulating concentrations of serum HER-2/neu ECD (following serum HER-2/neu). Serum HER-2/neu has been reported to be correlated with an increased tumor volume in those patients suffering with breast cancer. We measured the serum CA15-3 level, which is a surrogate marker of the tumor burden, we analyzed the correlation of the serum CA15-3 with the serum HER-2/neu and we analyzed the association of both markers with the clinical outcomes. Methods: The sera for the analysis of both HER-2/neu and CA15-3 were obtained from 99 healthy Korean women, 66 primary breast cancer patients and 43 metastatic breast caner patients. The serum HER-2/neu level was measured quantitatively with using an ADVIA CentaurⓇ automated immunoassay analyzer (Bayer Health Care LLC, Diagnostics Division, Tarrytown, USA) and the CA 15-3 level was measured via radioimmunoassay. Results: The serum HER-2/neu level was increased 23 metastatic cancer patients (53%). On the analysis of the correlation of serum HER-2/neu and CA15-3, the correlation coefficient (r) was 0.8072. Thus a positive serum HER-2/neu test in breast cancer patients was highly associated with the CA15-3 level for assessing whether metastasis was present or not. For the relationship between primary breast cancer and metastatic breast cancer, the former was classified as the control group and the latter as the patient group. The results of the ROC (Receiver Operation Characteristic) curve for serum HER-2/neu and CA15-3 showed no statistically significant differences (p=0.176) but the diagnostic efficacy of the serum HER-2/neu test was measured more exactly than that of CA15-3 and CA15-3 a tool for measuring a tumor marker for the diagnosis of whether metastasis was present or not. Conclusions: Serum HER-2/neu is a significant independent predictive prognostic factor for metastatic breast cancer patients. In view of the results we have achieved so far the serum HER-2/neu level in metastatic breast cancer patients may play an important roll as an independent tumor marker.
Purpose: To estimate the cumulative risk till each age (penetrance) of breast and ovarian cancers among female family members with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation. Methods: Among the 61 BRCA1 mutation carriers in the 42 families and 47 BRCA2 mutation carriers in 31 families identified at 5 academic breast clinics, the probands were excluded to estimate the cumulative risk till each age of breast cancer in the Korean BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Using Kaplan-Meier analyses, cumulative cancer risk estimates were determined. Results: By the age 70, the female breast cancer risk for the BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers was 72.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]=59.5% to 84.8%) and 66.3% (95% CI=41.2% to 91.5%), respectively, and the ovarian cancer risk was 24.6% (95% CI=0% to 50.3%) and 11.1% (95% CI=0% to 31.6%), respectively. The contralateral breast cancer risk at 5 years after primary breast cancer was estimated as 16.2% (95% CI=9.3% to 23.1%) for the 52 breast cancer patients with the BRCA1 mutation and 17.3% (95% CI=9.7% to 24.0%) for the 35 breast cancer patients with the BRCA2 mutation. Conclusion: The penetrance of BRCA mutations in Korea is largely consistent with the previous studies on Western populations. However, the small number of the cases, the high proportions of probands in the study subjects, the short term follow-up, and large confidence intervals are the limitations of the current study. The Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer Study (KOHBRA Study) may definitely answer this question.
Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate the change in the practice patterns for managing hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) among Korean physicians after the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) study. Methods: The first survey was performed from July to August 2007, at the initiation of the KOHBRA study, and the followup survey was conducted from July to December 2009. Members of the Korean Breast Cancer Society were invited to participate in the study by e-mail. The 2009 survey was conducted with a self-administered questionnaire concerning HBOC management and was identical to the previous questionnaire. Results: According to the 2009 survey, most physicians (60.0%) tended to draw a pedigree (48.0% in 2007 survey). The rate of genetic test recommendations for patients at risk for HBOC was higher in the 2009 survey (84.0%) than that in the 2007 survey (64.0%). Physicians tended to select a BRCA genetic testing candidate more appropriately than in the previous survey (42.4% answered right in 2007 survey; 74.4% in 2009 survey). Fifteen of 25 participants (60.0%) provided genetic counseling before their patients underwent a genetic test, which was higher than that (40.0%) in the 2007survey. According to the 2009 survey, half of the genetic counseling was being conducted by KOHBRA study research nurses; whereas most of the genetic counseling was conducted by physicians in 2007. Conclusion: The KOHBRA study has played an important role in the appropriate selection of candidates for genetic testing. However, more effort should be placed on improving the pre-test genetic counseling rate.
In women at high-risk for breast cancer with a BRCA mutation, bilateral prophylactic mastectomy (BPM) may achieve a risk reduction. A 35-year-old woman had a strong family history of breast and ovarian cancer. She had a regular checkup and found masses in both breasts that confirmed intraductal papillomas and atypical ductal hyperplasia after vacuum assisted mass excision. When she was referred to our clinic, the genetic testing for BRCA mutation was recommended to her sister that managed for ovarian cancer. It was resulted in the positive for the BRCA2 mutation, so she had checked the genetic testing which resulted in the same as the mutation. After sufficient counseling, she decided to undergo BPM and immediate reconstruction. She is satisfied with the result of surgery. This is the first report of BPM of asymptomatic BRCA2 mutation carrier in Korea and BPM should be considered as a risk-reducing option for BRCA mutation carriers.