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        • 세침흡인 검사물을 이용한 유방암세포 에스트로젠수용체 분석 : 동결절편조직과의 비교

          공경엽,안세현,박건춘,최기영,유은실,이인철,Gong, Gyung-Yub,Ahn, Se-Hyun,Park, Kun-Choon,Choe, Ghee-Young,Yu, Eun-Sil,Lee, In-Chul 대한세포병리학회 1994 대한세포병리학회지 Vol.5 No.1

          The expression of sex steroid hormone receptors by neoplastic cells is an important predictor of response to hormone therapy. Thus, the selection of treatment modality is often based on the identification of receptors in tumor tissue. Various monoclonal antibodies of high specificity are now available for analyzing the estrogen receptor (ER). With these antibodies, biochemical enzyme immunoassay and immunohistochemistry using histologic sections have been used for ER analysis. We used fine needle aspirates from 15 human primary breast carinomas for the analysis of ERs. The semiquantitative receptor values obtained in cytologic specimens were correlated well with those from histologic specimens. The results of ER in fine needle aspirates were concordant with ER in histologic specimens(r=0.94). Only three cases showed a little difference in staining intensity and proportion of positive cells. Our results showed a good correlation between the receptor values determined in cytologic smears and those determined in tissue sections. It is suggested that measurement of the ER in cytologic smears may be a reliable technique which can be performed on aspiration cytologic samples.

        • KCI등재후보

          호르몬 수용체 면역조직화학염색 검사법의 검사실 간 차이에 대한 다기관 연구

          공경엽,박인애,이아원 한국유방암학회 2010 Journal of breast cancer Vol.13 No.1

          Purpose: The expression of hormone receptors is the most reliable factor for predicting the responsiveness to hormonal therapy. At present, immunohistochemistry (IHC) is considered as a practically reliable method. This study was designed to examine the interlaboratory variance in immunohistochemical assays for estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) in Korea. Methods: The Korean Study Group for Breast Pathology (KSGBP) made a questionnaire to know the current situation in HR assay in Korea. The questionnaire was sent to the members of KSGBP by e-mail, which were included eight questions relating to tissue handling, ER/PR IHC procedure and interpretation method. Forty laboratories replied with the completed questionnaire. Results: All 40 laboratories were using formalin as a fixative. Pretreatment was performed using six different methods including autoclave (25%), microwave (30%) and full autostainer (15%). Primary antibodies for ER were SP1 in 40%, 6F11 in 27.5% and 1D5 in 32.5%. Primary antibodies for PR were more variable (seven clones) than those for ER. Interpretation method used was Allred system in 20%, modified Allred system in 15%, report the % of positive tumor cells in 45%, positive/ negative in 15% and others in 5%. The expression rate of ER was ranged from 45.6% to 93% (mean 63.5%) and the expression rate of PR was ranged from 27% to 90% (mean 59.1%). The differences according to the numbers of breast cancer in each institute, primary antibodies, detection systems and interpretation methods did not influence to the expression rate of ER/PR, statistically (p>0.05). Conclusion: In Korea, the interlaboratory variance in ER/PR IHC procedure was too huge to make a standardized method. We suggest the proper quality control program such as ER/PR staining with positive internal and external controls and negative control might be better to aim at getting similar results among the different laboratories rather than trying to standardize the procedure.

        • KCI등재
        • KCI등재
        • 유방의 세침흡인 세포검사 : 진단적 접근

          공경엽,Gong, Gyung-Yub 대한세포병리학회 2007 대한세포병리학회지 Vol.18 No.2

          Fine needle aspiration has been widely used to diagnose of breast lesions whether they are malignant or not. When applied by experienced and well-trained practitioners, its accuracy can approach that of histopathology. In order to make optimal use of FNAB in breast lesions, this article has reviewed the criteria for sample adequacy, the diagnostic terminology and the cytomorphologic approach to making a diagnosis and avoiding diagnostic pitfalls.

        • 요 세포검사의 최근 검사기법

          공경엽,Gong, Gyung-Yub 대한세포병리학회 2006 대한세포병리학회지 Vol.17 No.1

          Transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is common in the genitourinary tract. The gold standard for the diagnosis of bladder cancer has been cystoscopy, along with urine cytology. Cystoscopy is an invasive and relatively expensive technique. By comparison, urine cytology is easy to perform and specific for a diagnosis of bladder cancer, although less sensitive, especially in low-grade tumors. For this reason, there has been a need for superior noninvasive technology to increase our confidence in being able to detect bladder cancer. There are many reports of the various urinary tests that are available to facilitate the diagnosis. In this article, I reviewed the literature on urinary markers and tests that may be clinically useful, including fluorescence in situ hybridization, uCyt+/Immunocyte, the $BTA^{(R)}$ test, the NMP 22TM, the $FDP^{(R)}$ test, the telomerase activity test, the HA and HAse tests, and flow cytometry. Most of these tests have a higher sensitivity and specificity than cytology. However, urine cytology has the highest specificity, especially in individuals with a high-grade tumor. We conclude that no urinary markers or tests can replace the role of cystoscopy along with cytology in the diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. However, some markers could be used adjunctively to increase the diagnostic accuracy during screening or during the postoperative follow-up examination of patients with bladder cancer.

        • KCI등재

          Growth Responses and Regrowth to Low Temperature of Nine Native Moss Species

          공경엽,정경진,이상우,윤재길 인간식물환경학회 2019 인간식물환경학회지 Vol.22 No.6

          Moss is used as an important material in indoor landscaping as well as outdoor landscaping. Moss is vivid green during growth and excellent in ornamental value. But when temperature drops, moss stops growth, turns brown or loses its ornamental value. In the present experiment, for the purpose of classifying native mosses according to the growth response to low temperature, the temperature of the plant growth chamber was set to 15℃/5℃ (16h/8h, day/night) and 5℃ (24h) for 8 weeks using nine native moss species. Thereafter, the temperature of the plant growth chamber was set to 20℃, and then the changes of moss block area and moss color were measured. The changes of moss block area and moss color were measured using a Photoshop program, after each moss block was photographed. As a result, Atrichum undulatum (Hedw.). Beauv., Etodon luridus (Griff.) A. Jaeger, Bachythecium plumosum (Hedw.) Schimp, Plagiomnium cuspidatum (Hedw.) T.J. Kop, and Hypnum plumaeforme Wilson showed a small decrease in moss block area at low temperature, and their recovery were the fastest at 20℃. These three species had higher green values at low temperature compared to other species, and the greenness increased rapidly at 20℃. On the other hand, Atrichum undulatum (Hedw.). Beauv., Marchantia polymorpha L., and Thuidium cymbifolium (Mitt.) A. Jaeger showed the smallest block area at low temperature and the lowest recovery even at 20℃. Their green values also decreased significantly at low temperature, and maintained low green value even at 20℃. These results showed that these three moss species are sensitive to low temperature. The remaining Myuroclada maximowiczii, Plagiomnium cuspidatum, and H. erectiusculum showed moderate responses to low temperature compared to other six species of mosses.

        • KCI등재

          Metastatic Tumors to the Breast from Extramammary Malignancies

          공경엽,박봉희,이용희,안세현,김학희,김성배 대한병리학회 2010 Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine Vol.44 No.1

          Background : Metastases to the breast from extramammary malignancies are very rare. We describe here the clinicopathologic features of the metastatic breast tumors that were identified in Korean patients at a single institute. Methods : We analyzed the clinicopathologic data of the patients who were diagnosed between January 1989 and April 2009 at Asan Medical Center. Results : Only 31 (0.21%) patients with metastases to the breast from extramammary malignancies were diagnosed over a 20-year period, and 29 of them had available data. The mean time to the diagnosis of metastasis after the diagnosis of the primary malignancy was 21 months (range, 0 to 102 months). The most common primary site was the stomach, followed by the uterus and lung. The most common histologic type was adenocarcinoma. A common clinical presentation was a unilateral palpable mass. Most metastatic tumors had morphological features that were similar to those of their respective primary tumors. However, in situ carcinoma, microcalcification and desmoplastic reactions were rarely observed. Conclusions : Metastatic breast lesions from extramammary sites are extremely rare, and the stomach, uterus and lung could be considered as the common primary sites in Korean patients. The clinical history and comparing the morphology of the primary tumor with the morphology of the metastatic tumor are important for achieving the proper diagnosis.

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