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Purpose: The expression of hormone receptors is the most reliable factor for predicting the responsiveness to hormonal therapy. At present, immunohistochemistry (IHC) is considered as a practically reliable method. This study was designed to examine the interlaboratory variance in immunohistochemical assays for estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) in Korea. Methods: The Korean Study Group for Breast Pathology (KSGBP) made a questionnaire to know the current situation in HR assay in Korea. The questionnaire was sent to the members of KSGBP by e-mail, which were included eight questions relating to tissue handling, ER/PR IHC procedure and interpretation method. Forty laboratories replied with the completed questionnaire. Results: All 40 laboratories were using formalin as a fixative. Pretreatment was performed using six different methods including autoclave (25%), microwave (30%) and full autostainer (15%). Primary antibodies for ER were SP1 in 40%, 6F11 in 27.5% and 1D5 in 32.5%. Primary antibodies for PR were more variable (seven clones) than those for ER. Interpretation method used was Allred system in 20%, modified Allred system in 15%, report the % of positive tumor cells in 45%, positive/ negative in 15% and others in 5%. The expression rate of ER was ranged from 45.6% to 93% (mean 63.5%) and the expression rate of PR was ranged from 27% to 90% (mean 59.1%). The differences according to the numbers of breast cancer in each institute, primary antibodies, detection systems and interpretation methods did not influence to the expression rate of ER/PR, statistically (p>0.05). Conclusion: In Korea, the interlaboratory variance in ER/PR IHC procedure was too huge to make a standardized method. We suggest the proper quality control program such as ER/PR staining with positive internal and external controls and negative control might be better to aim at getting similar results among the different laboratories rather than trying to standardize the procedure.
Experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of mosses on the removal of particulate matter (PM 10) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an indoor space and on the composition of air. For particulate matter removal experiments, 0.2 g mosquitto coil was burned in a glass chamber, where three kinds of mosses (Plagiomnium cuspidatum, Myuroclada maximowiczii, Etodon luridus) were placed. For VOCs removal experiments, 1 mL paint thinner was volatilized in a glass chamber, where Plagiomnium cuspidatum and Myuroclada maximowiczii were used. As a result, it was found that particulate matter was effectively removed by the three mosses, and the removal efficiency of particulate matter increased as the amount of mosses increased. The amount of VOCs was similar to the level in the control when a low amount of mosses (2 and 4 plates) was used. However, the removal efficiency of VOCs was significant when 6 plates of mosses were used. On the other hand, formaldehyde concentration was 40 times more than the control and carbon monoxide 30 times, when 0.2 g of mosquito repellent was completely burned in a glass chamber. Also formaldehyde removal effect was significant when 6 plates of mosses were placed. However, there was no change in the concentration of indoor oxygen, temperature and humidity by moss plants. In conclusion, the moss plants were effective in removing particulate matter and VOCs, and they are expected to be used for indoor decoration and landscape in order to improve indoor air quality in the future.
Moss is used as an important material in indoor landscaping as well as outdoor landscaping. Moss is vivid green during growth and excellent in ornamental value. But when temperature drops, moss stops growth, turns brown or loses its ornamental value. In the present experiment, for the purpose of classifying native mosses according to the growth response to low temperature, the temperature of the plant growth chamber was set to 15℃/5℃ (16h/8h, day/night) and 5℃ (24h) for 8 weeks using nine native moss species. Thereafter, the temperature of the plant growth chamber was set to 20℃, and then the changes of moss block area and moss color were measured. The changes of moss block area and moss color were measured using a Photoshop program, after each moss block was photographed. As a result, Atrichum undulatum (Hedw.). Beauv., Etodon luridus (Griff.) A. Jaeger, Bachythecium plumosum (Hedw.) Schimp, Plagiomnium cuspidatum (Hedw.) T.J. Kop, and Hypnum plumaeforme Wilson showed a small decrease in moss block area at low temperature, and their recovery were the fastest at 20℃. These three species had higher green values at low temperature compared to other species, and the greenness increased rapidly at 20℃. On the other hand, Atrichum undulatum (Hedw.). Beauv., Marchantia polymorpha L., and Thuidium cymbifolium (Mitt.) A. Jaeger showed the smallest block area at low temperature and the lowest recovery even at 20℃. Their green values also decreased significantly at low temperature, and maintained low green value even at 20℃. These results showed that these three moss species are sensitive to low temperature. The remaining Myuroclada maximowiczii, Plagiomnium cuspidatum, and H. erectiusculum showed moderate responses to low temperature compared to other six species of mosses.
The expression of sex steroid hormone receptors by neoplastic cells is an important predictor of response to hormone therapy. Thus, the selection of treatment modality is often based on the identification of receptors in tumor tissue. Various monoclonal antibodies of high specificity are now available for analyzing the estrogen receptor (ER). With these antibodies, biochemical enzyme immunoassay and immunohistochemistry using histologic sections have been used for ER analysis. We used fine needle aspirates from 15 human primary breast carinomas for the analysis of ERs. The semiquantitative receptor values obtained in cytologic specimens were correlated well with those from histologic specimens. The results of ER in fine needle aspirates were concordant with ER in histologic specimens(r=0.94). Only three cases showed a little difference in staining intensity and proportion of positive cells. Our results showed a good correlation between the receptor values determined in cytologic smears and those determined in tissue sections. It is suggested that measurement of the ER in cytologic smears may be a reliable technique which can be performed on aspiration cytologic samples.
Fine needle aspiration has been widely used to diagnose of breast lesions whether they are malignant or not. When applied by experienced and well-trained practitioners, its accuracy can approach that of histopathology. In order to make optimal use of FNAB in breast lesions, this article has reviewed the criteria for sample adequacy, the diagnostic terminology and the cytomorphologic approach to making a diagnosis and avoiding diagnostic pitfalls.