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For screening test of the non-volatile compounds which migrate from food packaging materials into foodstuffs, the traditional high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) systems suffer from the lack of universal detector with high sensitivity and universality and high efficiency HPLC separation column which provides complete separation of complex mixtures into all individual substances. In this work, the use possibility of online two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) system coupled with a charged aerosol detector (CAD), a universal detector, was reviewed. 2D-LC system permits to improve peak capacity and resolving power for complex mixtures. Charged aerosol detector (CAD) offers a new feasibility for detection of any non-volatile compounds with high sensitivity and constant response factor in a calibration range. The combination of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and normal phase HPLC (NP-HPLC) is most frequently used for the separation of the natural and synthetic polymers which are mainly used as raw materials for the manufacture of food packaging materials. However, there is no commercial software available for data acquisition and handling and therefore the quantification in 2D-LC analysis is still rare.
The prognostic factors for extrahepatic biliary atresia (EHBA) after Kasai portoenterostomy include the patient's age at portoenterostomy (age), size of bile duct in theporta hepatis (size), clearance of jaundice after operation (clearance) and the surgeon's experience. The aim of this study is to examine the most significant prognostic factor of EHBA after Kasai portoenterostomy. This retrospective study was done in 51 cases of EHBA that received Kasai portoenterostomy by one pediatric surgeon. For the statistical analysis, Kaplan-Meier method, Logrank test and Cox regression test were used. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. Fifteen patients were regarded as dead in this study, including nine cases of liver transplantation. There was no significant difference of survival to age. The age is also not a significant risk factor for survival in this study (Cox Regression test; p = 0.63). There was no significant difference in survival in relation to the size of bile duct. However, bile duct size was a significant risk factor for survival (Cox Regression test; p = 0.002). There was a significant difference in relation to survival and clearance (Kaplan-Meier method; p = 0.02). The clearing was also a significant risk factor for survival (Cox Regression test; p = 0.001). The clearance of jaundice is the most significant prognostic factor of EHBA after Kasai portoenterostomy.
To investigate the causes of the thermal deformations of packaging materials when microwave-heating ready-to-eat sauce products packaged in stand-up pouches, patterns of temperature changes were determined using an infra-red thermal imaging camera, a thermo-sensitive tape, and a fiver-optic thermometer. The temperature distributions of spicy chicken sauce and Indian curry samples in a stand-up pouch were found to be uneven during micrewave heating. A sharp increase in the temperature was detected, especially above the filling layers and in the corners of sealing layers of the package. The temperature measurements using an infra-red thermal imaging camera are restricted to the surface, and therefore might underestimate the actual temperature. Using a thermo-sensitive tape, temperature up to 200℃ were measured in the spicy chicken sauce sample showing package deformation. When the temperature is measured using a fiber-optic thermometer, it is crucial to have precise sensor performance to accurately measure the temperature in a narrow hot-spot area of the package. In this experiment, the fiber-optic thermometer was attached to a GaAs crystal sensor, which obtained more sensitive and accurate temperature measurements than those by a convectional sensor.