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      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        액체구조에 관한 천이상태이론의 물에 대한 적용

        박형석,장세현,Pak, Hyung-Suk,Chang, Sei-Hun 대한화학회 1966 대한화학회지 Vol.10 No.2

        The partition function for liquid water is developed according to the transient state theory of significant liquid structure proposed by Pak, Ahn and Chang. This theory assumes that the molecules may possess solid-like, transient and gas-like degrees of freedom in liquid state. Although liquid water has several special properties, for example, minimum molar volume at 4^{\circ}C$, the general theory of liquid can be applied successfully. The theoretically calculated values for thermodynamic properties at the liquid temperature range and for the critical properties are in good agreement with the observed values. 박형석, 안운선과 장세헌이 제안한 액체구조에 관한 천이상태이론을 물에 적용시켜 액체상태에 있는 물의 상태합을 구했다. 이 이론은 액체의 분자가 고체와 같은 자유도, 천이상태의 자유도 및 기체와 같은 자유도를 갖는다는 것이다. 물은 4^{\circ}C$에서 그의 부피가 최소로 되는 등 특유한 성질들을 가졌지만 이 액체이론이 잘 적용된다. 이 이론을 써서 계산한 물의 몰부피, 증가압, 엔트로피, 증발열 및 일정한 압력에서의 비열 그리고 임계점에서의 성질 등은 실측치와의 좋은 일치를 보여준다.

      • KCI등재

        수심이 얕은 저수지에서 용존산소 동적 모니터링을 통한 인 내부부하 평가

        박형석,최선화,정세웅,지현서,오정국,전항배 한국환경영향평가학회 2017 환경영향평가 Vol.26 No.6

        In these days, agricultural reservoirs are considered as a useful resource for recreational purposes, tour and cultural amenity for vicinity communities as well as irrigation water supply. However, many of the agricultural reservoirs are showing a eutrophic or hyper-eutrophic state and high level of organic contamination. In particular, about 44.7% of the aged agricultural reservoirs that constructed before 1945 exceed the water quality criteria for irrigational water use. In addition to external loading, internal nutrient loading from bottom sediment may play an important role in the nutrient budget of the aged reservoirs. The objectives of this study were to characterize variations of thermal structure of a shallow M reservoir (mean depth 1.7 m) and examine the potential of internal nutrient loading by continuous monitoring of vertical water temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration profiles in 2015 and 2016. The effect of internal loading on the total loading of the reservoir was evaluated by mass balance analysis. Results showed that a weak thermal stratification and a strong DO stratification were developed in the shallow M Reservoir. And, dynamic temporal variation in DO was observed at the bottom of the reservoir. Persistent hypoxic conditions (DO concentrations less than 2 mg/L) were established for 87 days and 98 days in 2015 and 2016, respectively, during the no-rainy summer periods. The DO concentrations intermittently increased during several events of atmospheric temperature drop and rainfall. According to the mass balance analysis, the amount of internal PO4-P loading from sediment to the overlying water were 37.9% and 39.7% of total loading during no-rainy season in 2015 and 2016, respectively on August when algae growth is enhanced with increasing water temperature. Consequently, supply of DO to the lower layer of the reservoir could be effective countermeasure to reduce nutrient release under the condition of persistent DO depletion in the bottom of the reservoir. 최근 농업용 저수지는 용수공급과 함께 지역의 관광, 문화, 위락시설 등으로 활용되고 있다. 그러나 많은 농업용 저수지들은 부영양호로 분류되며 높은 유기물 오염도를 보이고 있다. 특히, 1945년 이전에 준공된 노후화된 농업용 저수지의 44.7%는 농업용수 수질 환경기준을 초과하고 있다. 노후화된 저수지의 경우 외부기원 오염부하 이외에 누적된 퇴적물로부터 발생하는 내부부하는 영양염류 공급에 중요한역할을 한다. 본 연구의 목적은 수심이 얕은 M 저수지(평균 수심 약 1.7 m)를 대상으로 2015년과 2016년에 수심별 수온과 저층 용존산소(DO) 농도를 연속 측정하여 저층 수환경의 동적변화를 모니터링함으로써영양염류의 내부 부하 가능성을 조사하는데 있다. 또한, 물질수지해석을 통해 내부 인부하가 저수지 전체인부하량에 미치는 영향에 대해 평가하였다. 연구결과 수심이 얕은 M 저수지에서 약한 수온성층과 강한DO 성층 현상이 나타났다. 그리고, 저수지 저층에서 DO의 동적변화를 관찰한 결과, 여름철 무강우 기간동안 지속적인 저산소 (DO 2 mg/L 미만) 상태가 2015년과 2016년에 각각 87일과 98일간 발생하였다. DO 농도는 대기온도 강하와 강우발생 기간 동안 간헐적으로 증가하였다. 물질수지분석결과, 수온상승과함께 조류성장이 촉진되는 8월에는 PO4-P 내부 부하량이 무강우시 전체 부하량 대비 2015년과 2016년 에 각각 37.9%와 39.7%로써 큰 비중을 차지하였다. 따라서 지속적인 저층 저산소 상태가 유지되는 경우에는, 퇴적층의 영양염류 용출을 억제하기 위한 DO 공급 대책이 유효 할 것으로 판단된다.

      • KCI등재

        Characteristics and Treatment of Temporomandibular Disorder in Children and Adolescents: An Analytic Review

        박형석,안용우,정성희,전혜미,옥수민 대한안면통증∙구강내과학회 2017 Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain Vol.42 No.4

        Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders(TMDs) in children and adolescents, their characteristic contributing factors, the characteristicfeatures of symptoms and symptoms, and the response to treatment. Methods: We studied the researches, that were the results of the searches for words such astemporomandibular disorder, TMD, children, adolescents, and juvenile through PubMed andDBpia. Results: According to a study conducted in Busan, the ratio of adolescents increased from18.3% to 21% in 2008 compared to 2000, and the proportion of boys increased from 38.58% to45.38%. One of the characteristic contributing factors for adolescents is the macrotrauma suchas jaw trauma, vehicle accidents, sports, physical abuse, forceful intubation, and third molarextraction. The second is a microtrauma from parafunctional habit such as bruxism, clenching,hyperextension, wind instrument, and fingernail biting that can cause joint overload, cartilagebreakdown, synovial fluid alterations, and other changes within the joint. The diagnosis ofTMDs in juvenile adolescents is not significantly different from that of adults. Medical history,clinical examination and radiological examinations are required. Conclusions: In the temporomandibular joint history and assessment, all comprehensive dentalhistory examination is required, including head and neck pain, mandibular dysfunction,previous orofacial trauma, history of present illness with an account of current symptoms. For the treatment and management of temporomandibular arthritis in juvenile adolescents,understanding the characteristics of TMDs in juvenile adolescents and thoroughly analyzingappropriate diagnosis and possible contributing factors through comprehensive history taking& examination, conservative treatment, including fast and active cautions education, will beessential.

      • 당뇨가 위장관 운동에 미치는 영향

        박형석,진춘조 건국대학교 의과학연구소 2001 건국의과학학술지 Vol.11 No.-

        The application of new measurement techniques in patients with diabetes mellitus has demonstrated a high prevalence of disordered motility in all segments of the gastrointestinal tract. In the past these were invariably considered a consequence of autonomic neuropathy, but acute hyperglycemia can now be seen to be a major reversible influence at every level of the gastrointestinal tract that has been studied. Conversely, gastrointestinal function affects glycemic control; approaches to modify the rate of gastric emptying are being Investigated for their utility In the management of diabetes.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재
      • KCI등재

        Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells in Breast Cancer Patients Using Cytokeratin-19 Real-Time RT-PCR

        박형석,김승일,한현주,이수현,김건민,박세호,최연아,이정동,김기문,손주혁 연세대학교의과대학 2017 Yonsei medical journal Vol.58 No.1

        Purpose: The roles of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as predictive and prognostic factors, as well as key mediators in the metastatic cascade, have been investigated. This study aimed to validate a method to quantify CTCs in peripheral blood using a real-time reversetranscriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for cytokeratin (CK)-19 and to evaluate the utility of this assay in detecting CTCs in breast cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Real-time monitoring PCR of fluorescently labeled specific hybridization probes for CK-19 mRNA was established. Peripheral blood samples from 30 healthy donors, 69 patients with early breast cancer, 47 patients with locally advanced breast cancer, and 126 patients with metastatic breast cancer were prospectively obtained and analyzed for CTC detection. Results: CK-19 mRNA was not detectable in healthy subjects using the real-time RT-PCR method. The detection rates of CK-19 mRNA in breast cancer patients were 47.8% for early breast cancer (33/69), 46.8% for locally advanced breast cancer (22/47), and 61.1% for metastatic breast cancer (77/129). The detection rate of CK-19-positive CTCs in metastatic disease was slightly higher than early or locally advanced breast cancer; however, the detection rate according to disease burden was not statistically different(p=0.097). The detection rate was higher in patients with pleural metastasis (p=0.045). CTC detection was associated with poor survival (p=0.014). Conclusion: A highly specific and sensitive CK-19 mRNA-based method to detect CTCs in peripheral blood in breast cancer patientscan be used in further prospective studies to evaluate the predictive and prognostic importance of CTCs.

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