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The multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2, ABCC2) gene may determine individual susceptibility to adverse drug reactions(ADRs) in the central nervous system (CNS) by limiting brain access of antiepileptic drugs, especially valproic acid (VPA). Ourobjective was to investigate the effect of ABCC2 polymorphisms on ADRs caused by VPA in Korean epileptic patients. Weexamined the association of ABCC2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotype frequencies with VPA related to adversereactions. In addition, the association of the polymorphisms with the risk of VPA related to adverse reactions was estimatedby logistic regression analysis. A total of 41 (24.4%) patients had shown VPA-related adverse reactions in CNS, and the mostfrequent symptom was tremor (78.0%). The patients with CNS ADRs were more likely to have the G allele (79.3% vs. 62.7%,p = 0.0057) and the GG genotype (61.0% vs. 39.7%, p = 0.019) at the g.‒1774delG locus. The frequency of the haplotypecontaining g.‒1774Gdel was significantly lower in the patients with CNS ADRs than without CNS ADRs (15.8% vs. 32.3%, p= 0.0039). Lastly, in the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the presence of the GG genotype at the g.‒1774delG locuswas identified as a stronger risk factor for VPA related to ADRs (odds ratio, 8.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 70.17). Wedemonstrated that ABCC2 polymorphisms may influence VPA-related ADRs. The results above suggest the possible usefulnessof ABCC2 gene polymorphisms as a marker for predicting response to VPA-related ADRs.
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목적: 본 연구는 손 기능이 손상된 급성기 편마비환자에게신경인지재활치료를 적용하여 손 기능과 과제를 수행하는능력에 미치는 영향을 알아보고자 한다. 방법: 대상자는 고양시 Y재활병원에 입원하여 치료받고있는 환자로 뇌졸중 진단을 받았으며, 실험의 내용을 이해하고 참여 의사를 밝힌 자로 선정하였다. 대상자는 49세 여성으로 2019년 2월 24일 발병되어 우측 뇌기저핵 부위의 뇌내출혈로 인한 좌측 편마비를 진단받았다. 연구 기간은 2019년3월 18일부터 5월 10일까지 진행되었으며, 8주 동안 주 5회30분씩 총 40회기의 신경인지재활치료를 실시하였다. 결과: 연구 결과 뇌졸중 상지 기능 검사에서 치료 전 오른쪽32점, 왼쪽 23점, 치료 후 오른쪽 32점, 왼쪽 29점으로 왼쪽상지의 기능변화가 나타났다. 그루브드 막대 검사 결과 치료전 오른손 57초(수행 개수 25개, 떨어진 개수 0개)에서 치료후 62초(수행 개수 25개, 떨어진 개수 0개)였으며, 왼손은323초(수행 개수 25개, 떨어진 개수 2개)에서 126초(수행 개수 25개, 떨어진 개수 0개)로 왼손의 시간 단축과 수행도의증가가 나타났다. 상자와 나무토막 검사에서는 오른손 80개에서 81개, 왼손 25개에서 48개로 오른손 1개, 왼손 23개로향상되었다. 결론: 신경인지재활치료가 급성기 뇌졸중 환자의 손 기능및 과제수행의 질에 효과가 있는 것으로 나타났다. The purpose of this study is to reveal the effect of neurocognitive rehabilitation therapy on hand function for hemiplegic patients. The subject of the study was a female patient aged 49 with left hemiplegia caused by intracranial hemorrhage, and the cognitive-therapeutic exercise was applied to her for 30minutes once a day from March 18, 2018 to May 10, 2019. In this study, after neurocognitive treatment, the results of the MFT found no change found in the right hand. The left hand improved from 23 to 29 scores. The results of the grooved pegboard test, which evaluated the hand function, were as follows. The right hand performed from 57 seconds (25 performed, 0 dropped) to 62 seconds (25 performed, 0 dropped) after treatment, and the left hand improved from 323 seconds (25 performed, dropped 2) to 126 seconds (25 performed, dropped 0) after the treatment. The results BBT, the right hand performed from 81 to 80, The left hand improved from 25 to 48. Neurocognitive rehabilitation therapy was found to be effective on hand function and task performance in acute stroke patients.
Purpose : This study is for investigating the factors influencing on treatment effect of devel-opmental disability children under 6-year-old.Methods : This study was investigated March, 2003 from January, 2003 to child fewer than 6 ages and parent each 43 people who is undergoing medical diagnosis from occupational ther-apy of K university hospital, S hospital, C hospital.Results : Obstacle type of 43 disabled children handicap by 50% and language impairment, mental retardation, sight obstacle, difficulties. It is 25.6% that there is no family member that can give help for disabled children’s treatment, is that 1 person is more 69.8%, and that have 3 people 4.7%, and in 25 points full marks that stew of family more than 21 points by 79.1% lazi-ness or family of stew that in general by high thing appear. Disabled children was using aver-age 4.16 places’ treatment institution during a week. Total number of treatment during a week is 5.19 times of treatment per average one child patient. While child’s treatment adaptation degree is that 32.6% well regardless of sentiment or hygienic condition, 37.2% when sentiment or hygienic condition is good well, and 18.6% is usual, 2.3% is different according to sentiment or hygienic condition therapist or treatment institution, and 9.3% is not well in most case. Comparing coefficient of correlation with adaptation degree and cura-tive effect when treat and treatment actual conditions of family’s support, home treatment num-ber of times, medical fee, treatment equipment utilization number of times, treatment number of times etc. and child’s characteristic of child’s age, obstacle grade, duplicated obstacle number and so on, Child’s duplicated obstacle number showed high negative correlation of comparative with curative effect, and child’s obstacle degree showed high negative correlation with curative effect.Conclusion : By result of this study, child’s motor development treatment effect is considered that child’s obstacle degree and duplication number of obstacle is connected. Therefore, it means that efficient and practical treatment to grasp child’s obstacle and state more closely and more interests and efforts of parent and therapist are in need.
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is characterized by the progressive accumulation of phospholipids and proteins within the alveolar sacs without producing an inflammatory response. Whole-lung lavage (WLL) is performed as the standard therapy for this disease because it serves to wash out the proteinaceous material from the alveoli. In this case, we performed sequential WLL using propofol-remifentanil, which is not related to hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction during one-lung ventilation. The patient's symptoms and radiologic findings showed improvement without the occurrence of any specific complications. Therefore, we report a case of anesthetic management of WLL performed repeatedly for a patient with recurrent PAP.
이 연구의 목적은 고등학교 정기고사에 제시된 수학 서술형 평가 문항이 2007개정 교육과정의 성격과 목표에 얼마나 잘 부합되는지 살펴보는 것이다. 따라서 이 연구를 위해 서울과 경기지역을 중심으로 24개 학교에서 제시된 서술형 평가 문항이 학생들에 게 어떠한 인지적 노력수준을 요구하고 있는지 수학과제 분석하였고, 또한 서술형 평가 문항이 학생들에게 어떠한 능력을 요구하는지 살펴보기 위해 수학적 숙련도를 통해 서 술형 문항을 분석하였다. 총 199문항의 서술형 평가 문항을 분석한 결과 학생들에게 낮 은 인지적 노력수준을 요구하는 문항은 70%의 비율로 나타났고, 높은 인지적 노력수준 을 요구하는 문항은 30%의 비율로 나타났다. 이러한 결과는 본 연구에서 살펴본 대부 분의 서술형 평가 문항이 계산 과정을 포함하고 있었으며 단순한 알고리즘을 통해 문제 를 해결하는 특징을 가지고 있음을 보여준다. The purpose of this study was to examine how constructive-response questions in regular test was in aligned with the nature and goals of 2007 Curriculum Amendment. For this purpose, data were collected and analysed by using the framework for mathematical task and the cognitive demand of tasks suggested by Smith & Stein(1998) and mathematical proficiency suggested by National Research Council(2001). In particular, it aimed to reveal the overall picture of the level of cognitive demand and the proportion of mathematical proficiency of constructed-response items created by secondary mathematics teachers. The findings from the analysis showed that 70 percent of the constructed-response items were at low-level and the rest at high-level in terms of cognitive demand. Also, the constructed-response assessment focused on conputing (89%), understanding(45%), applying(30%) and least reasoning(17%). Most of the constructed-response items included computing and were algorithmic.
This study considers how to help learners concentrate on the contents of movies and television dramas in order to develop long-term memory of language. Craik and Lockhart (1972) and Craik and Tulving (1975) claimed people remember things that they have thought about and that deeper (semantic) processes are associated with higher retention of target words. Seven scenes based on Ross in Friends were explained through depth of processing. The depth of processing in this study occurs in three steps: 1) a stimulus and goal step, 2) an interaction step, and 3) a connection step. The teacher and students have conversations about funny scenes in the first step,they talk about why the scenes are funny in the second step, and in the third step, connection, the stimulus and the goal are repeated. The main feature of this process is that no explanation about language functions or form is given. The focus of the conversations between the teacher and students are only on what happens to the character. The expectation of this process is that while the learners concentrate on the contents of the drama, the language will be acquired and stored in long-term memory.
Redox flow batteries (RFBs) have been considered as one of the most promising candidate for the large scale energy storage systems (ESSs) because of their outstanding features such as long life cycle and design flexibility. Although the most intensively investigated and close to be commercialized RFB is aqueous vanadium RFB (VRFB), low energy density owing to limited cell potential of aqueous VRFB drove attention to non-aqueous VRFB. In particular, vanadium acetylacetonate (V(acac)<sub>3</sub>) has been employed as an active species for non-aqueous VRFB for its relatively wide potential range (2.2 V). However, V(acac)<sub>3</sub> based VRFB still has been suffered by the vulnerability for oxidation under air. In this work, we added several ionic liquids as an additive and investigated the stability of V(acac)<sub>3</sub> in the presence of ionic liquid under air and N<sub>2</sub> (g), respectively.