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        한국 로스쿨 체제, 과연 사법시험의 대안인가?

        이호선 ( Ho Sun Lee ) 한국법정책학회 2015 법과 정책연구 Vol.15 No.4

        법조인 양성을 둘러싼 두 가지 상반된 입장이 사법시험 폐지가 가까워 짐에따라 점점 더 뜨거운 갈등으로 다가오고 있다. 한쪽에서는 사법시험 폐지를 규정하고 있는 변호사시험법 개정을 통해 사법시험을 유지하자고 하고, 다른 쪽에서는 대학원제 로스쿨 일원화를 주장하고 있다. 사법시험을 지지하는 사람들의 핵심 주장들 중 하나는 사법시험이 기회균등을 통해 중산층들에게 법조인이 되는 기회를 줌으로써 사회적 이동의 기능을 수행할 수 있다고 한다. 따라서 이들은 사법시험이 로스쿨 제도와 병존되어야만 한다고 주장한다. 반면 사법시험폐 지론자들은 최저 소득층에게는 법조인이 되는 기회가 장학금을 통해 충분히 보장되고, 사법시험 준비에 들어가는 부담은 로스쿨 비용만큼이나 비싸다고 주장 한다. 사시폐지론자들의 이론적 지지대로서 가장 많이 이용되는 논문이 몇몇 언론에도 보도가 되었던 이재협 교수 등의 “로스쿨 출신 법률가, 그들은 누구인 가? - 사법연수원 출신 법률가와의 비교를 중심으로”이다. 이 교수 등은 사법시 험에 합격한 사람들의 평균 가구당 소득은 오히려 로스쿨 재학생들 가구당 소득 보다 다소 높고, 두 집단 사이에 부모의 직업과 사회적 지위에도 유의미한 차이가 없다는 결론을 내리고 있다. 이들의 논문에서 사법시험 출신에 관한 부분은 2009년 이후 합격자들 중 300명을 상대로 한 설문조사에 터잡고 있다. 그러나 이재협 교수의 연구 대상의 모집단이 3,519명 - 2012년 이후 합격자까지 총원은 4,621명 -이고, 표본집단의 84%가 서울 거주자이며, 그 중 18%가 상위 5대로펌에 소속되어 있음을 감안할 때 필자는 위 연구의 진실성에 의심을 가질 수 밖에 없었다. 이에 저자는 표본집단을 확장함으로써 이재협 교수 등의 연구 결과를 검증하고, 사법시험이 사회적 이동성의 역할을 수행하는지, 특히 중산층의 계층 이동 역할을 하는지 알아보기로 하였다. 필자는 총 4,621명 모집단 중에서 1,286명으로부터 응답을 받았고, 2009-2012 사법시험 합격자들의 경우 총 3,519명 중 1,051명으로부터 응답을 받았다. 그 결과 이 조사와 이재협 등의 연구와 상당한 차이가 있음이 드러났다. 먼저 사법시험합격자들의 가구당 월평균 소득은 이재협 등의 연구의 약 1/3에 불과하였다. 이 수준은 통계청에서 발표하는 전국 가구당 평균 소득과 유사하다. 그리고 가정의 사회적 배경에 관하여 이 조사는 사법시험 합격자 집단의 97%가 예컨대, 법조인, 법학 교수, 판사, 정치인, 고위 관료, 임원, 중견 언론인 등 사회적으로 중요한 지위에 있는 집안과 관 계없음을 보여주었다. 무엇보다 중요한 것은 사법시험 합격자의 69%가 만일로 스쿨 한 체제만 존속하고 있었다면 자신들은 경제적 부담으로 인해 법조인이 되는 것을 포기하였을 것이라고 응답하고 있다는 점이다. 이는 사회적 통합에 불가결한 공정과 투명성 역할은 두말할 나위 없고, 사회적 이동통로로서, 그리고 기회균등의 수단으로서의 사법시험의 역할을 로스쿨 체제가 대체할 수 없음을 말해준다. There are two opposite arguments over the way how to fostering lawyers, and this conflict is getting hotter as the termination of Korea Judicial Exam is being closer than ever. One of these is in maintaining KJE by revising the National Bar Exam Act, which provides the abolishment of KJE, and the other is to insist single system for lawyers through graduate law-schools. One of the core arguments of those who are supporting KJE is that it can fulfill a function for social movement by giving middle class a guarantee to become lawyers with equal opportunities. In particular, they uphold that the merits which cannot be filled by NBEA are in openness to all classes, and it never forces the people to pay demanding cost to become lawyers. Therefore, they are insisting that KJE must coexist with law-school system. Meanwhile, the anti-KJEs claims that the opportunities to become lawyers for the lowest class can sufficiently secured by scholarship, and the burden for preparing KJE is just as costly as law-school expenses. The firm ground for anti-KJEs, which are most frequently quoted, is the article, “Law School Lawyers in Korea, Who Are They? - Focused on comparing with JRTI lawyers” by Lee, Jae-Hyup et al. receiving coverage for some media. In this article, Mr. Lee and his fellows concludes that the average household incomes of those who passed the KJE are rather more than those of law school students and that there is no significant differences in parents' job and social status between two groups . The part about KJE in their paper was based on questionnaire survey analysis targeting three -hundred successful candidates since 2009. However, considering that the population of Mr. Lee's research is 3,519 - the total numbers including the successful candidates those who passed beyond 2012 are 4,621 - and 84% of sampling is composed of those who lives in Seoul, and 18% in top five law-firms, the author was forced to have a doubt about the veracity of the study. So the author tried to verify the result of Mr. Lee and his fellows' research by expanding the sampling size, and whether or not the KJE has been doing a role of social mobility, especially for middle class. The author got answers from 1,286 lawyers among totally 4,621, and from 1,051 among 3,519 lawyers who passed KJE 2009-2012. The results show that there is much difference between this research and Mr. Lee's. First of all, the average household monthly income of KJE group is only one-third of Mr. Lee's analysis. This level is equivalent to the national average household income reported by Statistical Office. And in regard to family social background, this survey demonstrates that the 97% of the KJE group is irrelevant to any meaningful social position, e.g. lawyer, law-professor, judge, politician, high-ranking bureaucracy, CEO, and junior executives in the press. More than anything, it should be noted that 69% of the successful candidates of KJE would give up to become lawyer due to the heavy expenses, if there are only one way of law-school system. This research suggest that law-school system cannot replace the role of KJE as the channel for social mobility and the means of equal opportunity, needless to say as the symbol of fairness and transparency indispensible to social integration.

      • Variation of seed germiability in diverse rice genetic resources

        Gi-An,Lee,Young-Ah,Jeon,Ho-Sun,Lee,Young-Yi,Lee,Jung-Sook,Sung,Jung-Yoon,Yi,Jong-Wook,Chung,Myung-Chul,Lee,Sok-Young,Lee,Yeon-Gyu,Kim 한국육종학회 2014 한국육종학회 심포지엄 Vol.2014 No.07

        Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is important crop as a staple carbohydrate sources and was regarded as domesticated in Asia region. The seed dormancy is one of the domesticated traits, and this character allows that plants survive in various environment. The degree of dormancy have been targeted for controling in breeding program while weak dormancy cause pre-harvest sprouting contrary to the nonuniform seed germination by strong dormancy. In this study, we surveyed the variation of germiability in diverse rice genetic resources including japonica and indica ecotype. Overall, the degree of seed dormancy of rice germplasm was distinguished into four groups and admixed types; first group(G-1) included accessions revealing high germiability, the accessions of second group(G-2) acquired the high germiability by after-ripening process, third group(G-3)'s accessions showed high germiability after dormancy breaking process and the accessions of last group(G-4) maintained the low germiability in spite of the dormancy breaking process. Among the 51 japonica accessions G-1, G-2, G-3 and G-4 included 15, 15, 11 and 10 accessions, respectively, and among 40 indica accessions, G-1, G-2, G-3 and G-4 groups included 15, 15, 9 and 1 accessions, respectively. Based on these primary test, we plan to detail examine the seed germiability and survey the genetic factors affecting the degree of germiability in representative accessions of each group

      • Variation of pre-harvest sprouting and ABA content in rice germplasm

        Gi-An,Lee,Young-Ah,Jeon,Ho-Sun,Lee,Jong-Wook,Chung,Do-Yoon,Hyun,Jung-Ro,Lee,Myung-Chul,Lee,Kyung-Ho,Ma,Sok-Young,Lee 한국육종학회 2015 한국육종학회 심포지엄 Vol.2015 No.07

        Among the diverse crops, rice (Oryza sativa L.) has been domesticated as a staple carbohydrate sources mainly in Asia region, and RDA Genebank at the National Agrobiodiversity Center (NAAS) has conserved about 37 thousand rice accessions accordingly. Seed dormancy, one of domesticated traits, prevents pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) which causes degradation of grain quality in cereal crop. In previous study, we surveyed the variation of seed germinability of diverse 200 rice germplasm and detected the three distinguished groups besides admixed types; the first group (G-1) revealed high germinability at harvesting time, and the second group (G-2) and third group (G-3) acquired high germnability subsequent to after-ripening and dormancy breaking process, respectively. To reduce environmental effects on detected variation of germinability, we selected representative 14 accessions which have similar heading date of each group and measured the degree of PHS using freshly harvested panicles. Variation of PHS showed similar tendency of germinability group; generally, high PHS for G-1, low PHS for G-2 and no PHS for G-3. To resolve genetic and physiological factors concerning on PHS and seed dormancy, we checked the change and variation of ABA known for critical regulator for seed dormancy, and high PHS accessions interestingly revealed high ABA content in 10 DAF. Based on these study, we plan to analyze genetic factors affecting the degree of seed germinability and PHS.

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        RESEARCH ARTICLE : Selecting High Amylose Rice Germplasm Combined with NIR Spectroscopy at the RDA Genebank Conserved

        ( Ho Sun Lee ), ( Yu Mi Choi ), ( Young Yi Lee ), ( Kyung Ho Ma ), ( Jae Gyun Gwag ), ( Jung Ro Lee ), ( Yeo Tae Yoon ), ( Yong Gu Cho ), ( Sok Young Lee ) 한국육종학회 2014 Plant Breeding and Biotechnology Vol.2 No.4

        Rice (Oryza sativa L.) germplasms with an amylose content above 30% were identified by screening 9481 accessions from the Rural Development Administration (RDA) gene bank. The total set of accessions came from 65 countries, including Korea, China, Japan, the Philippines, India, Taiwan, the United States, and Russia. High-throughput near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy equipped with a fiberoptic probe (700~2500 nm) was used to estimate the amylose content. The amylose contents ranged from 5 to 40% based on NIR spectroscopy; divided into 5% increments, the amylose content of 2820 accessions was found to be between 15 and 20%. To select rice accessions high in amylose, 239 accessions with an amylose content of 30% or greater were selected based on NIR spectroscopy data and cultivated in the field for final selection. Among the 239 accessions selected and cultivated, 151 were deemed agronomically satisfactory. Among the 151 accessions, based on laboratory analysis, 14 had an amylose content higher than 30% and 33 had an amylose content between 28 and 30%. The amylose contents of the reference cultivars Hopum-byeo and Sobi-byeo were 20.7% and 19.9%, respectively. Finally, successful selection of accessions with high amylose content from the large RDA gene bank collection was achieved based on a combination of NIR spectroscopy and laboratory data.

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        산형과 식물의 휴면타파와 종자발아에 미치는 온도, 광, 화학물질의 영향

        이호선 ( Ho Sun Lee ), 이장원 ( Jang Won Lee ), 김수정 ( Su Jung Kim ), 이정훈 ( Jeong Hoon Lee ), 성정숙 ( Jung Sook Sung ), 강만정 ( Man Jung Kang ), 마경호 ( Kyung Ho Ma ) 한국국제농업개발학회 2014 韓國國際農業開發學會誌 Vol.26 No.4

        The seeds of Apiaceae have been known as having morphophysiological dormancy (MPD). It is a class of seed dormancy in which the embryo is both underdeveloped and physiologically dormant. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the temperature, light and chemical reagent on dormancy breaking and seed germination of three species in Apiaceae (Peucedanum japonicum Thumb, Angelica tenuissima Nakai, Glehnia littoralis F. Schmidt et Miq.). Seed size of three species ranged from 5.57-9.7 mm in length and 3.7 mm in width. The 1000-seed weight ranged from 0.21 g in A. tenuissima to 17.53 g in G. littoralis. Maximum percent-germinations of P. japonicum, A. tenuissima, and G. littoralis were 62.6%, 43.3%, and 36.4%, respectively. In P. japonicum and A. tenuissima, prechilling (4oC for 7 days) were only best effective on breaking dormancy and germination. The GA3 or KNO3 treatments were ineffective for breaking dormancy. The proper temperature for germination was constant 20oC. In G. littoralis, gibberellin treatments were effective for germination. The seeds showed relatively good germinations at alternative 15/20oC (16/8h) and constant 20oC (dark).

      • Heat‐induced chaperone activity of serine/threonine protein phosphatase 5 enhances thermotolerance in <i>Arabidopsis thaliana</i>

        Park,,Jin,Ho,Lee,,Sun,Yong,Kim,,Woe,Yeon,Jung,,Young,Jun,Chae,,Ho,Byoung,Jung,,Hyun,Suk,Kang,,Chang,Ho,Shin,,Mi,Rim,Kim,,Sun,Young,Su'udi,,Mukhamad,Yun,,Dae,Jin,Lee,,Kyun,Oh,Kim,,Min,Gab,Lee,,Sang,Yeo Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011 The New phytologist Vol.191 No.3

        <P><B>Summary</B></P><P><P>This study reports that <I>Arabidopsis thaliana</I> protein serine/threonine phosphatase 5 (AtPP5) plays a pivotal role in heat stress resistance. A high‐molecular‐weight (HMW) form of AtPP5 was isolated from heat‐treated <I>A. thaliana</I> suspension cells. AtPP5 performs multiple functions, acting as a protein phosphatase, foldase chaperone, and holdase chaperone. The enzymatic activities of this versatile protein are closely associated with its oligomeric status, ranging from low oligomeric protein species to HMW complexes.</P><P>The phosphatase and foldase chaperone functions of AtPP5 are associated primarily with the low‐molecular‐weight (LMW) form, whereas the HMW form exhibits holdase chaperone activity. Transgenic over‐expression of <I>AtPP5</I> conferred enhanced heat shock resistance to wild‐type <I>A. thaliana</I> and a T‐DNA insertion knock‐out mutant was defective in acquired thermotolerance. A recombinant phosphatase mutant (H290N) showed markedly increased holdase chaperone activity.</P><P>In addition, enhanced thermotolerance was observed in transgenic plants over‐expressing H290N, which suggests that the holdase chaperone activity of AtPP5 is primarily responsible for AtPP5‐mediated thermotolerance.</P><P>Collectively, the results from this study provide the first evidence that AtPP5 performs multiple enzymatic activities that are mediated by conformational changes induced by heat‐shock stress.</P></P>

      • Ex-situ Conservation of Horticultural Plant Genetic Resources in Genebank of Korea, National Agrobiodiversity Center

        Young-Yi,Lee,Gyu-Taek,Cho,Ho-Cheol,Ko,Ho-Sun,Lee,Young-Ah,Jeon,Jung-Sook,Sung,Sok-Young,Lee,Chang-Yung,Kim,Yeon-Gyu,Kim 한국육종학회 2012 한국육종학회 심포지엄 Vol.2012 No.07

        The world-wide capacity of genebanks for ex-situ conservation of crop genetic resources has increased greatly since the 1970s, improving the access of crop breeders to landraces, and wild relatives (Wright, 1997). In south Korea, systematic seed germplasm management was begun at the Rural Development Administration (RDA) in 1985 and consequently genebank system was established in 1988. The RDA genebank, National Agrobiodiversity Center (NAC) of south Korea, preserve 173,217 accessions of plant seed germplasm and 10.7% (18,509 accessions) of whole preserved germplasm is occupied by horticultral PGR by 2011. Horticultural PGR preserved in NAC is composed with 67 genera of crops including pepper (3,817 accessions), tomato (2,040 accessions), cabbages (1,690 accessions) and etc. According to horticultural plant sub-group, fruit-vegetable is the biggest group with 60% of accession share and leafy vegetable (19%), root vegetable (10%), bulb vegetable (8%), and ornamental (3%) follow subsequently. In aspect of PGR status, landrace is dominant part of conserved accession and then developed cultivar, wild relatives, cultivated material, wild, and weedy type follow subsequently. Recently characterization and evaluation of horticultural PGR have been activated for 3 years in NAC, which are useful for breeders and users focused on disease-resistance or active ingredient. It will promote utilization of horticultural PGR and development of horticultural crop breeding program for both human being and sustainable agriculture in near future.

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