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Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most common infections affecting women. In a recent study of college women with their first UTI, 27% experienced at least one culture-confirmed recurrence within the six months following the initial infection and 2.7% had a second recurrence during this time period. Women with recurrent UTI have an increased susceptibility to vaginal colonization with uropathogens due to a greater propensity for them to adhere to their epithelial cells. Risk factors include frequent sexual intercourse, spermicide use, first UTI at an early age, and maternal history of UTI. Effectiveness of continuous or post-coital prophylaxis with low-dose antimicrobials or intermittent self-treatment with antimicrobials in management of recurrent uncomplicated UTIs in women has been demonstrated. However, antibiotics are the main driving force in development of antibiotic resistance and can lead to resistance of not only the causative microorganisms, but also the commensal flora. The increasing prevalence of Escherichia coli isolates (the most prevalent uropathogen) that are resistant to antimicrobial agents has stimulated interest in non-antibiotic methods for prevention of UTIs. We discuss the overall use of non-antibiotic methods for prevention of recurrent UTI, including the use of immunostimulant OM-89, a vaginal vaccine or estrogen, lactobacilli prophylaxis, and cranberry.
Urethritis in males not secondary to gonorrhea is classified as non-gonococcalurethritis (NGU). NGU is a common chlamydia-associated syndrome in men. However, Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis have been suggested as pathogens that cause NGU. In 20-30% of NGU cases, possible pathogens remain unidentified. Symptoms, if present, include mucopurulent or purulent discharge, dysuria, andurethral pruritis. Culture, nucleic acid hybridization tests, and nucleic acid amplification test are available for the detection of N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis. Treatment should be initiated as soon as possible after diagnosis. Azithromycin and doxycycline are highly effective for chlamydial urethritis. However, infections with M. genitalium respond better to azithromycin.
The recent development of local autonomy in Korea promoted the protection and utilization of historic properties that contributes to the enhancement of the local identity and economy. This paper aims to draw some suggestions through the analysis of the historic preservation of the City of Denver, where the historic preservation movement is very active and the local government plays a major role. The analysis of Denver is compared with that of Seoul. The results are as follows. First, the role of the city council is decisive in the protection of landmark. Second, the administration of the historic preservation is in the hand of community development and planning, so that the design and planning of the physical environment is closely related with the historic preservation, which mostly comprised of old buildings and districts in the city. Third, various kinds of incentives in the form of tax credits, infrastructure investments and building code waives help historic property owners finding alternative ways to utilize their properties.키 워 드 역사경관, 지방정부, 기법과 역할 Keywords Historic Preservation, Local Government, Roles and Techniques
Median raphe cyst of the penis is an uncommon entity that usually presents as a cystic lesion on the ventral aspect of the penis, and which has a broad spectrum of histopathological appearances. It occurs most commonly near the glans penis, but may occur anywhere from the urethral meatus to the anus. It is solitary and measures only a few millimeters in diameter. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice. Recently we observed an 18-year-old male patient who had had a median raphe cyst since 5 years ago near the urethral orifice of the glans penis.