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Midazolam maleate, a water soluble banzodiazepine unlike diazepam, was synthetized by Walser and Fryer in 1975. In order to ealuate the effectiveness as an induction agent for general anesthesia, 22 elective surgical patients belonging to ASA classification 1 and 2 were selected. And ten patients (male 7, female 3, average 33.5 years old) were induced with midazolam maleate 0.2mg/kg and twelve patients (mdale 7, female 5, average 32.5 years old) with diazepam 0.3mg/kg. The results were summarized as follows. 1) Anesthesia was induced in all of midazolam group by one intravenous injection, but only 6 patients of diazepam group could induced by one injection and the other 6 patients needed 2 or more injections. 2) The changes of blood pressure and pulse rate after induction and intubation were almost similar in the two groups, but greater individual variation was seen in diazepam group. 3) A buring sensation following intravenous injection was noted in 11 cases of diazepam group, but none in midazolam group and no phlebitis in either group. From the above results, diazepam and midazolam are almost similar in nature but midazolam is definitely effective as an induction agent and has less side effects. Therefore midazolam maleate is regarded as a more effective agent than diazepam as an induction for general anesthesia.
In silicon surface micro-machining, the newly developed GPE(gas-phase etching) process was verified as a very effective method for the release of highly compliant micro-structures. The developed GPE system with anhydrous HF gas and CH₃OH vapor was characterized and the selective etching properties of sacrificial layers to release silicon micro-structures were discussed. P-doped polysilicon and SOI(silicon on insulator) substrate were used as a structural layer and TEOS(tetraethyorthosilicate) oxide, thermal oxide and LTO(low temperature oxide) as a sacrificial layer. Compared with conventional wet-release, we successfully fabricated micro-structures with virtually no process-induced suction and residual product.
A clinical observasion was done on 145 cases of the various pleural effusions admitted to Yonsei University Hospital from Mar. 1984 to Mar. 1986, The pleural effusions were due to tuberculosis(76 cases), suspected tuberculosis(18 cases), malignancy(16 cases), suspected malignancy(22 cases), empyema or pneumonia(10 cases), miscellaneous (3 cases). We have measured the ADA activity of pleural fluids in each cases and the results were as follows. 1) In the tuberculous pleural effusion, the ADA activity of pleural fluid was significantly higher than that in the malignant pleural effusion. 2) There was no difference between the activities of pleural fluid ADA in the tuberculous pleural effusion and that in the suspected tuberculous pleural effusion. 3) If the cut-off value of pleural fluid ADA activity is 40U/L, the sensitivity was 90.4% and the specificity was 86.3% in the dignosis the tuberculous pleural effusion. It is suggested that the measurement of ADA activity in pleural effusion is of value in the differential diagnosis of patients with tuberculous pleurisy from those with malignant pleurisy and others, particularly when the results of other laboratory and clinical tests are negative, if the value is over 40 U/L.
Myasthenia Gravis is a chronic disease of disputed etiology, possibly an auto-immune reaction to the moter end-plate, characterized by exacerbations and remissions, a rare disease entity in Korea. Myasthenia Gravis has offered many anesthetic problems because it affects respiratory muscles occasionally and bronchial secretion from preoperative anticholinesterase therapy. The chief concern is to ensure adequate respiration both during and after operation. During the year 1976-1982, we have experienced the anesthetic management of 8 patients with myasthenia gravis and thymectomy. From our experiences, we conclude that respiratory care and disuse of relaxants is the key to successful management.
TiO₂ films deposited on glass were prepared by plasma sputtering method. The dependence of structural properties on the deposition conditions and the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue were investigated. When the oxygen partial pressure was higher than 5%, as-deposited TiO₂ films exhibited an almost amorphous structure under DC plasma condition. A transition at which metallic mode deposition(Ti) changed to dielectric mode deposition(TiO₂), was observed at the 5∼10% oxygen partial pressure under RF plasma condition. The amorphous structure changed to anatase structure by heat treatment at 400℃ for 4 hours. Crystallized anatase structure had a preferred orientation along 〔101〕 direction. For 150 min of photocatalytic degradation, the concentration of methylene blue was reduced by half.
The segmental spread of epidural analgesia was measured in seventeen surgical patients aged between 17 and 52 years, and in fourteen patients between 60 and 77 years. The upper level in the young was 6.29(±1.56) thoracic vertebra level, but in the elderly was 4(±0.65) thoracic vertebra level at 20 minutes after epidural injection of 1.5% lidocaine 20㎖. A given volume of solution spreads to 0.9, 1.07, 1.54, 2.29 segments greater upper extent at 5, 10, 15, 20 minutes after epidural injection and 0.57, 1.07 segments greater lower extent at 5, 10 minutes in the elder than young. So with increasing age relatively small amounts of solution are required, to produce the same extent of anesthesia in the yonung.
The effects of chemical composition and thermal cycling on the martensitic transformation characteristics in Cu-rich, equiatomic and Zr-rich CuZr binary alloys have been studied by calorimetry. Only martensite could be indentified in equiatomic Cu_(49.9)Zr_(50.1) alloy, while Cu_(10)Zr_7 and CuZr₂intermetallic compounds as well as martensite were formed by rapid cooling from the melts in Cu-rich Cu_(52.2)Zr_(47.5) alloy and Zr-rich Cu_(48.4)Zr_(51.6) alloy, respectively. The M_s temperature of Cu_(49.9)Zr_(50.1) was 156℃ but those of Cu_(52.5)Zr_(47.5) and Cu_(48.4)Zr_(51.6) alloys, being 109℃ and 138℃, were lower than that of equiatomic Cu_(49.9)Zr_(50.1) alloy. In all the alloys, the M_s temperature has fallen but the A_s temperature has risen, resulting in widening of the transformation hysteresis with thermal cycling. The anomalous characteristics in the transformation temperature are due to the presence of the intermetallic compounds i.e. Cu_(10)Zr_7 and CuZr₂formed by an eutectoid reaction during thermal cycling in the temperature range between -100℃<T_c<400℃.
The distribution of the second phase, the change of transformation temperature and mechanical properties with thermomechanical treatment conditions were investigated by metallography, calorimetry, EDS, tensile test and fractography in a Cu-Al-Ni-Ti-Mn alloy. The cast structure revealed Ti-rich precipitates(X_L phase) between dendrite arms, which have been identified as (Cu,Ni)₂TiAl intermetallic compounds. By homogenizing above 900℃, the X_L phase was melted in the matrix, while the X_s phase was precipitated in matrix and the volume fraction of it was increased. When hot-rolled specimen was betatized below 750℃, recrystallization could not be observed. However, the specimen betatized above 800℃ was recrystallized and the grain size was about 50㎛, while X_s phase was precipitated in matrix. With raising betatizing temperature, M_s and A_s temperatures were fallen and transformation hysteresis became larger. The strain of the specimen betatized at 800℃ was 8.2% as maximum value. The maximum shape recovery rate could be obtained in the specimen betatized at 800℃ but it was decreased due to the presence of X_s phase with increasing betatizing temperature.