http://chineseinput.net/에서 pinyin(병음)방식으로 중국어를 변환할 수 있습니다.
변환된 중국어를 복사하여 사용하시면 됩니다.
개별검색 DB통합검색이 안되는 DB는 DB아이콘을 클릭하여 이용하실 수 있습니다.
통계정보 및 조사
예술 / 패션
<해외전자자료 이용권한 안내>
- 이용 대상 : RISS의 모든 해외전자자료는 교수, 강사, 대학(원)생, 연구원, 대학직원에 한하여(로그인 필수) 이용 가능
- 구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색 및 등록된 대학IP 대역 내에서 24시간 무료 이용
- 미구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색을 통한 오후 4시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용
※ 단, EBSCO ASC/BSC(오후 5시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용)
<P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>To effectively design hydrogen (H<SUB>2</SUB>)/oxygen (O<SUB>2</SUB>) liquid rocket engines through understanding the combustion characteristics of H<SUB>2</SUB>/O<SUB>2</SUB> bipropellants, fundamental studies for the bipropellants in different phases are needed. This study is focused on the combustion characteristics of inverse gaseous O<SUB>2</SUB>/H<SUB>2</SUB> coaxial jet flames in a single-element model combustor as a preliminary step for succeeding studies of injection at different phases in the combustor, visualizing flame structure by direct imaging, OH<SUP>∗</SUP> chemiluminescence and OH planar laser-induced fluorescence. With increasing Reynolds number (Re), the frequency of occurrence of the local flame extinction increases and the length of the disconnected OH reaction zone is extended. The OH layer thickness increases downstream, while it is almost constant where the local flame extinction occurs and decreases with increasing Re due to the enhanced strain and scalar-dissipation rates. The excessive flame wrinkledness increases the local flame strain rate and results in the local flame extinction, exhibiting the tendency of increasing and then decreasing flame surface density with increasing Re. The probability density function of OH intensity quantifies the fluctuation intensity of OH radicals and the possibility of the local flame extinction. A useful database is provided for modeling the combustion of H<SUB>2</SUB>/O<SUB>2</SUB> bipropellants under different phases.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> A useful database for modeling the H<SUB>2</SUB>/O<SUB>2</SUB> bipropellant combustion is provided. </LI> <LI> Local flame extinction frequently occurs at high Reynolds number (<I>Re</I>). </LI> <LI> OH probability density function indicates the possibility of local extinction. </LI> <LI> Flame surface density increases and then decreases with increasing <I>Re</I>. </LI> <LI> Strong burning of O<SUB>2</SUB>/H<SUB>2</SUB> causes laminar-like combustion near the injector lip. </LI> </UL> </P>
김종오, 윤진환. 저항성 운동이 노화 흰쥐 해마 및 소뇌의 신경가소성 인자 발현 및 미세구조와 신경학적 기능에 미치는 영향. 운동과학, 제23권 제3호, 217-228, 2014. 본 연구는 노화로 인해 나타나는 기억력 감소와 균형감각의 저하를 저항성 운동이 지연시킬 수 있는지와 그 기전을 밝힘으로써, 노인운동처방학적 운동기전을 제시하고자 하는데 있다. 이러한 목적을 달성하기 위해 노화 흰쥐를 대상으로 tower climbing 운동을 12주간 실시한 후 신경기능학적 향상, 신경가소성 인자인 BDNF, TrkB의 발현 증가와 시냅스 관련 단백질인 synapsin I의 발현을 유도할 수 있는 지와 해마의 연접형성수준의 증가에 어떠한 영향을 미치는 지를 확인하고자 하였다. 본 연구에 이용된 실험동물은 Sprague-Dawley 계열의 노화 흰쥐 72주령 수컷과 대조군으로 10주령 수컷이 이용되었으며, 이들은 실험 전 일주일 동안 운동 환경에 대한 적응기간을 거친 후, 무작위 표본추출에 의하여 노화 쥐는 노화 대조군(aging control group, ACG; n=15)과 노화 운동군(aging and exercise-trained group, AEG; n=15)으로 분류되었고, 10주령의 정상 대조군(normal control group, NCG; n=15)이 비교군으로 이용되었다. 저항성 운동은 tower climbing protocol을 이용하여 1일 약 30분씩 3회(09시, 14시, 20시) 12주 동안 훈련시켰다. 공간학습과 기억력과 균형감각과 신경학적 기능평가는 Morris water maze와 balance beam 검사가 이용되었고, BDNF, TrkB와 synapsin I과 같은 단백질 분석은 Western blotting 방법이 이용되었다. 또한, 해마부위 연접형성수준의 변화는 투과전자현미경(TEM)적 관찰을 통해 확인하였다. 그 결과 본 연구에 수행된 저항성 운동인 tower climbing 운동의 12주간 훈련은 노화로 인해 해마, 소뇌 부위의 신경 및 연접가소성인자 감소로 인해 저하된 공간학습기억능력과 평형감각기능을 지연시키는데 효과적인 운동임을 확인할 수 있었던 연구이다. Kim, Jong-Oh, Yoon, Jin-Hwan. Effects of Resistance Exercise on Synaptic Plasticity Factor, Ultrastructural and Neurologic-Function in Hippocampus and Cerebellum of Aging Rats. Exercise Science, 23(3): 217-228, 2014. Aging results in cognitive and balance decline both in humans and animals. Neurogenesis in the hippocampus and cerebellum also declines with age. Traditionally, exercise has been used for the treatment of several neuro degenerative disorders. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise on spatial learning memory ability, the synapses and the synaptic-plasticity neurotrophic factor in hippocampus and cerebellum in aged-rats. The experimental animals were divided into three groups (n=15 in each group): the normal control group (NCG), the aging control group (ACG), the aging and exercise-trained group (AEG). Animals in the exercise group were performed to daily exercise on the tower climbing during 12 weeks. The spatial learning and memory capability was evaluated by Morris water maze in a separate set of rats. Also, the balance function was evaluated by Balance beam test. Western blotting analysis for the expression of BDNF, TrkB and synapsin I was performed. Electron microscopy were used to evaluate synaptic plasticity and quantitative electron microscopy was used to investigate morphological changes in the hippocampus. Measurements taken from analysis of the electron micrograph sets were used to calculate the spine synapses in hippocampus. Here in this study, it have shown that both synaptic plasticity neurotrophic factor expression and spine synapses were suppressed in aged-rat, whereas tower climbing exercise alleviated the aging-induced suppression of both synaptic-plasticity neurotrophic factor expression and spine synapses in the hippocampus of rats. The results of the present study indicate that tower climbing exercise may facilitate recovery from the CNS complications associated with aging by inducing enhanced the morphological development of synapses in the hippocampus via the augmentation of synaptic plasticity neurotrophic factor expression in the h ippocampus a nd t he cerebel l um.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
연구목적 : 본 시험의 목적은 임상시험 시작전에 연구자들을 대상으로 PANSS Workshop을 통하여 PANSS, ESRS에 대한 국내에서의 표준화 작업을 구축하고 새로운 정신병 치료제인 리스페리돈의 효과와 안정성을 재확인하여 리스페리돈 사용에 대한 적정화를 이루는데 있다. 연구방법 : 1996년 4월부터 1996년 9월까지 국내 39개 대학병원 정신과에 입원중인 혹은 증상이 악화되어 입원하는 정신분열병 환자 377명을 대상으로 다시설 개방 연구를 시행하였다. 1주일간의 약물 배설기간을 가진후, 리스페리돈을 8주간 투여하였고, 기준점, 1주, 2주, 4주, 그리고 8주후에 평가되었다. 용량은 제1일에는 리스페리돈 1mg씩 1일 2회, 제2일에는 2mg씩 1일 2회, 제3∼7일에는 3mg씩 1일 2회 투여하였다. 이후 환자의 임상상태에 따라 임의로 증량할 수 있으며, 최대 일일 16mg을 초과하지 않도록 하였다. 추체외로 증상을 조절하기 위한 투약을 허용하였다. 임상증상 및 부작용의 평가는 PANSS(Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), CGI(Clinical Global Impression) 그리고 ESRS(Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale)을 사용하였다. 연구결과 : 377명중 343명(91%)이 8주간의 연구를 완결하였다. 치료 종결시점인 8주후 PANSS 총점수가 20% 이상 호전된 경우를 약물 반응군으로 정의할때, 약물반응군은 81.3%였다. 리스페리돈에 반응하는 예측인자로는 발병연령, 이전의 입원 횟수, 유병기간이 관련 있었다. 리스페리돈은 1주후부터 PANSS양성, 음성, 및 일반정신병리 점수상에 유의한 호전을 보여 효과가 빨랐다. CGI의 경우도 기준점에 비해 1주후부터 유의한 감소를 나타내었다. ESRS의 경우, 파킨슨 평가점수는 기준점과 비교해 투여 1주, 2주, 4주후 유의하게 증가되었다가 8주후 기준점과 차이가 없었다. Dystonia 평가점수는 1주후만 유의한 증가를 보였으며, dyskinesia 평가점수는 유의한 차이가 없었다. 혈압, 맥박수의 생명징후 및 일반 혈액학 검사, 생화학적 검사, 심전도 검사에서 유의한 변화는 없었다. 결 론 : 이상의 다시설 개방 임상 연구를 통해 리스페리돈은 정신분열병 환자에서 양성증상뿐만 아니라 음성증상 및 전반적인 증상에도 효과적인 것으로 사료된다. 보다 명확한 평가를 위해서는 다른 항정신병약물과의 이중맹검 연구가 필요할 것으로 생각되며, 또한 장기적 치료에 대한 평가도 함께 이루어져야 하겠다. Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of risperidone in the treatment of Korean schizophrenic patients. Method : This multicenter open study included 377 schizophrenic patients drawn from 39 university hospitals. After a wash-out period of 1 week, the schizophrenic patients were treated with risperidone for 8 weeks and evaluated at 5 points ; at baseline, and 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. The dose was increased from 2mg/day(1mg twice daily) to 6mg/day(3mg twice daily) during the first week and adjusted to a maximum of 16mg/day over the next 7 weeks according to the patient's clinical response. Medication to control extrapyramidal symptoms was permitted. The psychiatric and neurological status of the patients was assessed by PANSS, CGI, and ESRS scales. Results : 343(91%) of 377 patients completed the 8-week trial period. Clinical improvement, as defined by a 20% or more reduction in total PANSS score at end point, was shown by 81.3% of patients. The predictors of response to risperidone were associated older age, shorter duration of illness, fewer previous hospitalization. Risperidone had rapid onset of action ; a significant decrease of the total PANSS and three PANSS factor(positive, negative, general), and CGI was already noticed at the end of first week. For the ESRS, parkinsonism rating scores were significantly increased until week 4 comparing with baseline. Dystonia rating scores were significantly increased until week 1, and dyskinesia rating scores were not significantly changed during the study. Laboratory parameters including vital sign, EKG, hematological, and biochemical values showed no significant changes during the trial. Conclusions : This study suggests that risperidone is generally safe and effective against both the positive and negative symptoms in our group of patients.
Background : Malignant melanoma in Korea has been increasing as in other countries, but there is no nationwide survey of malignant melanoma in Korea. Objective : The aim of this study was to document the clinical and histopathological features of cutaneous melanoma in Korea. Methods : The Dermatopathology Research Group conducted a review of nationwide collection of109 primary cutaneous melanomas, diagnosed at 23 institutes over a recent 3-year period. Clinical records and pathology slides of the patients were reviewed retrospectively. Results and Conclusion : 1. The peak age was the 7th decade with the mean age of 58.1 years. Korea has a higher rate of acral melanoma and much lower rate of lentigo maligna melanoma. 2. Major component tumor cell was spindle cell type. 3. Clark level of tumor was Ⅲ or more and Breslow depth was 2 ㎜ or more at the time of the first diagnosis in many cases (62%). 4. Pre-existing melanocytic nevus was present in a few cases (3 cases). 5. All these features suggest that the racial difference between the Korean and the Caucasian is evident. We also suggest that an early detection program is very important to cure this malignant tumor. (Korean J Dermatol 2003;41(1) 43∼47)
Background : The relative frequency and clinicopathologic characteristics of lymphomas vary according to geography and race. Data on the features of cutaneous lymphoma in Korea we limited. Objective : The aim of this study was to document the relative occurrence, the clinical and histopathological features of cutaneous lymphomas in Korea. Methods : The Korean Dermatopathology Research Group conducted a review of nationwide collection of 80 cutaneous lymphomas, diagnosed at 23 institutes over recent 3-year period. Clinical records and pathology slides of the patients were reviewed retrospectively. Results and Conclusion : 1. Korea has a higher rate of T-cell lymphoma and NK/T cell lymphoma and a much lower rate of cutaneous B cell lymphoma. 2. The relative frequency of the major diagnostic group according to WHO classification was as follows mycosis fungoides/Sezary syndrome, 42.5%; anaplastic large cell lymphoma, 19%; nasal and nasal type NK/T cell lymphoma, 15%; subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma, 11%; peripheral T cell lymphoma, unspecified, 7.5%; follicular lymphoma, 3%; marginal zone Iymphorna, 1%; angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy, 1%. 3. Compared with Western countries, the rate of nasal and nasal-type NK/T cell lymphoma and subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma were much higher. Therefore, The EORTC classification is not effective in dealing with Korean cases of cutaneous lymphoma. We consider the principles of the WHO classification are applicable to the Korean cases of cutaneous lymphoma. (Korean J Dermatol 2003;41(1) : 48∼57)
While more attention has been paid in recent years to urban point source pollution control, no considerable measures have been taken to control urban non-point source pollution. Contaminants from non-point sources deposited on urban impermeable surfaces such as road and highway are easily released to the public waters by rainfall, leading to the deterioration in water quality in urban area. The present study investigated a system using filter media to reduce the level of contamination in urban road runoff. Three different media, designated as J-P (polypropylene, blowing type), B-P (polypropylene, fiber type), and P-F (Polyvinyl alcohol, cube and sheet type) were evaluated on the basis of pollutant removal efficiency as well as hydraulic property. Experiments were peformed using a 1/4-scale treatment unit at various pollutant roading and rainfall intensity with real rainwater runoff collected from road surfaces. The results at different rainfall intensities shows that the medium J-P is superior to the other media for water permeability. J-P was not blocked at 10 ㎜/hr rainfall and its permeability was stable. On the other hand, B-P and P-F resulted in substantial overflow ratio even at l ㎜/hr rainfall intensity. Comparing treatment efficiencies for suspended solids, all media showed similar removal ranged from 91% to 95%. However, J-P seems to be better than the other media considering its higher water permeability. J-P and P-F, both hydrophobic, yielded over 76% of heavy metal removal. But, the hydrophilic media B-P showed much smaller removal ranging from 26% to 47%. This indicates that J-P and P-F are beneficial to remove heavy metal due to their hydrophobic property. The treatment efficiencies over PAHs (poly aromatic hydrocarbons) showed the similar removal efficiency ranging from 66% to 97% for all three media.
Pseudomembranous colitis, caused by altering the normal colonic flora and allowing the multiplication of Clostridium difficile, is an deleterious adverse effect of antibiotics. But it is rarely reported by rifampicin. Rifampicin is one of the first line drug in the treatment of tuberculosis and many patients are exposed to its potential adverse effects. We experienced a patient that had abdominal discomfort and hematochezia due to pseudomembranous colitis after receiving antituberculous medication, and which was probably caused by rifampicin. A 82 years old man was admitted with abdominal discomfort and hematochezia for one week. On the past history he had been diagnosed as endobronchial tuberculosis about 4 months ago. Colonoscopy revealed multiple discrete whitish mucosal lesion on rectosigmoid colon, and histologic findings were consistent with pseudomembranous colitis. The antituberculous agents were discontinued and vancomycin was administered. The patient's symptoms were resolved within several days. There was no recurrence after reinstitution of the antituberculous agents excluding rifampicin. We report here on a case of pseudomembranous colitis probably due to rifampicin.
목적 : 항균제 오남용으로 인한 내성균의 출현, 약물부작용의 발생 및 약제 비용의 증가는 환자 개인뿐만 아니라 사회적으로 문제가 되고 있다. 본 연구는 항생제의 오남용을 막기 위한 제도의 일환으로 시행한 아미노글리코사이드 사용 제한정책의 비용 효과적인 측면을 조사하고 그람음성간균에 의해 병원성 균혈증이 발생한 환자들을 대상으로 이 정책이 항생제 내성률과 환자 사망률에 미치는 영향을 연구하였다. 방법 : 930병상 규모의 3차 병원인 일개 대학병원에서 아미노글리코사이드 사용제한정책이 시행된 직후인 2002년 3월에서 9월 사이에 그람음성간균(Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Serratia marcescens, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Burkholderia cepacia)에 의해 발생한 병원성 균혈증 환자 60명(실험군)과, 이 정책이 시행되기 전에 입원한 환자들 중 균주별로 같은 수만큼 선별한 병원성 균혈증 환자 60명(대조군)의 의무기록을 후향적으로 조사하였다. 결과 : 아미노글리코사이드 사용제한정책이 시행된 시기인 2002년 3월에서 9월 사이에 처방된 아미노글리코사이드 사용량 및 비용을 이 정책이 시행되기 전인 2001년 3월에서 9월 사이와 비교한 결과, 아미노글리코사이드의 사용량(antimicrobial utilization density)은 사용제한 후 225.2에서 130.3으로 42% 감소하였고 약제 비용은 44% 감소하였다. 아미노글리코사이드 사용제한 후 병원성 균혈증을 유발한 그람 음성간균의 이 항생제에 대한 내성률은 유의한 변화를 보이지 않았으며 균혈증과 직접 연관된 사망률도 환자의 나이, 성별, 기저질환 및 원발병소 등을 보정할 경우 유의한 차이를 보이지 않았다(40.4% vs. 24.1%, P=0.11). 결론 : 아미노글리코사이드를 5일을 초과한 사용 시 감염전문가의 사전 승인을 필요로 하는 사용제한정책은 아미노글리코사이드의 사용량과 비용을 유의하게 감소시켰다. 또한 이 정책 시행 후 그람음성간균에 의한 균혈증 환자에서 균혈증으로 인한 사망률과 아미노글리코사이드에 대한 내성률은 유의한 차이가 없었다. Objective : To evaluate the effects of an aminoglycoside restriction policy on expenditures for aminoglycosides, antimicrobial resistance rates and clinical outcome of nosocomial bacteremia caused by Gram-negative bacilli (GNB). Methods : Starting in February, 2002, a prior consultation with an infectious disease specialist for using aminoglycoside antibiotics over 5 days was required in a 930-bed university hospital. In retrospective analysis of medical records 7 months after initiation of the aminoglycoside restriction policy, sixty cases of clinically relevant nosocomial bacteremia caused by GNB were found. These bacteremic patients were compared with sixty, species-matched, control patients with nosocomial Gramnegative bacteremia before the policy for total expenditures for aminoglycosides, susceptibility to antibiotics and clinical outcomes of bacteremia. Results : During the same period of 7 months before and after the restriction policy, total expenditures for aminoglycosides decreased by 44% in cost (from 465,030,841 Won to 259,618,337 Won) and the antimicrobial utilization density of aminoglycosides decreased by 42% (from 225,2 to 130.3). On the other hand, the patterns of antibiotic susceptibility and bacteremia-related in-hospital mortality rates after the policy did not show a significant change, compared with those before the policy. Conclusion : Antibiotic restrictions are among the most popular methods to diminish the practice of antibiotic overuse in hospitals. In this study, requirement for prior approval of aminoglycoside use over 5 days led to a significant decrease in the amount and cost of total aminoglycosides without a significant change in susceptibility patterns and bacteremia-related mortality rates.
To investigate the prognostic factors for the survival of transplanted kidney in patients with end-stage renal failure, 59 cases of renal transplantation from September 1986 to Feburary 1997 in Chungnam National University Hospital were analyzed retrospectively. The results were as follows: 1)The mean age of recipients was 33.8 years and that of doners was 38.9 years. The male to female ratio of recipients was 2.5:1, and that of donors was 1.03:1 2) Living related donore(LRD) were 79.6% and living non-related donors were 20.3%. The HLA-identical donors(ID) in LRD were 18.7% and HLA-haploidentical donors(HID) were 61.0%. In living non-related donors(LNRD), mean matched HLA-AB antigens were 1.56 and mean matched HLA-DR antigens were 0.56. 3) The average 5-year patient survival fate was 94%, and average 5-year graft survival rate was 70%. The 5-year graft survival fate of HLA-ID was 100%, and those HLA-HID and LNR were 70% and 36% respectively. 4) Total 33 episodes of acute rejection were found in 45.8% of transplanted patients. The number of acute rejection episode did not show significant difference between LRD and LNRD(P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in MLC between two groups(p > 0.05). 5) In comparison between the 18 patients who lost their graft function in 5 years and 17 patients who are maintaining graft function for more than 5 years, MLC was significantly lower in patients with functioning graft than of patients with non-functioning graft (p < 0.05). The number of rejection episode was also lower in patients with functioning graft than that of the patients with non-functioning graft(p < 0.05). However, there were no significant difference in recepient and donor age and history of pre-transplantation donor specific transfusion between two groups. With the results above, we can speculate that adequate donor selection according to good matched HLA typing and low MLC is very important for graft survival in renal transplantation. Prevention and treatment of acute rejection in renal transplantation is also na important factor for graft survival.
Growth in population and urbanization has progressively increased the loadings of pollutants from non-point sources as well as point sources. Therefore, it is necessary to manage both point and non-point sources contaminations for protecting water environment and improving water quality. This study investigated the characteristics of pollutant release over a wide range of rainfall intensities as a requisite to control road runoff that accounts for the largest portion of non-point source contamination in urban areas. Samples of runoff rainwater collected from real road surfaces were analyzed for physicochemical parameters such as pH, suspended solids, and heavy metals. A experimental model road (30cm×30cm) was also used to evaluate wash-off properties of pollutants deposited on the surface as functions of time and rainfall intensity. Analysis of runoff samples on rain events showed that the pollutant wash-off patterns for heavy metal and suspended solids were similar. This implies that the particles in rainwater adsorb heavy metals. Experiments using the model road made of impervious asphalt demonstrate a strong first flush phenomenon. At high rainfall intensity, approximately 80% of total pollutants were released within 15 min. The pollutant wash-off rates rapidly increase from 9 ㎜/hr to 12 ㎜/hr of rainfall intensity and decrease over 12 ㎜/hr of rainfall intensity.