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Current knowledges on epidemiology of schizophrenia were briefly reviewed with respect to basic rates(prevalence and incidence) and risk factors(demographic correlates, antece-ding and precipitating factors, genetic factors, and other factors). To date, it seems that epidemiological researches on schizophrenia were hampered by definitional ambiguity and some methodological problems, which, in turn, made the compa-rison across the studies more difficult. Despite these limitations, there have been emerging new trends in both descriptive studies and exploration of risk factors of schizophrenia. Ge-netic epidemiology could be one of such powerful strategies in the epidemiologic research of schizophrenia. It is necessary that future epidemiological research of schizophrenia should incorporate current laboratory measures of vulnerability into field survey studies.
This paper empirically examines what role of existing exporters play in the discovery of new export products and whether there are evidence of spillovers from export discovery. We find that existing exporters are more likely to discover new export products than non-exporters. We also find evidence of export discovery spillovers; export discovery of a product by some plants had an effect of increasing the probability of subsequent export market penetration of the same product by other plants. Export discovery spillovers are found to be stronger among geographically closely located plants. We argue that information spillovers is a part of the story: you learn from your neighboring discoverers about the profitability of potentially exportable products.
This study investigated the effects on physical and chemical properties of a polyimide (PI) substrate of the exposure time and the flow rates of argon and oxygen for ion-beam treatment. The surface roughness, morphology, and chemical bonding states of the PI surface were analyzed, and the change in hydrophilicity of PI after ion-beam treatment was investigated. The contact angle of PI decreased after ion-beam treatment, which is considered to be due to increases the in surface roughness and the proportion of hydrophilic bonds such as C-O. Particularly, ion-beam treatment with argon and oxygen flow rates of 25 and 25 sccm, respectively, decreased the contact angle from 61.6° to 32.9° and increased the proportion of C-O bonds from 3.5% to 15.7%. Finally, the thin SiO2 layer which was deposited on ion-beam treated PI showed a smoother and flatter morphology than that on pristine PI due to the increase in the hydrophilicity of the PI substrate.