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This study is intended to investigate the values in sports of the juveniles as socioeconomic background. Three major facotrs are set to accomplish this research. In this study, stratified cluster random sampling method was used and 1320 high school students who live in Seoul were extracted but collected 1116 students. In this study questionnaires were re-arragned to suit to this study based by normally using questions to ask socioeconomic background, and by the re-arranged questions by 4 Korean scholars and researchers from the Evarett(1962), the Allport, the Vernon, and the Lindzey(1960) to ask values in sports. To analyse the data, the mean, the standard deviation, t-test, one-way ANOVA, and discriminant analysis were used. The conclusions of this study are following. First, the values in sports are differ according to the charactors of the students. Second, There are difference in the values in sports according to the socioeconomic background. Third, this study shows the values in sports could be classified and predict partly subjective social classes.
Carbon and titanium were added in two-phase(B2+L1₂) Ni-Al-Fe alloys for carbides precipitation, and the additions of 0.2 wt.%C and 3 at.%Ti have been found to be the most adequate for the formation of carbides. Carbon-doped alloys showed more refined microstructure than other carbon free alloys. The carbides, which were formed in the as-cast microstructure showing equiaxed dendrites, appeared to play a role to suppress the grain growth and the coarsening of second phases. The NAF29-10 alloy including no carbides showed the lamellar type microstructure, while the NAF29-10-C alloy including carbides showed much more refined mesh type microstructure. When the carbon free alloys were quenched into water, cracks occurred at the grain boundaries probably due to martensitic transformation. However, these cracks were not observed in the carbon doped alloy. Therefore, the carbon doped alloys showed a good ductility at room temperature. They also showed much higher yield strength than other alloys without carbides through the whole temperature ranges.
In the previous study, the β+γ' alloy containing Ti and C showed a more refined mesh microstructure than the lamellar microstructure. This study revealed that the titanium among alloying elements helped to refine the microstructure. The M_s temperature of NiAl lowered rapidly with an increasing titanium content. This effect therefore contributed to the formation of the fine microsturucture. In the case of a low titanium content(below 2.2at.%), the M_s temperature was above ∼255℃, and when the martensite was heated, the exothermic β'→Ni_5Al₃ transformation appeared first. Because the martensite twins could be inherited during the β'→Ni_5Al₃ transformation, the lamellar β+γ' structure similar to martensite plates was finally formed. However, in the case of a high titanium content, the M_s temperature sufficiently lowered, so the endothermic β'→β transformation could occur before the β'→Ni_5Al₃ transformation. The endothermic transformation extinguished the martensite plates, therefore allowing the mesh microstructure to be independently formed from the martensite plates.
Nowadays the Apparel CAD is required in the clothing industries. So many domestic Apparel education institutions are interested in the Apparel CAD education. By investigating the present Apparel CAD education situations in college, the writer shows some data that are helpful to solve the problems in these parts. The purpose of this study is to give some helps in teaching the Apparel CAD in college. The results of this study are as followings, as the use of CAD systems is growing in the clothing industries, many colleges are concerned with the Apparel CAD. As a result, many colleges equip the Apparel CAD systems and the Apparel CAD is taught as special lectures, the part of other courses or regular course in many colleges. Apparel CAD should be taught as a regular course in colleges. And it should be taught systematically with Design CAD and Pattern CAD But it is taught limitedly as special lectures, the part of other courses and post graduate studies. So it is impossible to educate the students professionally. As many colleges the CAD equipments are not opened to the students, the student's use of CAD systems are limited, so educational environment needs to improve to use CAD systems freely.
본 연구는 우리나라 공공기관이 운영하는 대도시의 도시철도 노선에 대하여 비용 비효율성의 정도를 도출하고, 이러한 비효율성의 발생 원인을 파악하고자 하였다. 이를 위하여 도시철도 노선을 노동, 동력, 유지보수의 세 가지 생산요소를 투입하여 열차-km의 산출물을 생산하는 형태로 상정하고, 확률적 비용변경 접근법을 이용한 초월대수 함수형태의 가변비용함수모형을 설정하였다. 확률적 비용변경 접근법을 적용한 도시철도 노선의 운영비용 비효율성 분석 결과, 노선 전체의 6년간 절감가능 비용은 약 6,672억원으로 추정되었으며, 비효율성이 높은 상위 5개 노선은 부산1호선, 대구1호선, 대전1호선, 광주1호선, 대구2호선으로 파악되었다. 비효율의 발생원인은 노동과 유지보수 요소에 기인하며, 본 연구의 결과를 활용하면, 도시철도 운영에 있어서의 인력 및 유지보수 비용 절감을 위한 대책의 우선순위와 구체적인 방안 모색에 있어 참고가 가능할 것이라 사료된다. The purpose of this study is to estimate the degree of cost inefficiency for the urban railway lines of a metropolitan city operated by public institutions in Korea and identify the causes of this inefficiency. To this end, we assume that the urban railway lines produce the output of train-km by putting three production factors of labor, electric power and maintenance and set the variable cost function model with the translog function to make a stochastic cost frontier analysis. Based on estimated result, we conclude that the cost savings for 6 years of all lines are about 6,672 hundred million won and top five lines with high inefficiency are Busan Line1, Daegu Line1, Daejeon Line1, Gwangju Line1, and Daegu Line2. The causes of inefficiency are attributable to labor and maintenance factors. The results of this study can be useful in case of finding the priorities of measures and specific plans for reducing labor and maintenance costs in the urban railway operation.
Salmonella typhimurium TA98의 streptomycin 의존성 SD510 균주를 사용하여 녹차의 수용성 추출물과 에탄올 용해성 추출물에 대한 항변이 효과를 검토하였다. 4-NQO에 대한 항변이 활성은 수용성 추출물과 에탄올 용해성 추출물 모두에서 추출물의 투여량이 증가할수록 높았으며, 억제효과는 5월과 8월 순 녹차 추출물을 1,000 ㎍/plate투여했을 때 각각 93% 및 95%로 나타났다. trp-P-1에 대한 항변이 활성은 에탄올 용해성 추출물의 경우 53.3∼921.%로서 투여농도가 증가할수록 억제 효과가 높았다. 그러나 수용성 추출물은 투여농도가 증가할수록 항변이 활성이 감소하였다. Desmutagenic effects of water-soluble and ethanol-soluble extracts of dried green tea toward the mutagenicity of 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide(4-NQO) and 3-Amino-1,4- dimethyl-5H-pyrido〔4,3-b〕indole(Trp-P-1) in streptomycin-dependent SD510 strains of Salmonella typhimurium TA98 were investigated. Inhibition effects toward the mutagenicity of 4-NQO and Trp-P-1 of water-soluble and ethanol-soluble extracts from green tea were high as increase of concentration of extracts. Desmutagenic effects toward 4-NQO of water-soluble and ethanol-soluble extracts from green tea harvested in May and August were up to 93% in 1,000 μg of extract/plate. Desmutagenic effects toward Trp-P-1 of ethanol-soluble extracts from green tea were 53.3∼92.1%, but the effects of water-soluble extracts decreased as increase of concentration of extracts.
알로에 베라(Aloe vera)와 아보레센스(Aloe avoresence)를 증류수, 메탄올, 에탄올, 헥산 및 에칠에테르로 각각 추출한 후 이들 용매별 추출물을 수용성 분획과 비수용성 분획으로 분리하여 NPD메 대한 항변이원성을 검색하였다. 알로에 베라와 아보레센스의 수용성 획분 모두 직접변이원 물질인 NPD에 대하여 4∼56%의 항변이 효과를 보였다. 반면, 알로에 베라의 용매별 비수용성 분획은 TA97 및 TA98 균주에서 54∼100%의 높은 활성을 보였다. 특히 에칠에테르 추출물은 두 시험균주 모두에서 항변이 활성이 높게 나타났다. 알로에 아보레센스의 비수용성 분획은 74∼100%의 높은 항변이 활성을 나타내었는데, 시료를 plate당 20 ㎕ 투여했을 때 모든 추출물들이 두 시험균주에서 90% 이상의 높은 항변이 활성을 나타내었다. Desmutagenic effects of water-soluble and water-insoluble fractions from Aloe vera and Aloe avoresence with different solvents against the mutagenicity of 4-nitro-o-pheny1enediamine(NPD) were investigated. Desmutagenic effects of water-insoluble fractions from Aloe vera and Aloe avoresence against NPD-induced mutations in TA97 and TA98 strains were very high compared with water-soluble fractions: whereas water-soluble fractions from two kinds Aloes showed the inhibition effects of 4∼56% water-insoluble fractions showed the activities of 54∼100% for Aloe vera and 74∼100% for Aloe avoresence. Especially, the addition of 20 ㎕ of water-insoluble fractions per plate snowed high activities up to 90% in TA97 and TA98 strains.