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주차안내 시스템은 주차장에서 주차정보를 제공하여 운전자에게 주차 편리성을 제공한다. 동시에 다수의 센서, 디스플레이와 제어모듈을 이용하여 아주 소량의 전기 에너지 만을 소모한다. 녹색 빌딩 설계의 요구가 점차 증가함에 따라 주차관리 시스템의 운용 전력 감축 문제가 이수화 되고 있다. 본 논문에서는 주차 관리 시스템의 감지기와 디스플레이 장치의 설계와 소비전력 감축의 결과를 제시한다. 이 시스템은 무선 Park Tile 과 Park Disk를 사용하여 전력소비를 감축 시키고, 여러 개의 주차공간 감지기와 자동차 카운터, 정보 디스플레이 장치, 안내 터미널과 제어장치로 구성되어 있다. 그리고 시스템 구조설계와 통신망 설계, 주차정보 서비스 시나리오 설계, .배터리 수명 제어, 운영 전력 평가 등이 수행되었다. 주차장당 운영전력은 0.4W로 평가 되었으며, 이는 기존 시스템의 17%정도 이고 매년 유지비는 기존 시스템에 비해 43%에 해당된다. The parking guidance system can increase driver’s convenience with detailed parking information service in the parking lot. At the same time, parking guidance system consumes non-negligible electrical energy with large amount of sensors, displays and control modules. With the increase in the demand for green and sustainable building design all over the world, it becomes a meaningful issue for parking guidance system to reduce operating power. This paper presents the preliminary design and estimated results of a parking guidance system which is optimized to reduce the power consumption mainly on detectors and displays. The system design is based on pre-developed wireless parking detectors, Park Tile and Park Disk. The system has a number of parking space detectors, vehicle count detectors, information displays, guidance terminals and other control units. We have performed system architecture design, communication network design, parking information service scenario planning, battery life regulation and at last operating power estimation. The estimated operating power was 0.4 watt per parking-slot, which is 17% of traditional systems. The estimated annual maintain cost was 43% of traditional systems.
In America and Europe from the latter part of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, the planning ideologies of park system and greenbelts were made and these planning ideologies are called Green Network System. They are different in terms of the purpose, type and method, but they have common characteristics of encouraging order and amenity in cities based on the consecutive connection of green space, and of coping with the problems happening in cities. Just as the park system was made, centering around new America and greenbelts were developed to meet with the problems happening in large cities, the structural arrangement and the roles of greens should be different. However, this connection system of greens was oriented in the circumstances of America and Europe at that time so it has not been confirmed what sizes of cities it would be useful for. On the other hand, separately from the Green Network System, the theory of park arrangement is being developed. It intends to cope with deterioration of the living environment caused by overcrowded cities and with increase in the demands of public parks. It is based on the neighborhood unit and the science of human settlement. In addition, the theory of park arrangement is based on the effects of greens in use, rather than, in decoration so it encourages dispersion and hierarchical system of parks, having the human settlement as base. Consequently, the theory of park arrangement is influenced by the characteristics and the type of households, and it has a required area and planning unit. However, this theory has the right for walking and human scale as the basic unit so for the large parks that are beyond the human scale, the planning criteria are not clear. The theory of park arrangement, which is based on the neighborhood unit, may be useful for the cities with tens of thousands of residents, but it is partially applied for the cities with 500,000~1,000,000 residents. And further, in organizing the green system for the whole city, the theory of park arrangement can be ignored. As seen in the above, the existing arrangement theory has some problems: it is just for partial application; and it is not suitable for the size and the growing speed of cities. The greens in cities should be operated as the comprehensive system, but greenbelts and park arrangement have been studied separately so far. That`s why it is necessary to review again the existing arrangement theory.
The Mountainous National Park is the area where it has the coexisted purposes, use and preservation, which cannot be harmonized. But in recent year, it is natural tendency that the use of the National Park is increasing day by day and the fact is that the side of use than preservation is emphasized. Especially in leisure society as today, even the appointment itself of the National Park is the factor that use can be increased and because it has the great influence affecting to the neighboring community economy including the National Park its neighbors have a marked leaning toward the use of two purposes and insist only development. In fact, the area of most National Park is equipped with the necessary facility to offer convenience of the user. But such necessity causes the increase of the weighted level of use in liaison with the requests of development of its inhabitants. But the National Park, for the original purposes, must keep the balance between use and preservation. Because the natural environmental condition that the National Park has is the product of nature and cannot be produced by human-power the demand cannot be met by the increase of supply even though the requests for the offer of natural environment are increased. Therefore, to keep the balance between use and preservation it is necessary that there should be consideration for the usable side and preservable one of resource, the National Park. This can be said by the concept of social carrying capacity and ecological carrying capacity. Accordingly the concept of carrying capacity of the National Park is formed by the duplicated projections of the ecological carrying capacity and the social one. In addition these carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Parks are used for the efficient management objectives of them and they offer the policy frame necessary for their future purpose. Finally, the results from this research work are as follows: 1. We can define the concept of the carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Park consisting of the total of management objectives, ecological carrying capacity and social carrying capacity as the level which the characteristics of the Mountainous National Park can be maintained without the deterioration in quality of experience of user and ecological environment. 2. The major key points consisting of the concepts of the carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Park necessarily require the establishment of the concrete and clear management objective. 3. The management of the Mountainous National Park, centering around the zoning district, requires the establishment of the levels of management and the followings are required by each level. 1) non-interference. 2) the intensive management. 3) the more intensive management. 4. We must recognize the management objectives of the Mountainous National Park as the limitation of acceptable changes. 5. The concept of the carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Park can use for the policy level deciding the means and strategies for the management of the Mountainous National Park.
<P><B>Aims</B></P><P>DJ-1/park7, a multifunctional protein, may play essential roles in the vascular system. However, the function of DJ-1/park7 in vascular contractility has remained unclear. The present study was designed to investigate whether the DJ-1/park7 is involved in the regulation of vascular contractility and systolic blood pressure (SBP).</P><P><B>Methods and results</B></P><P>Norepinephrine (NE) elevated contraction in endothelium-intact vessels in a dose-dependent manner, to a greater extent in DJ-1/park7 knockout (DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP>) mice than in wild-type (DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP>) mice. Acetylcholine inhibited NE-evoked contraction in endothelium-intact vessels, and this was markedly impaired in DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice compared with DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP>. Nitric oxide (NO) production (82.1 ± 2.8% of control) and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) expression (61.7 ± 8.9%) were lower, but H<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>2</SUB> production (126.4 ± 8.6%) was higher, in endothelial cells from DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice than in those from DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP> controls; these effects were reversed by DJ-1/park7-overexpressing endothelial cells from DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice. Histone deacetylase (HDAC)-1 recruitment and H3 histone acetylation at the eNOS promoter were elevated and diminished, respectively, in DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice compared with DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP> controls. Moreover, SBP was significantly elevated in DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice compared with DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP> controls, but this elevation was inhibited in mice treated with valproic acid, an inhibitor of Class I HDACs including HDAC-1.</P><P><B>Conclusion</B></P><P>These results demonstrate that DJ-1/park7 protein may be implicated in the regulation of vascular contractility and blood pressure, probably by the impairment of NO production through H<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>2</SUB>-mediated epigenetic inhibition of eNOS expression.</P>
The purpose of this study is to investigate the prime factors that affect to user postoccupancy evaluation of activities and facilities in urban parks, to classify those factors, to find out factors about them, and then to suggest important indicators in the urban park planning, design, and development. The survey research was done using the self-administered questionnaire method by 435 peoples in the Busan City who participated in recreational activities in the Amnam Park. The Analysis of the data primarily consists of two phase: The first analysis was dealt an exploratory factor analysis which identified major factors involved in user postoccupancy evaluation with reacreational activities and facilities in Amnam Park by the SPSS(Ver.6.0) program and the second analysis was used to investigate the factors affected to user postoccupancy evaluation in the urban park by the Regression Analysis. According to the factor analysis, user postoccupancy evaluation of facilities in urban parks concerning the 20 variables, 5 prime factors by the staistical values were considered. The factor analysis showed that user postoccupancy evaluation of activities in urban parks concerning the 11 variables, 3 prime factors by the staistical values were analysed. Postoccupancy evaluation in the urban park by the Regression Analysis suggested that the two varlables as 'the directions of park development' and 'companies with the personal specific characteristics' are significant in addition to the some variables presented in user postoccupancy evaluation with reacreational activities and facilities in Amnam Park by the factor analysis. Furthomore the analysis models were identified as having significant effects on the factor and regression analysis. Overall fits of both models were very good. These significant relationships indicate important factors and variables that should be considered in planning, design, and development of the urban parks. Therefore, development direction of the h a m park has to be analyzed as significant factors concerning user postoccupancy evaluation in a systematic way, recognized as important variables for planning process. The urban park has to be fully designed and established in the planning process not by the decision-maker's subjective evaluation but by user postoccupancy evaluation.
In this paper, we described about evaluation of human sensibility using park assist system of the commercial vehicle. The perpendicular parking and parallel parking have been carried out as a user test and subjects are classified as beginning drivers, drivers with less than 1 year experience and over 3 years experience. As a result, parking duration of beginning drivers and drivers with less than 1 year experience who use automatic parking assistance system is similar to drivers with over 3 years experience. However error occurred according to sensor position and distance between vehicle and parking space. And also it occurred that the vehicle leaves from parking line or does not recognize the parking space. Therefore, if we improve its completeness by compensating problems that came up from this evaluation and distribute the automatic parking assistance system, it is expected that the park assistance system is to help driver providing convenience of parking.
본 연구에서는 역사와 문화를 품고 있는 목포 삼학도공원의 재정비계획 수립과정에서 이용만족도를 높이기 위한 계획 및 설계에 필요한 기초자료를 제공하고자, 공원 이용자들을 대상으로 만족도 분석을 진행하였다. 구체적으로 먼저, 역사적인 측면에서 삼학도공원의 특징을 살펴본 후, 공원시설의 구성과 운용실태에 대해 살펴보았다. 다음으로 삼학도공원의 이용과 만족도 조사를 시민과 관광객을 대상으로 실시한 결과로는 첫째, 삼학도공원은 주말을 이용해서 가족 및 친구와 함께 여가를 즐기기 위한 공간으로서 근린공원의 특징을 보이고 있는데, 이는 시민들이 삼학도공원을 근린공원의 이미지로 인식하는 것과 맥락을 같이 하고 있다. 둘째, 삼학도공원을 찾는 관광객들은 전남지역에 거주하는 사람들이 많았고, 연령층은 시민과 비슷하게 40대와 50대가 가장 높은 것으로 나타났고, 이들은 가족과 함께 관광목적으로 방문한 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 시민과 관광객 모두 삼학도공원의 이용 및 시설에 대해서는 대체로 만족하는 것으로 나타났으며, 시민은 그 이유로 편안한 쉼터와 좋은 자연환경이라고 응답하였다. 넷째, 시민과 관광객 모두 삼학도공원 이용 시 관리실, 화장실, 매점 등 안내 및 편의시설의 부족하다는 문제점을 제기하고 있으며, 삼학도에 새롭게 만들어졌으면 하는 시설과 사업에 대해시민과 관광객들은 섬의 정체성을 나타내기 위해 특색 없는 다리를 대신하여 육지와 삼학도를 이어주는 가동교 설치를 원하는 것으로 나타났다. 이용자간 만족도를 고려한 공원 공간개선 방향은 정리하면, 첫째 매립지의 기존 공원Zone(A)은 현재 공원시설을 최대한 활용함을 원칙으로 하고 이용측면에서 제기된 문제점을 개선하면서 지역 정체성을 살리고 최근의 트렌드에 맞는 새로운 아이템을 도입하는 방향으로 설계한다. 둘째, 삼학도 활용 Zone(B)은 복원된 삼학도를 적극적으로 활용하는 방향으로 설계한다. 셋째, 공원입구 Zone(C)는 공원의 위치 등 인지도 향상을 위한 안내 홍보 및 가동교 등 랜드마크 설치, 동선 유도책 등이 필요하다. 넷째, 목포내항 삼학도 해안 Zone(D)는 우수한 조망점이라는 특징을 적극 활용하고, 내륙과 내항측에서 접근이 용이한 동선 및 시선 유도계획 방향으로 설계한다. 본 연구의 결과를 통해 섬을 활용한 공원을 조성할 시 시설이용도 및 이용자 만족도를 높이 기 위해 일반적인 근린공원으로 그 역할을 제안하는 것보다는 해당 공원을 통해 지역의 문화와 정서를 담고 섬만의 정체성을 살리는 전략과 계획이 필요하며, 이러한 방식이 섬을 활용한 공원의 지속가능성을 보장할 수 있을 것이다. In this study, the author analyzed satisfaction with Samhak Island Park among park users with an aim to provide basic data essential to be applied in the planning and design phases in a way that enhances their satisfaction in the process of setting up the reorganization plan of this park entailing both the history and culture of Mokpo City. As a first step, the author first examined the characteristics of this park in terms of history and closely looked into the organization and features of park facilities. Secondly, the direction of space improvement plans was proposed based on the findings of the survey on satisfaction among residents and visitors at Samhak Island Park. To summarize the ways to improve park space considering satisfaction among park users, the current park Zone(A) at Mokpo landfill should be designed to address problems in terms of visiting, uphold the local identity, and introduce popular and trendy items, while maintaining the principle of making the best use of the present park facilities. Second, Zone(B) should be designed in a way that takes greater advantages of the restored Samhak Island. Third, Zone(C) representing an entrance requires tasks such as promotional activities to make public its location, landmark installments such as a movable bridge, and improved path guidance. Fourth, Zone(D) by the ocean of this island at the inner harbor should be designed to reflect its outstanding view point in the way that the users are allowed to have easier access from land as well as from the inner harbor as part of its view-attracting plan. The findings revealed that when it comes to building new parks using existing islands, strategies and plans to maintain its identity as an island while upholding its culture and feeling are needed rather than proposing its role as an ordinary neighborhood park to boost facility use and user satisfaction. This way is expected to successfully ensure sustainability related to parks using existing islands.
The purpose of this investigation is to propose a planning method for the possibility of accepting a housing as a utilization plan of a long term unexecuted park site. Currently, the park has been neglected due to lack of financial resources of the local government. In 2009, It is possible to develop a certain area as a non-park facility under condition that the park is built and donated. In the several cities, various projects for development of parks are being carried out, so the standard for securing the publicness of the park is needed. So, I would like to solve the problems such as social conflict with existing residents due to privatization of the park site and formation of park without considering the conditions of the park, and to study how to effectively utilize the park. To do this, we examine the conditions such as location condition, proximity to public transportation, site size, topography, and contact conditions. And we will present realization methods such as land use, development density, appropriate development method considering landscape, efficient housing type, and type of community facility.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
Before constructing parks, it's necessary to formulate plans in the direction of preventing crimes in advance, and follow-up management must be done after constructing the parks completely. If citizens are reluctant to use the parks because public safety is not guaranteed, the reason for being disappears. If the parks do not protect citizens from crimes, it would rather not exist than do harm to them. Rather, it is good policy. In this respect, the current system must be improved, which has no manual for crime prevention being confined to policy of increasing the number of parks. Through the government's expressing its firm will to secure public safety of parks by enacting clear provisions so that the original good will is not distorted to make resting places for citizens, a recognition that illegal acts which make others anxious are punished necessarily must be instilled into park users while taking a sound rest is protected thoroughly. In addition, the police should do the patrols actively in order to prevent crimes in the parks and try to increase street lamps and security CCTV installation in collaboration with the agencies concerned including gu offices. However, it can be said the most important thing to prevent damage of the crimes in the parks is the very civic consciousness. We should keep it in mind that along with continuous efforts by the police and public organizations, a sense of ownership that 'I am the owner of the park' and mature civic consciousness to ‘care for the park like my house’ will make the parks safe without crimes.
본 연구는 박두진의 유년시절의 의식이 박두진의 성장기는 물론이고 청년기와 장년기, 나아가 노년기에 이르기까지 영향을 미친다는 관점을 보이고 있다. 박두진의 특수한 경험에 해당되는 유년기의 가난은 박두진을 좌절시키기보다는 오히려 박두진의 일생에 걸쳐 박두진을 곧고 강한 인물이 되도록 할 수 있었던 요인이 되었던 것이다. 물론 유년기의 불우했던 환경이 모든 이에게 긍정적인 방향으로 귀결되지는 않았을 것이나 박두진은 이러한 조건에 굴복한 것이 아니라 이를 딛고 자신의 인생을 개척했음을 알 수 있다. 이는 박두진의 강직하고도 자의식 강한 성품을 말해주는바, 본고를 통해 박두진의 유년기의 정신적 풍경을 살펴봄으로써 그의 어떠한 요인이 그의 삶을 바르고 곧은 길로 이끌었는지 확인하고자 하였다. 지독한 가난으로 잦은 이사를 다니면서 동네 아이들로부터 심한 따돌림으로 고통 받아야 했던 박두진에게 산과의 인연은 절대적인 요인으로 다가왔다. 가난의 고통과 텃세로 인해 죽음을 생각할 만큼 열등감에 시달렸던 박두진에게 산은 놀이 공간이자 안식처였고 구원의 지대였다. 또한 산은 박두진에게 하나의 공동체였고 삶의 터전이었다. 박두진은 온갖 생명이 생기가 넘쳐나는 산을 통해 자유와 평등과 사랑으로 공동체를 이루고 살아가는 모습을 보게 되었고 생의 의욕을 다지게 된다. 산을 오르내리면서 얻게 되었던 이러한 체험은 소년 박두진을 좌절로부터 일으켜 세움으로써 그의 이상과 의지와 꿈을 형성하게 한 계기가 되었다. 이는 박두진이 에릭슨이 말한 바 유아 남성성의 단계를 슬기롭게 겪음으로써 ‘유능함’의 삶의 과정을 거치게 되었음을 말해준다. 유년기 산에서의 체험에 힘입어 박두진은 인생의 매 시기 강건하고 올곧은 선택을 할 수 있었고 이는 박두진의 시력의 세 단계로 나타나게 되었다. 그것은 첫째 산에서의 행복했던 체험에 바탕을 둔 초기 자연시와 관련되며 둘째 산에서 발견한 공동체의 모습에 의지하여 중기에 보여주었던 사회참여시와 관련되고, 셋째 산에서 얻게 된 이상적 공간에 대한 감각에 따른 후기의 신앙시와 관련된다. 산에서 외로움과 고통으로부터 벗어날 수 있었던 박두진에게 산은 안식의 공간이었을 뿐만 아니라 이상적인 공동체였으며 바른 삶을 살 수 있도록 하는 안내자였던 것이다. 이는 산에서 겪었던 유년기의 체험이 그의 시력에 결정적인 영향력으로 작용했음을 말해준다. 즉 소년 박두진은 산을 오르내리면서 많은 생각을 하게 되었고 이때 다져진 그의 굳은 의지는 박두진의 가슴에 화석처럼 쌓여 일생 동안 길잡이가 되었던 것이다. 박두진의 초기, 중기, 후기의 시들이 모두 변함없이 일관되게 강직하고도 완전한 형태로 이루어질 수 있었던 것도 이러한 사정에 기인한다. This study shows that Park’s childhood consciousness influences Park’s growing years, youth, and even the first years of life. The childhood poverty, which is equivalent to Park Doo-Jin’s special experience, could have made Park Doo-Jin a straight and strong character over her lifetime rather than let Park Doo-Jin be frustrated. Of course, the poor childhood environment may not have resulted in a positive one for everyone, but Park Doo-Jin overcame these conditions to learn about it. It shows Park’s strong and self-conscious character, and reveals what factors led Park in his life to the mental landscape. For Park Doo-Jin, who had to suffer from severe bullying by local children after moving around a lot due to extreme poverty, the bond with the mountain has become an essential factor. For Park Doo-Jin, who suffered from poverty and inferiority complex that made him think about his death, the mountain was a playground, a haven, and a land of salvation. The mountain was also a community for Park Doo-Jin and a place to live. Park Doo-Jin saw all kinds of lives forming a community of freedom, equality and love through the lively mountain, and he became more passionate about his life. The experience, which was gained from climbing the mountain, helped raise the boy Park Doo-Jin from frustration, forming his ideals, will, and dreams. It tells us that Park Doo-Jin has gone through what Erickson calls the “capable” lifestyle process by going through the smart phase of infant manhood. Thanks to his experiences in the mountain, he was able to make strong, straight choices during each phase of his life, which appeared to be three stages of Park’s vision. First, it is related to the early natural poetry based on the mountain experience, second, it is associated with the social participation in the latter phase of the year, depending on the appearance of the community found. Third, it is related with the latter faithful poetry. For Park Doo-Jin, who was able to escape from loneliness and suffering in the mountain, it was not only a place of rest, but also an ideal community and a guide to a just life. It suggests that his childhood experiences in the mountain served as a decisive factor in his vision. The boy, Park Doo-Jin, came up with many thoughts as he traveled around the mountain, and his strong will was wrapped up in Park’s chest like a fossil, making him a guide throughout his life. It is also due to these circumstances that Park Doo-Jin’s early, mid-and-after and later-the-day poems could all be performed consistently and in a complete form.