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The purpose of this study is to find out distributional principles of the shop-houses in residential district through physical composition of residential area. Through the research that are based on literature and field survey, it analysed the relation between physical composition of residential area and the shop-houses of selected four sites under similar urban condition where land readjustment project were held. The consequences of this study are summarized as follows; 1) A road that is not penetrating the inside a residential area is seemed to have low occupancy of shops comparing to other roads with similar hierarchy. And the shops functions as convenience facilities. It can be inferred from the statement above that even a road with higher hierarchy is not easy to form commercial area if without penetrating the residential area. 2) According to the size and the arranged method of Inner blocks of residential area towards major roads, distribution of shop-houses appear to be different. In other words, when shop-houses are located along the roads, the proportion of shop was higher than when located perpendicular to the roads. 3) When the number of average lots are little and the size of block is small, usually, street ratio and the number of corners gets higher, which eventually increases the number of shop-houses.
The brake-by-wire technology is a new automotive chassis system that allows standard braking operations by electronic components with lighter weights and faster response. The brake-by-wire units such as EMB (Electro-Mechanical Brake) are controlled by electronic sensors and actuators and, thus, the fault diagnosis is essential for implementation. In this study, a model-based fault diagnosis system is developed for the sensors based on the analytical redundancy method. The fault detection algorithm is verified in simulations for various faulty cases. A test bench is built including the EMB unit and the performance of the proposed fault diagnosis system is evaluated through the experiment.
Recently the crime against elementary school students has been rapidly increasing. Under these circumstances, this study is to analyze the basic principles of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) for the elementary school in urban residential area, and suggest some planning and design guidelines. Among 59 elementary schools in Pyongchon, Bundang, and Pangyo new towns, 11 distinctive schools were selected for analysis study. School cases were investigated comparatively from the viewpoints of visibility, securing of observers, activity support and reinforced territoriality on the basis of theoretical crime prevention concepts. The analysis adopts various methods including theoretical research, field study, observation, and examination of plan. Some of findings of this analysis are as follows. Most of schools rely on the mechanical and physical devices such as CCTV, gate control, or walls, which are considered to be quite passive measures and ineffective for the crime prevention. Other effective methods such as offering school facilities to the public or public space sharing with surrounding residents, for the protection of crimevulnerable students by public eyes. Therefore, in order to prevent crimes effectively, it is urgently required to analyze the environments around and in the school, and to improve physical conditions on the basis of CPTED principles.
This study aims to analyze the changes of adjacent residential area after the restoration of covered urban streams in seoul. The changes of adjacent residential area after restoration were analyzed by changes of land using, urban structure, individual lot of land and architecture to investigate relationship of the urban stream and residential change. The result as follows: the first one is the change of land use and urban structure in adjacent residential area. This change of infrastructure through stream restoration has transformed land use and urban structure in adjacent residential area. Secondly, there is the changes of the individual lot of land. It seemed that new development by combined lots would be concentrated in stream-side blocks. But, the changes of lots such as combining or dividing lots tend to be concentrated in stream-side, main road and main streets. In stream-side, commercial function of land use has changed to residential one which has restored streams landscape by transformation of lots use without changes of ownership-lots. Finally, there is the change of architecture. It turned out new building in adjacent residential area is similar to general development. However, new building in streamside is related to direction of stream. In addition, remodeling and expansion tend to change in commercial buildings on stream-side bridges of corner lots intensively. As a result, it is related to expectation of architectural activation and improvement of sidewalk environment by stream restoration.
The purpose of this study is to find out the commercialization characteristics of 2nd class residential district in innercity railway station area as basic research to protect urban residential area against the pressure of commercialization. Through the research that are based on literature, field survey and urban planning map, it analysed the commercialization characteristic of selected three sites under similar urban condition; to be a nearby subway station and to be a famous commercial street in site, etc. The consequences of this study are summarized as follows; First it finds the commercialized lots in all blocks that adjoin blocks of upper class zoning. Second it is in inverse proportion between the commercialization of lots and the distance from subway station to residential block. Third, the corner lot of a block and the access road directly connected collector road are very important factors to spread commercialization to residential area. Finally, it finds the difference of the commercialization degree of 2nd class residential zone according to arrange main commercial street and the 2nd class residential block; vertical arrangement and horizontal arrangement.
According to the change of the life environment and economic growth, the more highly a city has developed, the more concentrated is the urban function. That is, a city is required for adding more infrastructure. But, both limited land resources and financial problems made it impossible to add infrastructure. So, the necessity of multi-dimensional planning of urban infrastructure was recognized. Especially, in the urban residential area, a mixed-use of the playground of a school and the empty space of a park is desired to serve the issue of insufficient parking spaces. Schools and parks are closely connected to the center of a town, and playing a central role for the town life. For this reason, they are highly demanded in urban residential areas and also expected to be effective. However, we need to consider not only parking convenience but also the safety of users in design process, because people using parks and schools include young students and the elderly. In this study, we mainly examined physical characteristics and the utilization of schools and parks with parking facilities in urban residential areas. Then, we analyzed cases through comparing and evaluating in terms of convenience and safety. and weighed up advantages and disadvantages of each through the comparison of the schools and the parks having parking facilities. The results of this study are expected to provide fundamental references for preparing design standards for such facilities.