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In case the theory of divination based on topography (Topographical Divination) is reviewed in the aspect of the environmental design that offers comfortable habitation to humans, it can be interpreted as Korean-type environmental design, an environment-recursive system, an ideal system that regards natural environment as wide-area environment system, an environmental conservation system that regard natural environment as a fragile object, an eco-friendly cognition system, and an idea on land that wishes land prosperous. Particularly, it can be regarded as the ecologic resources management-oriented environmental design that values much of the moderation of nature, environmental order and resources through framing environmental, social and economic soundness and sustainability. Namely, they constructed the habitational environment, combined with hinterland, residential land and arable land, in propitious that lies with mountains at the back and faces a river, and secured beautiful landscape constituted by tangible and intangible symbolic sights and artificial sights.
This research was carried out to analyze present condition of the botanical gardens and arboretums in Korea and to suggest an improvement plan for them. 1. In the botanical garden and arboretums located in Korea, 76.5% of them possess under 2,000 plants species. Only 9.8% retains about 5,000 or more plant species. From this result, it is still necessary to retain more plant species for the domestic botanical gardens and arboretums. 2. The results from the survey also show that the most wanted display form is mainly ecological display, and the ecological display is up to 43.1% and the classified disply is 17.6% in total displays. Domestics botanical garden and arboretums are supposed to keep on displaying ecologically. 3. The present facilities to be equipped were examined. Facilities play a very important role for supporting the main function of the garden. But they are not enough in many cases. the 35.3% of domestic botanical garden and arboretums only have a laboratory, tissue culture, but the 58.8% do not. Facilities, such as a supplementary greenhouse, plant nursery, parking area, and so on, have been well managed in general. 4. From the improvement plans in the management, 54.9% for a highly specialized study, 19.6% for plant individual species preservation, and 5.7% for an amusement complex were suggested. Botanical gardens forward had better put more emphasis on highly specialized study.
In America and Europe from the latter part of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, the planning ideologies of park system and greenbelts were made and these planning ideologies are called Green Network System. They are different in terms of the purpose, type and method, but they have common characteristics of encouraging order and amenity in cities based on the consecutive connection of green space, and of coping with the problems happening in cities. Just as the park system was made, centering around new America and greenbelts were developed to meet with the problems happening in large cities, the structural arrangement and the roles of greens should be different. However, this connection system of greens was oriented in the circumstances of America and Europe at that time so it has not been confirmed what sizes of cities it would be useful for. On the other hand, separately from the Green Network System, the theory of park arrangement is being developed. It intends to cope with deterioration of the living environment caused by overcrowded cities and with increase in the demands of public parks. It is based on the neighborhood unit and the science of human settlement. In addition, the theory of park arrangement is based on the effects of greens in use, rather than, in decoration so it encourages dispersion and hierarchical system of parks, having the human settlement as base. Consequently, the theory of park arrangement is influenced by the characteristics and the type of households, and it has a required area and planning unit. However, this theory has the right for walking and human scale as the basic unit so for the large parks that are beyond the human scale, the planning criteria are not clear. The theory of park arrangement, which is based on the neighborhood unit, may be useful for the cities with tens of thousands of residents, but it is partially applied for the cities with 500,000~1,000,000 residents. And further, in organizing the green system for the whole city, the theory of park arrangement can be ignored. As seen in the above, the existing arrangement theory has some problems: it is just for partial application; and it is not suitable for the size and the growing speed of cities. The greens in cities should be operated as the comprehensive system, but greenbelts and park arrangement have been studied separately so far. That`s why it is necessary to review again the existing arrangement theory.
The Hanon volcano on the southern coast of Jeju Island is a nested maar-scoria cone complex. The crater of the volcano is filled with lacustrine sediments deposited in ponded lake and shallow swamp settings. Sedimentological characteristics of an 10 m-long drilling core obtained from the crater-lake deposit were analyzed to reveal the paleo-environmental variations related to the late Quaternary glacial and interglacial paleoclimatic changes. The crater-lake deposit since ca. 32,000 years BP consists mainly of silt- to clay-sized clastic and organic particles, and shows various sedimentary structures including bioturbation, lamination and normal grading. The sedimentary sequence is divided into 4 stratigraphic units based on the sediment texture, magnetic susceptibility, sediment color and sedimentary structures. According to the AMS 14C dates, the stratigraphic units are considered to correspond to Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 1 to 3. Unit 4 below the core depth of 780 cm is characterized by common intercalation of massive to graded sand and gravel layers with background fine mud. This is attributed to a frequent generation of mass flows on the unstable pyroclastic crater rim of the incipient Hanon volcano. Units 2 and 3 at the core depth between 210 cm and 780 cm approximately correspond to last glacial period (MIS 2 and 3). They are characterized by restricted bioturbation and slightly higher silt content and magnetic susceptibility than unit 1, which most probably represents a deposition in a deeper lake setting and a dominant influence of strengthened winter monsoon winds coupled with cold and arid climatic conditions of East Asian region during the glacial period. Unit 1 above the core depth of 210 cm consists of dark gray to black peaty mud with a very low magnetic susceptibility, and shows intense post-depositional disturbance by plant roots and other bio-activities. This reflects the rapid climate change from cold and arid to warm and humid climate conditions at the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary and an increased input of biogenic materials into the shallow swamp under the warm climatic condition (MIS 1).
This study recorded the process of recovery from damage. Therefore this study was aimed to get a basic data of vegetation restoration through tracking survey of recovering process after reform construction. In early days after forest road was constructed, there were bare or almost bare ground. Recently vegetation status was surveyed 50 years after it was constructed. Part of forest in the site of this survey is hardly avoiding damage because road improvement is being expected. Therefore damage of vegetation is expected. After 50 years in bare ground, it was restored as total 168 species of 62 families such as 15 species of 7 families in pterophyta, 5 species of 2 families in gymnosperms, and 148 species of 53 families in angiosperms were occurred. Mixed forests of coniferous and broad leaves near forest road were recovered as 31 species such as Abies sachalinensis and Tilia japonica were occurred. If already existed forest roads were reconstructed, damage could be occurred again in very high possibility. Therefore environmentally-friendly construction is required through long-term monitoring.
Waterfront is the origin of human culture and the vivid district of ecology and landscape in a city. Yellow River is the mother river to Chinese people and also is one of the most complicated and difficultly managed rivers in the world. Based on the analysis of present situations of landscape planning and construction of Shandong Yellow River, some countermeasures are put forward in the paper.
Investigation of the recreation space on water in sightseeing agricultural park is the object of this study. The behavioral and mental characteristic of tourist with different age and their estimation to landscape was investigated by research methods such as behavior observation, accessing and questionnaire investigation on spot, which may give an advice on design of space on water in sightseeing agricultural park.