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1) The environment once contaminated or disrupted can not be easily restored by the power of self-purification of nature, and it costs too much expenses and time to recover to the original state by means of humans' technical skills. So the most suitable method of preserving environment is to prevent beforehand the environmental pollution or disruption. Recently many countries show the prominant tendency that their environmental administrations are converting to the pre-protection of pollution from the post control of environmental disruption. In Korea also the environmental administration is moving toward the environmental preservation policy based on the prio-prevention of pollution, with the improvement of the environmental legal system as the enactment of "The Environment Preservation Act" followed by the nulification of "the Pollution Protection Act." 2) The most effective and essential system in administration for the prevention of pollution is the system of the environmental impact assessment, which is adopted by the article 5 of our environment preservation act. The existing system of EIA is seemed to be influenced in its legislation by the similiar system of U.S.A (NEPA). But the adoption of this system resulted in a formal and unsubstantial one with immaturity and imperfection through the process of enactment of this system which aimed at specialization of the system so to meet the actual circumstances of our country. 3) Our EIA system is legislated so as to meet the development administration of semi-advanced country as Korea. 4) In Korea EIS is not a requisite requested in licenses or permits for proposed action but a necessary document for the consultation with the chief of Environment Agency. But the chief of EA, the opponent party of consultation is no more than a affiliated agency of the ministry of helth and society. So the procedure of consultation is apt to be only a process to satisfy the procedural condition in order to proceed the decided project of government or regional public bodies. Abovementioned incliation shows the need of elevation of the status and strengthening the rights of the Environment Agency. At the same time the request of consultation to the chief of EA should be amended as request for licenses or permits in order to get practical effect in the procedure of EIA. 5) As the objective of EIS lies in finding the most reasonable method which has less narmful effects on the environment, the introduction of alternative is indispensable in prepaying EIS. It is stipulated in article 4·2 of the enforcement ordinance of the Environment Preserving Act that the chief of EA can claim 'adjustment' or 'amendment' agains: the request of agreement of administrative agency planning the development project. But it is not likely that the claim of adjustment or amendment of the chief of EA can discharge the substitive role of alternatives. The system of alternatives must be adopted at least in the regulation of EIS which is now under drafting by EA. 6. Existing EIA system does not adopt the system of citizen participation, that shows one of backwardness of our EIA system. Nowadays the system of citizen participation, has become very important one in the democratic administration. Therefore it is against the democratic administration that informational participation is not allowed to the citizen who is now admitted as a subject of the environmental right. But the citizen participation often brings about the delay of development works and unnecessary friction between citizens and administrative agency concerned. So the seems inevitable that existing EIA system should take conservative attitude against citizen participation especially in Korea where most development projects are planned and practiced by government. It is desirable that the first stage of citizen participation such as offer of information and presentation of opinion at least should be admitted. 7. The concerned provisions about EIA system are too simple and abstract, but there is no sign of positive supplement and amendment on the side of government. 8. In addition, we have less experience of working and no accumulation of technics of EIA. It is general demand that the regulation of EIS now under drafting be early made public. 9. After all special law about EIA should be stipulated in order to attain effective EIA system. Since every systems are to be operated by human, the solution of problems caused by the adoption of EIA system also depend upon the conversion of consciousness toward the development based on the priority of environment.
To reuse discharge water in large building, pilot - plant study was conducted experimentally, and the results were as follows ; 1. pH in effluent was lower than it in influent, because organisms was decomposed by microorganisms in filtration tower. Since CO₂ gas was generated, dissolved in water, and then converted into carbonic acid, pH seemed to be influenced. 2. The initial concentrations of COD, BOD and SS were unstable but stable with time. If full - scale plant did unusually operate for a long time, when did pilot - plant, it was known that COD was somewhat influenced but BOD & SS were almost not influences. 3. The production cost of reuse was about 256won/ton. If this subject of study were compared with Pusan, water supply & sewage fee would be 500 - 890won/ton. Therefore, when discharge water is reused to a water closet, there would be no problem at all. 4. If about 50% of wastewater will be reused from daily average generated volume, average 700,000won will be saved monthly. On the other hand, economically a additional tax exemption could be expected there from, and it's more economical. In case of D. University, it's estimated that reuse will be accomodated.
This study was carried out to interpret hydraulic behavior and CO₂gas desorption in countercurrent packing tower which packed 50 mm plastic Hiflow-ring. The results are as follows: 1. To compare with conventional packing, 50mm Hiflow-ring could save energy because of low pressure drop under high load. 2. As relative error between calculated value and investigated value was less than 6% in the loading point and flooding point we found that we can predict results mathematically which occurres in the packing tower. 3. The unique magnituteds of packing which was used are as follows. C_(L) = 2.1×10^(-4), n = 0.787 so we can predict efficency which occurres.
Hinsichtlich der Denitrifikation bestehen noch einige Unklarheiten uber die wirksamkeit verschiedener Klarsysteme. Es liegen einfach zu wenige Erfahrungswerte vor, da noch vor kurzem anlagen mit weitgehender Denitrifikation nicht fur erforderlich gehalten wurden.
This study was performed to investigate the utilization of waste sand for removal of heavy metal ion in industrial wastewater. The results obtained from this research showed that removal rate of heavy metal ions were excellent in the increase of waste sands amounts except Cr. If we reflected the adsorption capacity(k) and adsorption intensity(l/n) of Freundlich isotherm, we couldn't consider waste sands as a good adsorbent. But we could know that waste sands were capable of removing a part of heavy metal ion.
The electrochemical reaction of cytochrome C varied with promotors and electrolytes. Among electron transfer carriers, 4-4' bipyridine(PyPy) showed good redox response using 20 mM phosphate solution as electrolyte and the case of Bis(4 pyridyl) bisulphide(PySSPy) as promotor showed same result using 0.2M Sodium cacodylate as electrolyte tested cyclic voltammetry method. Between electrodes, Au electrode is better behaviour than ITO electrode. 0.21M Tris, 0.24M Cacodylate acid showed the most effective electrochemical characteristics as electrolyte.
Oyster shell has caused environmental problems in the coast. But it is possible to be used as an acidic soil amendment because it is the alkalic material of pH 9.0. In order to evaluate the utility of the crushed oyster shell as a soil amendment, acidic sandy loam soil was amended with it and then Chinese cabbages were cultivated in pots. The amount of the oyster shell was ⅰ)none, ⅱ)0.5kg/㎥, ⅲ)1.0kg/㎥, ⅳ)1.5kg/㎥, ⅴ)2.0kg/㎥ and ⅵ)2.3kg/㎥. The particle size of oyster shell consists of 34.88% of 40∼100mesh and 14.98% of larger than 100 mesh. It increased pH and the contents of available P₂O_(5) and SiO₂ and exchangeable Ca in used soil The application of oyster shell also increased the height and diameter of Chinese cabbages.
Biofiltration was successfully applied to treat amixture of volatile organic compounds(Benzene, Xylene) from contaminated air stream. Immobilized Ps.oleovorans biofilter was evaluated for its value in simultaneous removal of B.X from waste air stream. The variety of operating conditions were tested to evaluated important factors such as space velocity, PH, water content, ect. In the loading rate(1,000ppmv) and space velocity(l,200hr), the average removal efficiencies of B.X. were 39.3% and 30.5% and CO₂ production rate were 6.72 mg/hr, 4.65mg/hr, respectively. Removal efficiency of B.X. mixture was lower than it's each individual at same loading rate. When the concentrations of B.X. mixture were controlled 300ppmv and 900ppmv at two stages reactor, the average outlet concentration were 7.lppmv, 184.5ppmv and CO₂ production rate were 6.04mg/hr, 12.6mg/hr, respectively.