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1) The environment once contaminated or disrupted can not be easily restored by the power of self-purification of nature, and it costs too much expenses and time to recover to the original state by means of humans' technical skills. So the most suitable method of preserving environment is to prevent beforehand the environmental pollution or disruption. Recently many countries show the prominant tendency that their environmental administrations are converting to the pre-protection of pollution from the post control of environmental disruption. In Korea also the environmental administration is moving toward the environmental preservation policy based on the prio-prevention of pollution, with the improvement of the environmental legal system as the enactment of "The Environment Preservation Act" followed by the nulification of "the Pollution Protection Act." 2) The most effective and essential system in administration for the prevention of pollution is the system of the environmental impact assessment, which is adopted by the article 5 of our environment preservation act. The existing system of EIA is seemed to be influenced in its legislation by the similiar system of U.S.A (NEPA). But the adoption of this system resulted in a formal and unsubstantial one with immaturity and imperfection through the process of enactment of this system which aimed at specialization of the system so to meet the actual circumstances of our country. 3) Our EIA system is legislated so as to meet the development administration of semi-advanced country as Korea. 4) In Korea EIS is not a requisite requested in licenses or permits for proposed action but a necessary document for the consultation with the chief of Environment Agency. But the chief of EA, the opponent party of consultation is no more than a affiliated agency of the ministry of helth and society. So the procedure of consultation is apt to be only a process to satisfy the procedural condition in order to proceed the decided project of government or regional public bodies. Abovementioned incliation shows the need of elevation of the status and strengthening the rights of the Environment Agency. At the same time the request of consultation to the chief of EA should be amended as request for licenses or permits in order to get practical effect in the procedure of EIA. 5) As the objective of EIS lies in finding the most reasonable method which has less narmful effects on the environment, the introduction of alternative is indispensable in prepaying EIS. It is stipulated in article 4·2 of the enforcement ordinance of the Environment Preserving Act that the chief of EA can claim 'adjustment' or 'amendment' agains: the request of agreement of administrative agency planning the development project. But it is not likely that the claim of adjustment or amendment of the chief of EA can discharge the substitive role of alternatives. The system of alternatives must be adopted at least in the regulation of EIS which is now under drafting by EA. 6. Existing EIA system does not adopt the system of citizen participation, that shows one of backwardness of our EIA system. Nowadays the system of citizen participation, has become very important one in the democratic administration. Therefore it is against the democratic administration that informational participation is not allowed to the citizen who is now admitted as a subject of the environmental right. But the citizen participation often brings about the delay of development works and unnecessary friction between citizens and administrative agency concerned. So the seems inevitable that existing EIA system should take conservative attitude against citizen participation especially in Korea where most development projects are planned and practiced by government. It is desirable that the first stage of citizen participation such as offer of information and presentation of opinion at least should be admitted. 7. The concerned provisions about EIA system are too simple and abstract, but there is no sign of positive supplement and amendment on the side of government. 8. In addition, we have less experience of working and no accumulation of technics of EIA. It is general demand that the regulation of EIS now under drafting be early made public. 9. After all special law about EIA should be stipulated in order to attain effective EIA system. Since every systems are to be operated by human, the solution of problems caused by the adoption of EIA system also depend upon the conversion of consciousness toward the development based on the priority of environment.
It prevents the problem beforehand such as second infection by an illegal disposal of the waste which is harmful for people, can solve the real problem caused by management and disposal of the waste, using the RFID that is kernel technology of the next generation in this paper. At first, it is possible to prevent managers' impure intention beforehand, using the authentication card that is storing managers' bio-information who is managing the hazard material. Also it suggests efficient solution that can offer better environment that previous managers' working environment, applying the RFID system to every stage, from the first point of the occurrence time of the waste modeled on general material distribution process to the final processing stage.
This study is evaluated the realized validity on the whole constructional plan of the artificial island of PUSAN, the problems of which is also treated, based on the first to the 3rd proceeding reports for it. Finally it is proposed the aternative such as rationally engineering methodology. It is as follows ; 1. Based on the reports, the reclamation method is not suitable for the tall buildings of high density and another earth structures. 2. The rational and economical reclamation method should be required, based on the property of the sea bed and the structures for the end users. 3. It may be desirable to select one among the first to the third methods proposed for the reclamation of PUSAN artificial isiand in this study, if not the alternative.
As mentioned above, regarding our country's a regime of Natural Environmental Conservation, I divide a process of the changes into three periods which are 'the previous to formation(~1961)', 'the period of formation(1961~1976)', 'the period of development(1976~)'. I consider the structure of the regime of Natural Environmental conservation by way of classifing it by the system of a related regime, the system of participation movement, the system of forest-conservation and urban open space. By putting all the aforementioned together, it is possible to divide phase-development process of a function of the regimes of Natural Environmental conservation into five phases. · First Phase : a protection of resources a special protection by authority · Second Phase : safety territorial integrity(forestry conservation, flood control) · Third Phase : national land beautification national land development, recreation. · Fourth Phase : prevention of environmental pollution ecosystem preservation. · Fifth Phase : amenity relationships with nature In this thesis, the regimes of Natural Environmental Conservation make gradual development from first phase to 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and fifth phase. To get to fifth phase of order, however, we actively enhance a quality of living environment and must consider 'amenity' in which inhabitants are able to participate spontaneously on the basis of a systematic regime established on the previous phase. The regimes of natural environmental conservation and the phase-development of its function were regarded as horizontal axis, the trend of natural environmental conservation and the process of the changes were taken for vertical axis. And I observe cross each other. It is possible to say that an environmental adminstration up to now takes lead in controls than creation of environment, and is regarded as "the previous to the Second Generation", that yet don't convert from the first generation to the second generation.
In this study, farm soil was tested to find out acid soil amendment by adding water purification sludge(WPS) and waste oyster shell(WOS) under artificial acid rain(pH=534). which is average pH of Busan metropolitan area. Soil acidity, CEU(cation exchange capacity) and akaline meatals, such as K, Ca and Na were tested to find out the acid neutralization capacity of soil Because WOS had large portion of alkaline metals, WOS could play a role in acid soil amendment And soil addition of WPS could be an alternative for conventional disposal method. The purpose of this study is to evaluate acid soil amendment using LWS and WOS. In case of soil and WPS, mixing ratio was 10:0, 9:1, 8:2 and 7:3 And WPS mixed WOS was also added In acid soil as the same ratio as WPS. Throughout the experiment, soil acidity and CEC were stationary state with slight increase. Alkaline metals showed differences in concentration, but all of them were tend to decrease. In conclusion, WPS mixed WOS could play a part in amendment of acid soil.
This study is considered for the rationalization of collection transportation system by the technique of O.R. To improve the present environmental public pollution condition, selecting a sample model, investigating and analyzing it's distribution route, we could determine optimum route to garbage collection vehicles. Actually, by the result of application to Young-Do district, we could reduce 5㎞ per day in distance and it's all expenditures concerned with time and transportation. But, for realization of this study, we have to consider traffic system.
The thermal decomposition of low density polyethylene(LDPE) and 25%~48% chlorinated polyethylene(CPE) were studied using a dynamic thermogravimetry in the stream of nitrogen gas with 20ml/min. The mathematic method, differential (Friedman) and Integral (Ozawa) method were used to obtain value of activation energy of decomposition energy on the reaction. The activation energies evaluated by the above methods agree with each other very well. The average activation energy calculated was 71.72kcal/mol. The thermal decomposition of LDPE and CPE were carried out by main chain scission and the thermogravimetric trace curve agree with the theoretical equation.
For the purpose of this study is to analyze the flora of plants and forest vegetation of Mt. Keumjung. The results of the study can be described as below. 1. Plants growing at the 8 quadrates of the Mt. Keumjung were 24 families, 36 genuses and 3 species in 1994 and 23 families, 33 genuses and 49 species in 2001. 2. The soil acidity of the 8 areas surveyed here in 2001 was 4.8 to 5.5 in pH, indicating that the soil was gradually being oxidized. The soil hardness was found 15.8 to 28.3 mm, 20.8 in average. 3. Pinus rigida was found highest In dominance, occupying 352% of the total population of arbors, followed by 2.96% for Alnus hirsuta and 2.51 for Styrax japonicn while among the azalea was found highest in dominance, accounting for 44.49% out of the total population of shrubs, followed by 15.14% for Rhododendron yedoense var. poukanese and 3.92 for Rubus idaeus var. concolor. 4. Of the 8 quadrates, sect 8 of the North Gate was highest in the number of extinct trees. 15 kinds. This is probably because of the pressure by climbers' steps. Sect 3 of the West Gate and sect 5 of the South gate had 8 kinds of extinct trees, respectively. The number of newly appeared trees was highest at sect 7 of the North Gate, 8 kinds, followed by sect 5 and sect 6, respectively 5 kinds. 5. At the area of the West Gate(sect 3, sect 4) to which the sabbatical year system(Area : Puk-gu district and a part of Keumjung-gu district) was applied, 21 plant species newly appeared, more than any of the other areas. At the area of the South Gate(sect 5, sect 6). in contrast, 15 plant species disappeared and at the area of the North Gate(sect 7, sect 8). as many as 20 became extinct. The areas surveyed here showed that the extinction of plant species was mainly due to the pressure by climbers' steps rather than to changes in natural environment. To protect the forest and plants of the Mt. Keumjung, thus, it is necessary to increase the period and area of the sabbatical year system and take more effective actions for the management of the forest and plants.