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The purpose of this study is to investigate the prime factors that affect to user postoccupancy evaluation of activities and facilities in urban parks, to classify those factors, to find out factors about them, and then to suggest important indicators in the urban park planning, design, and development. The survey research was done using the self-administered questionnaire method by 435 peoples in the Busan City who participated in recreational activities in the Amnam Park. The Analysis of the data primarily consists of two phase: The first analysis was dealt an exploratory factor analysis which identified major factors involved in user postoccupancy evaluation with reacreational activities and facilities in Amnam Park by the SPSS(Ver.6.0) program and the second analysis was used to investigate the factors affected to user postoccupancy evaluation in the urban park by the Regression Analysis. According to the factor analysis, user postoccupancy evaluation of facilities in urban parks concerning the 20 variables, 5 prime factors by the staistical values were considered. The factor analysis showed that user postoccupancy evaluation of activities in urban parks concerning the 11 variables, 3 prime factors by the staistical values were analysed. Postoccupancy evaluation in the urban park by the Regression Analysis suggested that the two varlables as 'the directions of park development' and 'companies with the personal specific characteristics' are significant in addition to the some variables presented in user postoccupancy evaluation with reacreational activities and facilities in Amnam Park by the factor analysis. Furthomore the analysis models were identified as having significant effects on the factor and regression analysis. Overall fits of both models were very good. These significant relationships indicate important factors and variables that should be considered in planning, design, and development of the urban parks. Therefore, development direction of the h a m park has to be analyzed as significant factors concerning user postoccupancy evaluation in a systematic way, recognized as important variables for planning process. The urban park has to be fully designed and established in the planning process not by the decision-maker's subjective evaluation but by user postoccupancy evaluation.
주차안내 시스템은 주차장에서 주차정보를 제공하여 운전자에게 주차 편리성을 제공한다. 동시에 다수의 센서, 디스플레이와 제어모듈을 이용하여 아주 소량의 전기 에너지 만을 소모한다. 녹색 빌딩 설계의 요구가 점차 증가함에 따라 주차관리 시스템의 운용 전력 감축 문제가 이수화 되고 있다. 본 논문에서는 주차 관리 시스템의 감지기와 디스플레이 장치의 설계와 소비전력 감축의 결과를 제시한다. 이 시스템은 무선 Park Tile 과 Park Disk를 사용하여 전력소비를 감축 시키고, 여러 개의 주차공간 감지기와 자동차 카운터, 정보 디스플레이 장치, 안내 터미널과 제어장치로 구성되어 있다. 그리고 시스템 구조설계와 통신망 설계, 주차정보 서비스 시나리오 설계, .배터리 수명 제어, 운영 전력 평가 등이 수행되었다. 주차장당 운영전력은 0.4W로 평가 되었으며, 이는 기존 시스템의 17%정도 이고 매년 유지비는 기존 시스템에 비해 43%에 해당된다. The parking guidance system can increase driver’s convenience with detailed parking information service in the parking lot. At the same time, parking guidance system consumes non-negligible electrical energy with large amount of sensors, displays and control modules. With the increase in the demand for green and sustainable building design all over the world, it becomes a meaningful issue for parking guidance system to reduce operating power. This paper presents the preliminary design and estimated results of a parking guidance system which is optimized to reduce the power consumption mainly on detectors and displays. The system design is based on pre-developed wireless parking detectors, Park Tile and Park Disk. The system has a number of parking space detectors, vehicle count detectors, information displays, guidance terminals and other control units. We have performed system architecture design, communication network design, parking information service scenario planning, battery life regulation and at last operating power estimation. The estimated operating power was 0.4 watt per parking-slot, which is 17% of traditional systems. The estimated annual maintain cost was 43% of traditional systems.
The Mountainous National Park is the area where it has the coexisted purposes, use and preservation, which cannot be harmonized. But in recent year, it is natural tendency that the use of the National Park is increasing day by day and the fact is that the side of use than preservation is emphasized. Especially in leisure society as today, even the appointment itself of the National Park is the factor that use can be increased and because it has the great influence affecting to the neighboring community economy including the National Park its neighbors have a marked leaning toward the use of two purposes and insist only development. In fact, the area of most National Park is equipped with the necessary facility to offer convenience of the user. But such necessity causes the increase of the weighted level of use in liaison with the requests of development of its inhabitants. But the National Park, for the original purposes, must keep the balance between use and preservation. Because the natural environmental condition that the National Park has is the product of nature and cannot be produced by human-power the demand cannot be met by the increase of supply even though the requests for the offer of natural environment are increased. Therefore, to keep the balance between use and preservation it is necessary that there should be consideration for the usable side and preservable one of resource, the National Park. This can be said by the concept of social carrying capacity and ecological carrying capacity. Accordingly the concept of carrying capacity of the National Park is formed by the duplicated projections of the ecological carrying capacity and the social one. In addition these carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Parks are used for the efficient management objectives of them and they offer the policy frame necessary for their future purpose. Finally, the results from this research work are as follows: 1. We can define the concept of the carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Park consisting of the total of management objectives, ecological carrying capacity and social carrying capacity as the level which the characteristics of the Mountainous National Park can be maintained without the deterioration in quality of experience of user and ecological environment. 2. The major key points consisting of the concepts of the carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Park necessarily require the establishment of the concrete and clear management objective. 3. The management of the Mountainous National Park, centering around the zoning district, requires the establishment of the levels of management and the followings are required by each level. 1) non-interference. 2) the intensive management. 3) the more intensive management. 4. We must recognize the management objectives of the Mountainous National Park as the limitation of acceptable changes. 5. The concept of the carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Park can use for the policy level deciding the means and strategies for the management of the Mountainous National Park.
The data for this research were collected by the standarized interview in the mountaneous National Park of Mt. Songni on October of 1982. F-test was applied to analyse the significant differences among the activities in the park by the type of accommodations and by the purpose of visits. Demand functions for the whole tourism and recreation experience of the national parks were taken by the OLS regression after multiplying the square roots of the populations to various variables. Demand functions for the national park were also taken by the regression. Finally the tourism and recreation values of the parks per user-day and for 1984 year were estimated by the main activities in the parks. The main results are summarized as follows: 1. In Mt. Songni, demands for the national park also differed at 1% significance level by the type of accommodations: inn, private house, camp, and by the purpose of visits: relaxation, mount climbing and camping. 2. In Mt. Songni, the demand function for the whole experience was well fitted by the variables of the round distances and the amount of local taxes per person; R²=0.661. The demand functions for the whole experience by the type of accommodations: inn, private house, no overnight and by the purpose of visits: relaxation and mount-climbing were well explained by the variables of the round distances and the populations, but the demand for the whole experience of the users of camp and for camping was well fitted by the variables of the round distances and the amount of local taxes per person. 3. In Mt. Songni, the demand function for the national park was well fitted by the added costs (in km); R²=0.946. The demand for the park was theoretically 1 person when the added cost was 1,097Km. The demand functions for the park by the type of accommodations were also well fitted by the added cost (in km). When the added cost was 1,840km, Which was the largest, the demand for the activity to use the private house was theoretically 1 person. Those demand functions for the park by the purpose of visits were well explained by the added cost (in km). When the added cost was 1,503km, which was the largest, the theoretical demand for the mount-climbing was 1 person. 4. In Mt. Songni, the tourism and recreation value of the national park by the total users was 209.09km per user-day and 225.51 million km for 1984 year. The tourism and recreation values of the park by the users and by the type of accommodations: inn, camp, private house, no over-night were respectively 371.14km, 116.16km, 420.38km, and 124.75km per user-day. The tourism and recreation value of the park for 1984 year was 100.22 million km in case of the users who used inn and 81.44 million km in case of the users who didn't stay overnight. By the purpose of visits, the users who visited the park for mount-climbing valued for the park the largest 225.03km and those for relaxation valued 222.71km per user-day. The largest value by the users for 1984 year among the purpose of visits was 99.15 million km in case of the users who visited the park for mount-climbing and the next largest value was 85.24 million km in case of the users for relaxation.
In this paper, we described about evaluation of human sensibility using park assist system of the commercial vehicle. The perpendicular parking and parallel parking have been carried out as a user test and subjects are classified as beginning drivers, drivers with less than 1 year experience and over 3 years experience. As a result, parking duration of beginning drivers and drivers with less than 1 year experience who use automatic parking assistance system is similar to drivers with over 3 years experience. However error occurred according to sensor position and distance between vehicle and parking space. And also it occurred that the vehicle leaves from parking line or does not recognize the parking space. Therefore, if we improve its completeness by compensating problems that came up from this evaluation and distribute the automatic parking assistance system, it is expected that the park assistance system is to help driver providing convenience of parking.
<P><B>Aims</B></P><P>DJ-1/park7, a multifunctional protein, may play essential roles in the vascular system. However, the function of DJ-1/park7 in vascular contractility has remained unclear. The present study was designed to investigate whether the DJ-1/park7 is involved in the regulation of vascular contractility and systolic blood pressure (SBP).</P><P><B>Methods and results</B></P><P>Norepinephrine (NE) elevated contraction in endothelium-intact vessels in a dose-dependent manner, to a greater extent in DJ-1/park7 knockout (DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP>) mice than in wild-type (DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP>) mice. Acetylcholine inhibited NE-evoked contraction in endothelium-intact vessels, and this was markedly impaired in DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice compared with DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP>. Nitric oxide (NO) production (82.1 ± 2.8% of control) and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) expression (61.7 ± 8.9%) were lower, but H<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>2</SUB> production (126.4 ± 8.6%) was higher, in endothelial cells from DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice than in those from DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP> controls; these effects were reversed by DJ-1/park7-overexpressing endothelial cells from DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice. Histone deacetylase (HDAC)-1 recruitment and H3 histone acetylation at the eNOS promoter were elevated and diminished, respectively, in DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice compared with DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP> controls. Moreover, SBP was significantly elevated in DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice compared with DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP> controls, but this elevation was inhibited in mice treated with valproic acid, an inhibitor of Class I HDACs including HDAC-1.</P><P><B>Conclusion</B></P><P>These results demonstrate that DJ-1/park7 protein may be implicated in the regulation of vascular contractility and blood pressure, probably by the impairment of NO production through H<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>2</SUB>-mediated epigenetic inhibition of eNOS expression.</P>
In America and Europe from the latter part of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, the planning ideologies of park system and greenbelts were made and these planning ideologies are called Green Network System. They are different in terms of the purpose, type and method, but they have common characteristics of encouraging order and amenity in cities based on the consecutive connection of green space, and of coping with the problems happening in cities. Just as the park system was made, centering around new America and greenbelts were developed to meet with the problems happening in large cities, the structural arrangement and the roles of greens should be different. However, this connection system of greens was oriented in the circumstances of America and Europe at that time so it has not been confirmed what sizes of cities it would be useful for. On the other hand, separately from the Green Network System, the theory of park arrangement is being developed. It intends to cope with deterioration of the living environment caused by overcrowded cities and with increase in the demands of public parks. It is based on the neighborhood unit and the science of human settlement. In addition, the theory of park arrangement is based on the effects of greens in use, rather than, in decoration so it encourages dispersion and hierarchical system of parks, having the human settlement as base. Consequently, the theory of park arrangement is influenced by the characteristics and the type of households, and it has a required area and planning unit. However, this theory has the right for walking and human scale as the basic unit so for the large parks that are beyond the human scale, the planning criteria are not clear. The theory of park arrangement, which is based on the neighborhood unit, may be useful for the cities with tens of thousands of residents, but it is partially applied for the cities with 500,000~1,000,000 residents. And further, in organizing the green system for the whole city, the theory of park arrangement can be ignored. As seen in the above, the existing arrangement theory has some problems: it is just for partial application; and it is not suitable for the size and the growing speed of cities. The greens in cities should be operated as the comprehensive system, but greenbelts and park arrangement have been studied separately so far. That`s why it is necessary to review again the existing arrangement theory.
박재혁(朴載赫)은 1895년 5월 17일 범일동 183번지에서 독자로 태어났다. 15세되던 해에 아버지를 여의고 어머니, 여동생과 생활했다. 1911년 3월 22일 부산진사립육영학교를 졸업하고, 1915년 3월 22일 부산공립상업학교를 제4회로 졸업했다. 박재혁은 부산공립상업학교 재학 중에 최천택, 김병태, 박홍규 등과 함께 『동국역사』를 비밀리에 등사하여 배포했다. 3학년 때에는 최천택, 김병태, 박홍규, 오재영 등과 구세단(救世團)을 결성하고, 민족의식을 고취하는 단보를 발행하여 부산과 경상남도 일대에 배포했다. 박재혁은 1917년 6월 부산을 떠나 3년 이상 상해와 싱가포르 등지를 왕래하면서 인삼 등의 무역업에 종사했다. 동시에 동지들과 교류하면서 독립운동에 기여할 방법을 찾고 있었다. 그러던 중 3.1운동을 계기로 독립운동에 대한 신심을 다져 투신하기로 결심했다. 부산경찰서가 타격대상으로 지목된 것은 당시 의열단이 3.1운동 이후 기존의 독립운동노선에 방향전환을 선언하고 조직됐는데, 제1차 국내기관총공격 계획이 1920년 6월에 발각되어 실패하고 관련자 전원이 체포됐다. 이에 의열단에서는 빠른 시간 내에 성과를 거두어 이를 반전시켜야 할 필요성 요구됐기 때문이다. 또한 부산은 일본에서 조선으로 가는 관문이며 전형적인 식민도시로 개발됐으며, 제2의 오사카로 불렸기 때문에 상징성이 컸다. 거사 준비 과정에서 박재혁은 부산경찰서장 하시모토(橋本秀平)가 고서적을 좋아한다는 정보를 입수하고, 무역업을 하던 경험을 살려 중국 고서 상인으로 위장했다. 1920년 9월 14일 오후 2시 30분 경 부산경찰서에 들어가 공무가 있는 것처럼 가장하고, 하시모토 서장의 오른쪽 가까이 접근하자, 서장이 집무를 멈추고 그쪽으로 몸을 돌리려는 찰나, 자신이 의열단임을 밝히고 투탄했다. 당시 하시모토 서장은 경상을 입었다. 박재혁도 부상을 입어 탈출하지 못하고 현장에서 체포됐다. 박재혁은 부산지법의 1심부터 1921년 3월 31일 진행된 경성고법의 3심까지 일관되게 ‘살인미수죄’가 적용됐다. 박재혁은 부산지방법원에서 무기징역을 선고받았다. 그러나 검사의 공소로 대구복심법원에서 진행된 재판에서는 원심이 파기되고 박재혁은 사형을 선고받았다. 결국 박재혁은 1921년 3월 31일 3심인 경성 고등법원에서 사형이 확정됐다. 박재혁은 체포된 후 고문과 폭탄 투척 당시의 상처로 고통을 겪는 와중에 폐병까지 얻게 되었지만 기개는 꺾이지 않았다. 1921년 5월 11일 오전 11시 20분에 대구 감옥에서 사망했다. Jae-hyuk Park was born as the only son in 183 Beomil-dong on May 17, 1895. At the age of 15, his father passed away and he lived with his mother and sister. On March 22, 1911, he graduated from Busanjin Primary School, and on March 22, 1915, he was the fourth graduate of Busan Public Commercial School. While attending Busan Public Commercial School, Jae-hyuk Park secretly reproduced and distributed 『Dongguk History』 with Cheon-taek Choi, Byeong-tae Kim and Hong-gyu Park. In his third grade, he formed Gusedan(救世團) with Cheon-taek Choi, Byeong-tae Kim, Hong-gyu Park, and Jae-young Oh, and issued a noticed to promote national identity in Busan and the whole region of Gyeongsangnam-do Province. Jae-hyuk Park left Busan in June 1917 to Shanghai and Singapore for more than three years to work in the trade industry. At the same time, he was seeking ways to contribute to the independence movement while interacting with his companions. He then decided to devote himself to the independence movement after the March 1 Independence Movement. Busan Police Station was targeted as the attack after the March 1 Independence Movement when Euiyeoldan had been organized by declaring the change of direction to the existing independence movement, and it was when everyone involved was arrested upon failure of the first national full-scale attack plan in June 1920. As a result, Euiyeoldan needed to achieve results and reverse the situation in a short time. Busan was also a gateway from Japan to Joseon and was developed as the typical colonial city, and had its symbolism as it was called as the second Osaka. In preparation for the rebellion, Jae-hyuk Park obtained information that Hashimoto, the Busan police chief, liked ancient books and disguised himself as the Chinese ancient book dealer by taking advantage of his experience in trade business. At about 2:30p.m. on September 14, 1920, he entered the Busan Police Station pretending to be on duty, approached chief Hashimoto from the right side and threw a bomb after declaring himself as a member of Euiyeoldan when the chief turned his body towards him. At that time, chief Hashimoto was slightly injured. Jae-hyuk Park was arrested at the scene after failing to escape due to his injury. Jae-hyuk Park was consistently charged with 'attempted murder' from the first trial of the Busan District Court to the third trial of the Gyeongseong High Court on March 31, 1921. Jae-hyuk Park was sentenced to life imprisonment at the Busan District Court. However, the appeal by the prosecution annulled the original decision at the trial at the Daegu High Court, and Jae-hyuk Park was sentenced to death. Eventually, Jae-hyuk Park was sentenced to death as his final judgment on March 31, 1921 after the third trial of the Gyeongseong High Court. Jae-hyuk Park suffered from lung diseases due to tortures after arrest and injuries from the bomb, but his spirit was never thwarted. He died in Daegu prison at 11:20a.m. on May 11, 1921 before the execution.
In the past, the implementers (public enterprises or local public corporations) of projects in public development districts sold parking lot land to local governments for free or at cost. However, after the parking-lot law was amended in 1999, the land was sold to the private sector under a general competitive bidding method. As a result, the provision of parking lot land in public development project districts did not do more to ameliorate the parking shortage than when it was supplied to local governments. While there are a variety of reasons for this, the most significant cause is that the development of parking lots involved parking-only buildings, but in most cases collective building were built. In general commercial land, semi-residential, or residential areas, the requirements for establishing an aggregated building are clearly defined in the Collective Building Act, but the requirements for parking areas are applied differently. That is, the law was often misinterpreted. In the case of parking-only buildings for parking lots, it is necessary to establish a system of laws to better ensure the securing of parking lots from the perspective of pre-sale consumers. This study argues that the conditions of collective buildings must be met for parking-only buildings. Local governments stipulate the allowable range of additional facilities for parking lots by ordinance, but if the construction of parking-only buildings involves a collective building, it cannot be sold under the same concept as the general commercial building. This study concludes that revision of the Enforcement Rules of the Parking Lot Law is requires to protect these rights by securing the parking lot shares of those receiving pre-sale facilities.
마곡워터프론트 조성계획은 한강르네상스계획과 연계하여 마곡지구를 특화된 수변도시로 발전하기 위하여 정책적으로 제시된 공모로 시작되었다. 도시 환경과 공원의 특성을 살려 제안 당선된 Heart of Magok is Nature of Living Water안은 다음과 같은 특성을 지닌다. 첫째, 유수지, 청정호수, 주운수로, 생태공원 등의 시설을 중심으로 테마형 공원을 구성한다. 둘째, 녹색제방(Green Levee)이 공원의 중심 기능을 담당하며, 상징적 역할을 한다. 셋째, 공원의 순환동선, 물에너지의 순환 등이 종합적인 공원의 지속가능성을 확보하고 있다. 넷째, 공원과 주변도시와의 접근성을 높여 이용의 편의성을 고려한다. 다섯째, 시간에 따라 성장하는 공원의 이상을 제안하고 있다. 이상과 같은 계획 특성은 공원의 이용성을 높이며, 워터프론트로서의 역할에 젓실하고, 도심에서 공원의 역할을 한 단계 높이는 역할을 기대하게 하였다. 그러나 이후 도시환경의 변화에 따라 다양한 발전 전략을 모색하게 되었으며, 특히 경제성, 환경성 등을 중심으로 각각 육상공원의 확보, 업무·상업기능의 강화, 그리고 공원의 환경성 강화 등의 방안이 고려되고 있다. The development plan of Magok waterfront has begun with the public design contest with an intention that the Magok District is to advance into a specialized waterside city in connection with the Hangang Renaissance Plan. The winning work, the ‘Heart of Magok is Nature of Living Water’ plan, contained the characteristics of urban environment and park as follows. First, it builds up the theme park around the facilities of detention reservoir, clean lake, navigation channel, ecology park and others. Second, the green levee undertakes the central function of the park as well as symbolic role thereof. Third, it secures the sustainability of a general park with the circulation of park, circulation of water energy and the like. Fourth, it considers the convenience of utility by enhancing the accessibility with parks and surrounding cities. And fifth, it proposes the more than a simple park that grows in time. The foregoing plan characteristics heightens the utility of park, substantiate the role as water front, and expects to have the role to one notch upgrade in the roles of urban parks. And, along with the effort, following the changes of Magok District, base facilities and urban environment, the changes of Magok Water Front may be sought with respect to change into ground park, plan to strengthen the environment, strengthening of commercial and office functions, and this is considered in relations to the comprehensive development plan of Magok District. This is considered as a part of seeking for diverse improvement plan in accordance with the changes in urban environment, and it seeks for possibilities through seeking changes of program together with the physical changes in lake parks and ground parks.