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In America and Europe from the latter part of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, the planning ideologies of park system and greenbelts were made and these planning ideologies are called Green Network System. They are different in terms of the purpose, type and method, but they have common characteristics of encouraging order and amenity in cities based on the consecutive connection of green space, and of coping with the problems happening in cities. Just as the park system was made, centering around new America and greenbelts were developed to meet with the problems happening in large cities, the structural arrangement and the roles of greens should be different. However, this connection system of greens was oriented in the circumstances of America and Europe at that time so it has not been confirmed what sizes of cities it would be useful for. On the other hand, separately from the Green Network System, the theory of park arrangement is being developed. It intends to cope with deterioration of the living environment caused by overcrowded cities and with increase in the demands of public parks. It is based on the neighborhood unit and the science of human settlement. In addition, the theory of park arrangement is based on the effects of greens in use, rather than, in decoration so it encourages dispersion and hierarchical system of parks, having the human settlement as base. Consequently, the theory of park arrangement is influenced by the characteristics and the type of households, and it has a required area and planning unit. However, this theory has the right for walking and human scale as the basic unit so for the large parks that are beyond the human scale, the planning criteria are not clear. The theory of park arrangement, which is based on the neighborhood unit, may be useful for the cities with tens of thousands of residents, but it is partially applied for the cities with 500,000~1,000,000 residents. And further, in organizing the green system for the whole city, the theory of park arrangement can be ignored. As seen in the above, the existing arrangement theory has some problems: it is just for partial application; and it is not suitable for the size and the growing speed of cities. The greens in cities should be operated as the comprehensive system, but greenbelts and park arrangement have been studied separately so far. That`s why it is necessary to review again the existing arrangement theory.
Japan`s earlier green zone system which has been based mainly on the Western planning theories has developed in two forms of parks system and greenbelts, but such a system failed due to high pressure and high costs regarding population development, administrative matters and lack of residents` understanding. Since the mid-1970s, Japan has been developing its own unique system by forming a consolidated structure of green zones. Characteristics emerging during such a developmental process, or characteristics of green zone planning which appear until formation of green zones, are short experience in connection with green zone planning, green zones having been arranged based on a ring-shaped green belts, the green zone system of urban districts having developed in closely connected with urban disaster prevention, special parks having been developed using landmarks and structure of green zones having been formed based on maintenance and preservation of green zones. An earlier plan, or a master plan for the green, appearing at the beginning of a formative period of green structure has characteristics that it promotes consolidation of parks and green zones and conformity with urban development and pursues systematic arrangement based on functions of green zones. However, many people have raised planning-related problems of how the results integrating functions of the green will form a system, as well as a practical problem of how to substantially securitize the green zones. To overcome these problems, basic plans for green zones which are now being promoted have prepared specific tools to implement the plans and pushed for conformity with related plans through rewriting and linking related laws. Considering above mentioned contents, history of Japan`s green zone planning development suggest three things. First, to promote green zone plans needs agreement and cooperation of residents. Second, we need special policies to realize them and to securitize the green. Third, clear ideologies and principles about green zone plans are necessary to successfully execute the plans.
This study set out to investigate an institution to form a tourism and recreation system and examine the institutional characteristics and outcomes of Japan`s national government parks. As a result, the national government parks were characterized in two significant ways in terms of institutional operations: first, they dealt with the large-scale natural features and resources of the nation and her regions. They also grew to represent their own regions as natural features and resources of certain themes by preserving and developing the resources in a specialized manner through powerful zoning. And secondly, such efforts of developing the resources were made as part of local making through exchange networks and experiential learning, which made the parks themselves bases for exchange promotions. In addition, there were multifaceted efforts including the private sector`s operating certain facilities and institutions to identify specialized attractions and efforts to facilitate those operations. As such a developmental approach worked as a new base of attraction, the national government parks served as essential bases for the citizens` recreational and tourist activities.
Japan has been tried to integrate Western planning theories into its parks and green systems in the past. However this effect has been regarded unsuccessful. One of reasons for this is that the green systems have been treated as an urban facility, instead as systems. Another reason has to deal with greenbelt's stationary and reservation characteristics that make difficulty to respond timely to the rapid urbanization. The parks and green systems in Korea was introduced in 1990 and began to be promoted fully with the 'Parte and Green Master Plan' established in 2005. However, due to its short history, incomplete aspects exist in its philosophy and methods for promoting the system. Based on these experiences, the current green zone plans in Japan considers the green structure as an independent institution and amenity plan, not a tool of urban planning, that can be a medium for realization of urban visions. And main characteristics of this approach are 1) classifying the green structure into four categories in order to respond to urban forms and purposes, 2) pursuing confirmity with urban planning, and 3) executing the landscape plan based upon core green areas. From reviews upon experiences of Japan as well as considerations on demands and conditions of green systems in Korea, we proposed the following five new strategies for the construction of the urban parte and green system in Korea. They are 1) to develop urban parks and green systems into a genre of urban development improving the quality and local competitiveness of cities rather than a means of urban planning; 2) to form the integrated structure of urban green zones; 3) to transform the urban parte and green systems into practical systems as the centers of localities; 4) to raise criteria for planning and execution plans for effective implementations of the urban parte and green systems, and 5) to provide specific guidelines for the construction of urban parks and green systems through organizing research groups or specialists.
본 연구는 최근 왕릉의 활용논의가 가장 활발히 전개되는 있는 서삼릉을 대상으로 그의 사회적 변용과 이용 및 공간적 특성을 통해 왕릉의 관광자원화 방향을 검토한 것이다. 연구결과, 왕릉의 관광레크레이션적 가치는 왕릉이라는 문화적 요인 못지않게 주변지역의 특성적인 환경 요인이 중요한 것으로 밝혀졌다. 또한 왕릉의 개발수요는 기본적으로 관광개발에 앞서 시민휴식공간으로서의 개발이 요구되고 있는바, 시민휴식공간과 관광레크레이션을 어떻게 양립시켜 나갈 것인가가 공간개발의 중요한 문제가 되는 것으로 확인된다. 그리고 왕릉의 특성은 문화적 요인, 환경적 요인과 더불어, 왕릉을 구성하는 인물적 특성과 왕릉을 둘러싼 식생 또는 경관학적 특성에도 관련이 깊은 것으로 나타나고 있어, 이러한 공간, 식생, 인물 구성에 대한 스토리 연구가 반드시 필요할 것으로 판단된다. This research investigated the tourism resources strategies of royal tomb from the perspectives of Seosam-noung's social transfigurations and space characteristics. The result showed that environmental factors were no less important than cultural factors for evaluating royal tomb's recreational value. Because a royal tomb needs to be developed as a rest place for citizens, how citizen's rest place and tourism recreation can be coexisted is a significant matter for a space development. In addition, royal tomb's characteristic is related to the characteristics of culture, environment, man, gardening, and scenery. Therefore, the story research of these gardening, man, space needs to be investigated.