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본 연구는 경주지역 1개 고등학교 3학년 여고생을 대상으로 초경 시작 전인 초등학교 4학년부터 고등학교 2학년까지의 키, 몸무게, 가슴둘레 수치와 초경 연령을 파악하여 여성의 초경이 빠를수록 체성장 속도의 변화가 있을 것이라는 가설을 기초로 두 요인간의 관련성을 파악하고자 시행되었다. 경주시 1개 여자고등학교 3학년생 총 317명에 대해 ㅊ경 나이, 초경시 심리 상태, 초경이 시작되었을 때의 상담 여부와 상담하였던 사람, 부모 신장과 초경전후의 식사 규칙성, 다이어트 경험, 수면시간, 스트레스, 음주/흡연 여부, 질병력 등에 대한 설문 조사를 시행하였고, 초등학교 4학년부터 고등학교 2학년까지의 키, 몸무게, 가슴둘레에 대한 정보는 건강기록부에서 확보하였다. 상기 대상자 중 건강기록부가 분실된 39명, 초경나이에 대해 응답하지 않았던 29명 및 결석 등으로 조사를 하지 못하였던 42명을 제외한 조사 대상자는 206명으로 선정하였다. 대상자들의 초경연령 평균값(Mean±SD)은 13.0±1.11이었고, 초등학교 4학년부터 고등학교 2학년까지의 초경 이후 신장 성장률은 감소하였으며, 초경연령이 빠른 군이 초등학교 때는 신장에 있어서 우위를 차지하나 고등학교에 오면서 신장은 비슷한 수준이 되었다. 초경후 1-2년 사이에 체중과 흉위의 증가율은 감소하였고, 초경연령이 빠른 군이 초등학교와 고등학교 사이에 체중과 흉위에서 모두 우위를 차지하였다. 본 연구의 결과는, 흔히 이차 성징의 시작 시점 혹은 사춘기의 시작 시점으로 보고있는 초경 연령이 청소년기의 성장과 밀접한 관련성이 있고, 특히 체중과 흉위의 성장 속도와 밀접한 관련성이 있음을 시사한다. To understand the onset of menarche in relation to changes in physical growth that take place during female adolescence, especially the changes in height and weight velocity. The 207 senior in one women high school of Kyongju were investigated in April 3 to 8, 2001. We collected the information, relation in the age at menarche, height & weight of parents, regularity of eating, and obesity diet, duration of sleeping, sickness & stress near age at menarche, by self-recording. The status of height, weight & chest circumference between the 4th grade of primary school and the junior of high school was collected by individual Health Record. The results were followed; The average age at menarche was 12.95±1.11 years old and the most frequent age of menarche is 13 years. After menarche, the velocity of height, weight and chest circumference were decreased. The most rapid group of menarche hold dominant position in height during elementary school. As time passed, they dont hold dominant position in height. The most rapid group of menarche get an advantage in the weight and the girth of chest after elementary school. The height of subjects is directly proportional to the height of their parents. These results suggest that the starting age at menestuation can be closely associated with physical growth and development.
In the present study, a computer program was developed for simulating thesteady-state performance(COP, capacity, power consumption and etc.) of themulti-airconditioning systems using R410A. The computer program consists ofseveral subroutines for simulating indoor units, outdoor unit, compressors, andexpansion devices(capillary tube and electronic expansion valve), and for estimating the thermodynamic and transport properties ox the refrigerants and moist air. Intudies order to validate the simulation program, a series of case were carried out.The results of the simulation showed a good agreement with calorimeter test resultsof the actual multi-airconditioning systems using R410A.
The Korean hemorrhagic fever (KHF) is an acute febrile disease with characteristic of fever, bleeding tendency, and renal failure. There are many complications of Korean hemorrhagic fever such as infection, anemia, internal bleeding, hypopituitarism, respiratory, and neurologic complication. A few cases were reported on acute pancreatitis with hemorrhagic fever abroad, but there was no case about Korean hemorrhagic fever with acute pancreatitis in this country. We experienced a case of Korean hemorrhagic fever associated with suspected acute pancreatits. With review of articles, we report a case of 51 year-old woman with KHF, where acute pancreatitis developed during management, (Korean J Infect Dis 33:376∼379, 2001)
In order to improve the performance of the suspension system for mass transport vehicle with prescribed dynamic behavior, a synthesis procedure of eliminating "Hunting" was studied to yield resonant velocities outside the range of most frequent operation. Effect of changing in the spring stiffnesses on the resonant velocities of the system was considered. The effects of damping on the suspension system was analyzed through the Root Locus Analysis. And Root Contours Method was used to obtain the optimal damping values. Hunting is controlled by using a proper damping into the secondary suspension.
The purpose of this study was to determine health Index for elementary school students based on their health and physical-condition records in an effort to help them check heir health status, provide authentic health information and suggest how to take advantage of health records The subjects were 400 boy and girl students in their fifth and sixth grade of elementary school in Incheon. For data handing. t-test, ANOVA test, Pearson correlation coefficient, multiple regression analysis, principal component analysis and Cronbach's a were employed, And SPSS Win 100 program was utihzed. The findings of this study were as below. First, the boy students had a better physical condition in every area than the girls, and the slxth grades grew better than the fifth grades at the p,.001 level of significance. Second, concerning the development of physical fitness, the sixth grade boys excelled the fifth grade boys at every area except sit and reach, and the gsp between them was more significant in 50m run dash, standing broad jump and set-ups. In the case of the girls, the sixth grades outperformed the fifth grades in every area, but the disparity between the two was insignificant. By gender, the girls significantly outdid the boys in sit and reach, but the boys had a significantly better physical fitness than the girls in the other areas. Third, the Width and volume seemed to be more related to physical development than height and sitting height. Although the contribution of physical condition to physical fitness depends on school year and gender, height and sitting height made a less prediction of physical development than the width and volume did. Fourth, when their fitness level was assessed by physical-condition index, the width and volume developed better than height and sitting height, and the students made the best progress in endurance run and walk. Fifth, concerning the impact of health habits on fitness level, they were most healthy at the time of workout. Their gender made a significant difference to fitness level during exercise, as the boys were more healthy than the girls at the p<.001 level of significance.
To investigate the effect of vanillylnonanamide(VN) on the ATPase activity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum(SR) of the skeletal muscle, we prepared the SR vesicles from the back muscle of the rabbit, and measured ATPase activity. The results as follows: Ca-ATPase activity was about 50% in the total ATPase activity of skeletal muscular SR. In the reaction mixture with calcium, 100μM VN increased ATPase activity to 20%, and 100 nM and 10 μM thapsigargin(THP) inhibited the ATPase activity to 50% and 60%, respectively. And 100 μM VN plus 100 nM or 10 μM THP more inhibited ATPase activity than THP alone did it. However, without calcium, 100μM VN did not affect ATPase activity, and 10 μM THP inhibited it to 41%, but VN plus THP inhibited it to 31%. The above results show that VN in the reaction mixture with or without calcium has the different action to ATPase activity when it is used alone or together with Ca-ATPase inhibitor THP. This suggests that VN might increase or decrease the skeletal SR Ca-ATPase activity through affecting the lipid membrane around the Ca-ATPase.
In this study, the vibration of a harmonically excited cantilever beam with motion-limiting stops at the free end is studied. The responses of the beam are calculated by numerical analysis with Galerkin's mode summation method. The modal displacement and velocity of the beam are obtained for various forcing amplitudes and clearances of the stops. The resuluts of the numerical analysis are compared with the results of the experiments. The number of the rebounds is increased with (i) the increase of the magnitude of the force and (ii) the decrease of the clearance of the stops. And the effects of the higher modes become significant as the magnitude of the farce is increased and the clearance of the stops is decreased.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the interrelationship between temporomandibular joint disorders, and the condyle size and angle of the posterior slope of the articular eminence. The subjects used in this study were 100 patients with temporomandibular joint disorders and 100 volunteers with normal temporomandibular joints. All the patients and the volunteers were subjected to take panoramic and temporomandibular radiographs for the morphologic evaluation. This films were traced, measured, and analyzed. The data were processed with SPSS/PC+package for statistical analysis. The obtained results were as follows : 1. The posterior slope of the articular eminence in the group of temporomandibular joint disorders was larger than that in the normal group (p<0.05). The mean articular eminence angle was 31.6。±6.3 in the group of temporomandibular joint disorder, and 29.9。±8.4 in the normal group. 2. There were no statistically significant differences in the discrepancies of the left and right articular eminence angular measurements between the group (p>0.05). 3. There were no statistically significant differences in the condylar ratio between the groups (p>0.05). 4. There were no statistically significant differences in the discrepancies of the left and right ramus length measurements between the groups (p>0.05). 5. The relative size of condyle to fossa in the group of temporomandibular disorders was smaller than that in the normal group(p<0.05).