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Many countries have been involved in Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). These agreements make the trading relationships between those countries much more profitable by lowering barriers to trade between nations. Because of the importance of international trade and investment for promoting wellbeing and economic growth, the relationship between FDI and FTA is crucial to creating economic policies that foster international welfare. This paper models the effect of FTA on FDl, using an endogenous regime switching model. The final analysis is that the existence FTA is an inconsistent determinant of FDI between paired countries. Based on this model, I cannot say if the existence of a FTA is complementary or supplementary to FDl.
불안으로인하여고통을겪고있는사람들이많다. 이들중에는불안으로인하여수면에어려움을겪는경우도있고심각한신체적인장애나심리적인장애를겪는경우도있다. 불안은건강한정서로서사람들의삶에적당한긴장과유익함을제공할수도있다. 그러나부정적인증상으로서사람들의일상생활을힘들게하기도하다. 또한대인관계에치명적인장애를주기도하고하나님과의영적생활에어려움을제공하기도한다. 본연구에서는불안에대한일반적인이해를시도했다. 불안의원인과치료법, 학습론적입장, 정신분석적인입장, 심리학적인입장, 행동주의적인입장, 신학적인입장, 그리고신앙적인입장등으로나누어서살펴보았다. 또한불안과기독교신앙의관계를다룬뒤에불안장애극복을위한목회상담적인접근을시도했다. 불안극복을위한목회상담은네가지영역에서시도되었다. 첫째는소리로접근하기이다. 둘째는은총으로인도하기이다. 셋째는목회상담자의자질갖추기이다. 넷째는글쓰기고백활용하기이다. The main purposes of this study is to explores more desirableapproach of pastoral counseling for human beings suffering fromanxiety. Rollo May emphasized that anxiety is a part of all humanbeing. Above all, anxiety about death is the source leading to otheranxieties. Man often suffers from the mental disease because he istroubled in the mind about the complexities of destiny 문themeaning of existence. In the interpretation of anxiety, we conducted a psychoanalytic,behavioral, existential and biblical interpretation. With each area ofinterpretation the results were anxiety included a constructive andnegative. As to the therapeutic methods for anxiety, we analysed withpsychoanalytic, behavioral, existential and biblical approach.Consequently we discovered the disintegration of personality and theresulting therapeutic measure in Christianity. Christianity did not teachman to escape from anxiety, but rather exhort him to confront it.Biblical unique methods for the anxiety included an application ofBible, a prayer, a Bible reading. Approaches in pastoral counseling forthe anxiety are as follows: firstly, careful listening and support;secondly, leading to God’s grace; thirdly, competent pastoralcounselor with a good personality and faith; use of writing confessionas an effective counseling method.In conclusion, anxious persons revealed a decrease of anxiety andthe possession of an ultimate peace through knowing Jesus Christ bythe pastoral counseling and by the application of God’s reaction.
According as firms internationalize, we come to consider efficient distribution of human resources as an important element fo the success of them. In particular, we can-not emphasize too the importance of secretarial qualification of which is used for secretary to assist successful business administration of internationalized enterprise today. In order to carry out secretarial duty completely, therefore, secretary should keep various abilities ; such as excellent originality, decision making ability, etc. In this paper, I'd like to suggest that secretary should perform secretarial duties for a top-level executive or someone responsible for a major functional operation and deal with confidential affairs, administrative details, and organization. Thus, like previously mentioned, I sum up some qualifications of secretary as follows ; Secretary should possess ; first, bilingual ability and second, inter-cultural ability and third, communication ability and forth, information management ability and finally, decision making ability, etc.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the risks covered clauses and the general exclusions clauses between the New ICC(1982) and the ICC(1963) out of mutual comparison. The risks covered and exclued have influenced upon themselves conversely, on account of the rationalization of insurance management and other interests concerned between the insurer and insured. Although this new ICC(1982) clauses had been used brief and easy terms for the insured to make sense the original object, the scope of practical risks covered resulted in disadvantageous effects and rather lessened the scope of risks above mentioned in comparison of the old clauses over the insured, owing to the notation of the explicit risks excluded. The new ICC(A) and the ICC A/R(1963) are all but the same with respect to risks covered under the open liabilities, but the above mentioned risks founded risks covered as the risk of accident form. Thus, the risks of causes form lessened the scope of risks covered as of ultimate avoidence. Therefore, by means of risks excluded effect, the practical extension of risks covered and excluded which are influenced by the interests concerned between the insurer and insured, we could find the refusal response of the new clauses, which was revised more beneficial to the insurer than the insured. Consequently, the only way to protect the insured is to give the compensation through the reasonable adjusment of primium, and through this the insurer will obtain the managerial profit.