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The purpose of this study was to investigate the actual factors of handicapped children in view of the social medicine and to help improving their circumstances. The subjects for research was 115 children admitted in S rehabilitation center in Chungnam. Data had been collected by questionaire as per parallel study in February 1981 and then analysed statistically. The results were as follows: 1. On sex ratio, males were predominant with 1. 67 : 1. 2. 16.53% of father's occupation was commercial business, while 37.40% of mother's was housewife. 3. The largest number of educational level of father's was high school with 17.40%, and the next was above college with 14.79%. Non education was the largest number of mother's with 16.53%, the next was middle school with 14.79%. 4. The most greatest aspiration of future showed professions with 26.08%, and the next was artist with 16.52%, scholar with 12.17%. 5. The onset of defect that showed 1-5 years with 50.44% was the highest, and the next was 0-6 month with 33.92%. 6. The most common cause of handicapped children was revealed poliomyelitis as 47.83%, and cerebral palsy was the next in order as 38.26%. 7. The most common affected site was lower extremity with 51.31%, and the next was upper and lower extremity with 32.18%. 8. Among 60% subjects with assistance apparatus for ambulation, 31.30% were ambulatory with assistance of wheelchair, and 18.26% with crutch. 9. The most frequent experienced therapeutic measures showed acupuncture, herb, and physical therapy. 10. The largest complained.. problems was common cold with 49.56%, the dermatologic abscess with 32.17%, and anemia with 9.56%.
아기의 탄생은 가족전체에게 기쁨을 가져다 주는 동시에 아기양육의 책임, 가족구성원의 관계변화등 복잡한 적응문제를 야기하고 있다. 이 아기양육을 비롯한 적응문제는 아기 아버지 보다는 양육을 전적으로 책임지고 있는 어머니에게 더 부과된다. 또한 우리나라에서도 사회가 발전하면서 여성의 사회참여는 더욱 증가하고 있고, 앞으로도 더욱 증가할 추세이다. 직업을 갖고 있는 어머니들의 모성역할 긴장 및 모성역할 획득정도를 조사 한 연구 결과에 의하면 집에서의 양육책임과 직장에서의 책임으로 인해 직업을 갖고 있지 않은 어머니보다 더욱 역할 긴장을 느낀다고 보고한 연구결과도 있지만, 직업을 가지므로써 자기의 생활에 더 만족하여 직업을 갖고 있지 않은 어머니보다 역할 긴장정도가 더 적다고 보고한 연구도 있다. 이에 본 연구에서는 생후 4개월된 아기 어머니를 대상으로 어머니의 직업유무에 따라 어머니의 모성역할 긴장과 모성역할 획득정도를 비교하였다. 연구결과 모성역할 획득 중 모성역할 수행정도는 직업을 갖고 있지 않은 어머니가 직업을 갖고 있는 어머니보다 더 자신이 있다고 대답하였으나, 모성정체감과 아기와의 상호작용정도는 유의한 차이를 보이지 않았다. 모성역할 긴장정도도 직업유무에 따라 차이가 없는 것으로 나타났다. Even though the number of working mothers with infants under 12 months of age increased dramatically in Korea, little is kwown about role strain and role attainment of working mothers. So this study examined the differences of role strain and role attainment between working and nonworking mothers. The analysis of data from 35 working mothers and 36 nonworking mothers in Taejon was done with using the t-test and covariate analysis. The significant difference was only shown between working and nonworking mothers in relation to the extent of maternal role performance. There were no significant differences between working and nonworking mothers in relation to the extent of maternal identity, maternal interaction and maternal role strain.
We studied through February 1989 to August 1989 to investigate the demographic characteristics, disease status and deformity of leprosy patients registered at Chungnam provincial area on December 31, 1988. The results were as follows: 1. Older than 40 years of age occupied 83.3%, and most patients lived at his or her own home as farmer or stock breeder. 2. The infection source was more the extrafamilial than the intrafamilial source and the most common initial symptoms and signs by body site were sensory paralysis on extremities and infiltration on face and macule on trunk. 3. The deformity was higher in male than female, older the age and much more the deformity. 4. The deformity was higher in T type than L type, and more recent onset of disease and shorter the duration between the onset and the register of disease, more lighter the deformity. The settlement villiger than domiciliary and the group of patientnts being treated at health center than leprosy association, the deformity was heavier.
Histochemical sequential staining techniques, PAS, alcian blue pH 2.5 and pH 0.4, were applied to sections from the proventriculus of ducks to observe the histochemical properties of epithelial mucosubstances in the proventriculus of mallard and white Pekin ducks. The whole proventriculus obtained were divided systemically cross strips and processed routinely for histologic and histochemical study. Base on the histologic characteristics, we designated as upper portion which is the distal region of the esophageal-proventriculus junction, as middle portion, and as lower portion which is the proximal region of the proventricular-isthmus junction. The results obtained are as follows 1. Generally in the surface and foveolar epithelia showed the presence of the mixture of neutral and acid mucosubstances. 2. In the tubular gland showed the acidic nonsulfated and sulfated mucosubstance in addition to neutral mucosubstances with occasional neutral and acidic nonsulfated mucosubstances. 3. In the compound gland neutral mucosubstance with scant amounts of acidic mucosubstances or with lack of it were demonstrated. 4. There were recognized differences between speies in the staining intensity of all three types of mucosubstances. 5. There were recognized topographic difference in the acidity of epithelial mucosubstances according to portion.
Background : ICAM-1 act as one of major adhesion molecules in the atherosclerotic lesion. ICAM-1 expression is mainly regulated at the level of transcription and depend on IFN-γ signal transduction pathway in which the STAT1 transcrption factor is a critical intermediate. IFN-γreceptor not only initiates tyrosine 701 phosphorylation of STAT1 by Jak1 and Jak2, but also phosphorylates serine 727 through the activation of Raf-1/MAP kinases. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors have anti-atherosclertic effects, beyond normalization of hypercholesterolemia, by directly acting on endothelial cells, macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors suppress the synthesis of isoprenoid intermediates such as geranylgeranyl-pyrophosphate or farnesylpyrophosphate. These effects results inhibitors suppress the synthesis of isoprenoid intermediates such as geranylgeranyl-pyrophosphate or farnesylpyrophosphate. These effects results inhibition posttranslational farnesylation and geranyl-geranylation processing of small GTP-binding preoteins and inhibition of normal signaling activities. Method : We made several 5'-deletion constructs of rat ICAM-1 promoter and analyzed the promoter activities by measuring the luciferase activity after transfection into ECV304 cells and smooth muscle cells. We checked the level of total and phosphorylated STAT1 protein by immunoblot analysis using specific antibodies. Results : Lovastatin inhibits IFN-γ-induced ICAM-1 gene expression in the ECV304cell. The cells pretreated with PD98059, MEKK inhibitor showed significantly low ICAM-1 RNA induction with IFN-γ stimulatio. IFN-γ induced phosphorylation of tyrosine 701 was not significantly changed by the pretreatment of lovastatin. But lovastatin suppresses IFN-γ-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/ERK2 which are responsible for the seine 727 phosphorylation in STAT1. Conclusion : We showed that HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, lovastatin, suppresses IFN-γ mediated ICAM-1 gene expression through the inhibition of transcription. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor suppresses IFN-γ-induced phosphorylation of serine 727 in STAT1 through the modulation of MAP kinases.
This study was attempted to examine the psychological attitudes of medical and nursing students about family planning. 244 medical students and 424 nursing students in Chungnam area were tested for study. The results obtained are as follows; 1. The desire of learning about family planning was higher in nursing students than in medical students. 2. 70.9% of medical students and 57.31% of nursing students regarded family planning as the control of children's number and birth interval. 3. The ideal age of marriage was 26-27 years in medical students but 24-25 years in nursing students. 4. The mean birth interval was 2.5 years in medical students but 2.7 years in nursing students. 5. Regarding the attitudes toward the importance of the sex of children, the majority of medical students showed that boys are more important than girls but nursing students thoughts that boy and girl are both equal. 6. The major reason that boys are important was family succession in both groups. 7. All most all students wanted one boy and one girl. 8. 52.05% of medical students and 69.81% of nursing students thought that induced abortion in event of unwanted pregnancy was not appropriate.
For the improvement of detection of leprosy bacilli from patient, author's attention of the bacterial detection ratio have been devoted to compared the skin smear method with the nuclepore filter method from 200 patients who were registrated in Chungnam Skin Clinic of Korean Leprosy Association. One hundred patients out of 200 registered were positive in bacterial detection, the others were negative. For the dispersion of bacterial globi in nuclepore filter method, the skin scrapped materials were treated with 0.025% trypsin and 0. 002 % tween 80 for 30 minutes at 37℃ incubator. The efficiency of bacterial detection between the nuclepore 13 mm diameter of the filter and the 25 mm filter were investigated in the broth cultured M. fortuitum. The cultured M. fortuitum was transferedl ml into each 10 tubes, and then was carried out ten-fold dilution, respectively. The specimen for comparative counting of acid fast bacilli were made on 10^-4 dilution in using 25 mm diameter of filter and 10^-5 dilution in using 13 mm diameter of filter and cultural method. The results were summarized as follows: 1. The ratio of bacterial detection by the skin smear and nuclepore filter methods from 100 patients who were registrated with bacterial detection positive cases were not observed any difference, in all cases were detected leprosy bacilli with both methods. 2. In 100 patients who were registrated with bacterial detection negative, 19 patients were detected leprosy bacilli by the skin smear method and 33 patients were detected leprosy bacilli by the nuclepore filter method. The ratio of bacterial detection by two methods were observed statistically significant difference. (0.01<p<O. 05). 3. Between bacterial indices by skin smear and bacterial numbers of nuclepore filter methods were observed perfect positive corelation. 4. There was close corelation between 25 mm filter and the culture method, however, 13 mm filter was more higher than other two methods. From the above results, it was suggested that the nuclepore filter method with well digesting specimens with 0.025% trypsin and 0.002% tween 80 would be more accurate and higher detection ratio of M. leprae than skin smear method. The nuclepore 13mm filter was more efficient to detection of acid fast bacilli than 25 mm filter.
하악골 골절은 안면골 골절중 가장 빈발하는데, 이는 안면의 돌출된 부분을 차지하고 있어 외상에 노출되기 쉽기 때문이다. 일반적으로 하악골 골절의 원인으로는 교통사고, 폭행, 산업재해, 스포츠 및 낙상…등을 들 수 있으며 지리적, 경제적, 사회적 여건 등에 의해 좌우된다. 하악골 골절시 야기될 수 있는 가장 큰 문제점은 후유증으로 저작장애를 유발할 수 있다는 점이며, 따라서 외상후 대부분 나타나게 되는 교합 부조화 및 개구장애에 대한 적절한 처치가 저작능력 회복에 필수 적이라 하겠다. 본 저자는 최근 충남대학교병원 구강악안면외과에서 치료한 102명의 하악골절환자를 대상으로 얻은 통계적 자료를 바탕으로 임상적 결과를 얻었다. 1. 20대 남자에 호발하였다. 2. 하악골의 정중부에 호발하였다. 3. 낙상(fall-down injuries)이 주된 원인이었다. 4. 교합부조화와 개구장애가 주된 증상이었다.
모유는 완전한 자연식이며, 모유의 성분 및 조성이 훌륭하여 유아에게 알맞은 단백질을 함유하고 있고, 위에서의 소화 흡수도 잘 된다도 한다. 또한 모유에는 인공유와는 비교할 수 없는 면역체가 있어 소화기 감염, 호흡기 감염 및 알레르기 질병 등의 유병률이 적으며, 수유를 통한 사랑과 안정으로써 아기에게 안정을 주어 영아와 어머니는 모아애착이 증진된다고 한다. 특히 어머니와 자녀간의 애착은 생후 자연적으로 형성되는데 모유수유는 영아의 정서발달, 사회발달 및 성격형성에 큰 영향을 미친다고 보고하였다. 모유수유 유무에 영향을 주는 요소, 아기에게 주는 영향 등에 관한 연구는 많이 이루어 졌으나, 모유수유 유무가 어머니의 정서에 미치는 영향에 관한 조사는 거의 이루어지지 않은 실정이다. 그래서 생후 6주된 첫아기를 갖고 있는 어머니를 대상으로 모유수유 유무가 어머니의 모성역할 긴장과 모성역할 획득정도에 영향을 주는지를 연구하였다. 연구결과 모유수유 유무에 따라 모성역할 획득정도에 차이가 없었으며, 모성역할 긴장에도 차이가 없었다. 또한 아기 양육 준비도와 사회적 지지를 공변량으로 처리하여 모유수유 유무에 따라 모성역할 획득정도에 차이가 있나 본 결과 모유수유 유무에 따라 모성역할 획득정도에 차이가 없었고, 모성역할 긴장 역시 차이가 없었다.
Vertebral body and intervertebral disk index were measured on the films of latereal view of thoracolumbar spine in 136 normal population which were visited at Chungnam National University Hospital for 3 years. The results obtained were as follow; 1. The values of vertebral body index were greater in female than male. 2. The values of vertebral body index were greatest in 3rd decade and tender to decreased with age. 3. The values of intervertebral disk index were greater in male than female in age group below 19, and greater in female than male in age groups over 20. They were greatest in the level of L. 2-L.3, but no significant changes in different age groups.