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The effect of crystal size, crystallinity and content of carbonate ions in apatite crystal on osteoconductivity was studied. The apatite granules derived from bovine trabecular bone were heat-treated at 600oC and 1000oC for 3 hours, respectively. The content of carbonate ions in the apatite structure was assessed by FT-IR and its crystallinity was evaluated by X-ray diffractometry. The microstructure was assessed by field emission electron microscopy. Apatite granules heat-treated at 600oC and 1000oC were implanted into the calvaria of New Zealand White rabbits for 4 weeks, respectively, and the undecalcified ground histologic specimens stained with hematoxylin and eosin were observed. The crystal size, crystallinity and the carbonate ions content of the apatite granules heat-treated at 600oC was much smaller, lower and higher, respectively, comparing to those heat-treated at 1000oC. The apatite granules heat-treated at 600oC also showed much better osteoconductivity comparing to that heat-treated at 1000oC. The results were explained by the crystal size, crystallinity and the content of carbonate ions in the apatite structure.
This study investigates the process of detransitivization of transitive verbs in Russian. Transitive verbs, being two-place verbs, have external and internal arguments, while intransitive verbs have one external argument. The derivation of passive, antipassive, anticausative, and middle constructions presupposes transitivity within the functional projection of little vP, which is closely related to agentive theta-role and accusative case assignment in syntactic operations. Reflexive postfix ?sja in Russian plays an important role in discarding transitivity, that is, Russian postfix ?sja is employed to make passive, anticausative, antipassive, and middle constructions. Consequently, the Russian reflexive postfix ?sja is syncretic in function and meaning. Intransitive verbs divides into two groups: unergative and unaccusative. Pure reflexives indicating self-reflexives and reciprocals, antipassive belong to unergarive group whereas passive, anticausative, and middle belong to unaccusative. Russian passives are formed from imperfective verbs with the assistance of reflexive postfix ?sja and from perfective verbs with the analytic form of ``быть+past passive participle``. As English middles, Russian middles are interpreted into generic reading and potential reading, but not episodic reading. Russian middles are also formulated by reflexive postfix -sja, which is utilized to make anticausative, passive, and antipassive. Russian middles belong to type II that morphological marking is used for middles. Moreover, they also have the characteristics of type I, which requires the mandatory use of adverbs, so-called, adverbial middles. The structure of Russian middels is [S VMIDDLE+SJA *(ADV) )(*NPINSTR)], which is different from the structure of unergative of [S VUNERGATIVE+SJA (ADV) (*NPINSTR)]. Anticausative is a type of verb which also decreases the valency of argument structure by removing CAUSER argument, which can be optionally used by ``ot+NP``. In this case, NP msut be EVENT type NP, but not ENTITY type NP. Antipassive is also formed with postfix ?sja. This research encompasses the analysis on syntactic and semantic structure of detransitivized intransitives from transitive verbs, typological study, and language-universals & specifics on passive, anticausative, antipassive, and middle constructions from a perspective of morphology, syntax, and semantics.
A model for densification of metallic powders is proposed. It involves viscoplastic constitutive equations based on dislocation density evolution and also accounts for an effect of porosity. The model was applied to the case of cold powder compaction under uniaxial compression conditions. Densification behaviour during powder compaction was simulated using an explicit integration method as applied to the dislocation density evolution and the variation of the relative density of the compact. The model was gauged by comparing the experimental data generated by cylindrical die compaction tests on Cu powder with the simulation results. The model accounts for the grain size and the deformation rate dependence of on the densification process.
Atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured at the ChonbukNational University located in Jeonju, four times between June and November 2002, each time for five days.Twenty-four compounds including ve alkyl PAHs and byphenyl were analyzed. Average total concentration of 24PAHs was 85± 15ng/m3 and about 94% of PAHs existed in the gas phase. On an average, naphthalene accountedfor about 30% of the total PAHs concentration. The gas/particle partitioning was not much varied during themeasurement period. High molecular weight PAHs with five and six rings were primarily associated with fineparticles less than 1m. Lower molecular weight PAHs were evenly distributed in ne and coarse particles so thattheir distribution was similar to that of TSP.
Deposition uxes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) were measured at the Chonbuk National Univer-obtained using a water surface sampler(WSS) and a dry deposition plate(DDP). Most of PAHs were deposited inthe gaseous form since the low molecular weight PAHs dominates in the atmosphere. The deposition velocity ofparticulate PAHs was higher than that of gaseous PAHs when the molecular weight was low, but substantiallydecreased as the ne particle fraction increased with molecular weight. The deposition velocity was generally high-observed for gaseous PAHs of intermediate molecular weight.
Despite continued studies on red algal flora in Korea, the taxonomy of the tiny ceramiaceous algae has received little attention. We report for the first time Griffithsia okiensis from Korea on the basis of morphology and molecular data. The species is small in thalli height (0.3-1.5 cm), and in diameter of vegetative cells (50-500 μm), and the ratio of cell length/breadth is 2-3 times. It has two carpogonial branches from the supporting cell of procarp. We generated psbA and rbcL sequences from ten specimens of G. okiensis isolated from Korea and Japan and from one G. japonica species isolated Japan. Eight specimens of G. okiensis from Korea were almost identical in both psbA and rbcL regions, nevertheless they differed from Japanese specimens by 4 nucleotides in psbA and 7 in rbcL. In all analyses of psbA, rbcL, and psbA + rbcL data sets, G. okiensis was determined to be a different species from G. japonica isolated from Japan, although both species showed a sister relationship. For all that extensive collection trips, we found no evidence for the occurrence of G. japonica in Korea.
A die internal corner gap is usually found during equal channel angular pressing(ECAP) of materials. The die corner gap as well as the channel angle determines the strain generated during ECAP. Finite element analysis using the DEFORM2D code is carried out in order to investigate the corner gap formation between the die and workpiece during the plane strain ECAP process. The comparison of the deformation and the corner gap formation behaviour between the strain hardening materials and the quasi-perfect materials was made. The mechanism of the corner gap formation is described in conjunction with the strain hardening behaviour and flow velocity of the workpiece in the deforming zone. The adjustment of the corner angle from the die corner angle to the workpiece is necessary for a better prediction of the strain during ECAP.
Modern art with Impressionism at the root developed further to embrace various tendencies and attempts since Fountain by Marcel Duchamp in 1917. The work led to making limiting genres in art meaningless and allowing unrestricted use of art material. Later in 1960s, postmodernism discussion laid foundation to feminism and feminist female artists came to existence. They made a wide range of attempts, especially works on food by Judy Chicage, Jana Sterbak, Janine Antoni and Lee Bul. These artists criticized severely suppression, agony, subordination and discrimination on women related to eating or food in the patriarchical system, which contributed to higher status of woman.
Depressive disorder is one of the very serious mental diseases in terms of personal, social, economical losses. It is not clear for the pathogenesis of the depression, however, even though decreased 5-HT and NE may be the biological causing factors in the neuronal synapses. Moreover, there are many depressive patients who are treatment resistant or partial responders. Thus, we have been needed the other therapeutic methods for those cases. Repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation(rTMS) & VNS are the newly introduced methods for the treatment of refractory or partial responders with depression, which nature of therapeutic effect is the stimulation of the CNS. VNS has been used to treat the refractory epilepsy patients. Despite of numerous empirical and preclinical data, although VNS may be effective for the treatment of depression, the parameters for the treatment of depression using the VNS device have not been confirmed yet. However, from the several reports clinical effectiveness were described about 40%, thus, it is interested that VNS will be able to use for the treatment of depression in a future