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This paper describes the speed control method of BLDC Motor using TDOF PI ( Tow-degree of freedom PI ). PI control method generally used has difficulty in efficient speed control because speed response and load torque response interfere each other. It can't decrease the overshoot of motor speed w rm, and shorten the response time of load torque TL, at the same time according to the step alternation of speed reference w rm. Therefore TDOF PI is applied to BLDC Motor in order to supply these weak points of PI control method in this paper. TDOF PI can get the torque characteristic of short response time as well as stable and prompt speed adjustment by separate control for speed response and load torque response. The results from the tests of C program simulation and system construction show that TDOF PI is superior to PI control system in speed adjustment and load torque response.
목적 : H. influenzae는 성인에서 흔히 호흡기 감염을 일으키는 균주로, 최근 ampicillin 내성 β-lactamase 생성 균주들이 지속적인 증가를 보이고 있어, 이에 국내 성인에서 H. influenzae에 의한 감염의 임상양상과 분리된 균주들의 미생물학적 특성을 조사하고자 하였다. 방법 : 1998년 3월부터 1999년 9월까지 고려대 구로병원에 내원한 환자중에서 H. influenzae가 분리된 68명을 대상으로 임상양상을 조사하고 항균제 감수성 검사를 시행하였다. 분리된 33주에 대해서 혈청형, 생물형, 세포외막 단백분석을 시행하였고, β-lactamase 생성여부에 따른 감염 환자군간 임상상 및 예후의 차이를 비교하였다. 결과 : 환자의 평균연령은 68세였고, 지역사회 획득감염이 전체의 85%를 차지하였다. 폐렴과 기관지염과 같은 하기도 감염이 전체환자의 75%를 차지하였고 분리 검체 역시 객담이 84%로 가장 많았다. 환자의 71%가 기저질환을 가지고 있었으며, 그 중에 만성 폐쇄성 폐질환, 심혈관 질환, 악성종양, 당뇨병이 대부분이었다. 혈청형으로는 nontypeable 형이 68%로 가장 많았고 b형은 한 예도 없었다. β-lactamase 생성율은 63.2%였고, β-lactamase 양성균주의 항균제 내성율이 음성균주에 비하여 높았으나 β-lactamase 생성 여부에 관계없이 cefotaxime, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin에 대하여 100%의 감수성을 나타내었고 cefaclor, cefuroxime에 대해서는 10% 이하의 낮은 내성율을 보여 이들 항균제들이 치료에 효과적일 것으로 사료된다. 세포외막 단백분석에서는 C형과 D형이 전체의 64%로 가장 많았으며, 혈청형과의 유의한 연관성은 보이지 않았다. 결론 : 성인에서 H. influenzae는 주로 만성 기저질환자에서 급성 호흡기감염 또는 만성 폐쇄성 폐질환의 급성 악화를 유발한다. 기존의 보고에 비해 β-lactamase 양성율이 증가하였고, 이에 따른 항균제 내성율도 증가하여 항균제의 선택에 유의하여야 할 것으로 생각된다. 세포외막 단백분석상 특정한 유형의 균주에 의해 감염이 집중적으로 발생하고 있어 향후 역학 조사의 도구로 이용할 수 있겠다. Purpose : H. influenzae is one of the common causative microorganisms of respiratory tract infections in adults. Recently. β-lactamase producing, ampicillin-resistant H. infiuenzae has become worldwide problem as well as in Korea. We studied to investigate the clinical features and microbiologic characteristics of H. infiuenzae infections in adults. Materials & Methods : From March 1998 to September 1999, 68 patients were enrolled in this study. Clinical features of H. infiuenzae infections were investigated, 68 isolates were subjected to the β-lactamase test, and 33 isolates were used for serotyping. biotyping, antibiotic susceptibility and outer membrane protein (OMP) analysis. Results : Mean age of study patients was 68 years-old and the acquisition rate in community was 85%. Pneumonia and bronchitis were the most common type of infection such as 80%, sputum was the most common clinical specimen for H. mQuenzae isolation. 70% of patients had chronic underlying diseases. Non-typeable strains were 68% and β-lactamase producing rate was 63%. There was no difference in the clinical features and prognosis of H. influenzae infection between the β-lactamase positivie and -negative groups. The susceptibility of cefotaxime, azithromycin, and ciprofloxacin was 100% and that of cefaclor, cefuroxime was under 10% in spite of β-lactamase positivity. In OMP analysis, C and D types were dominant (64%). Conclusion : H. influenzae caused acute respiratory infections in adults with chronic underlying disorders. This study shows higher β-lactamase producing rate and antibiotic-resistance rate than that were reported previously. OMP analysis shows that two major types of strains cause clinical infections intensively.
Objective: To evaluate the effects of bee venom acupuncture(BVA) on the rehabilitation and quality of life in rheumatoid arthritis(RA) patients Methods: Patients with RA were treated with the BVA therapy twice a week for 3 months. Tender joint counts, swollen joint counts, morning stiffness, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate(ESR), C-reactive protein(CRP), patient global assessment, physician global assessment, Korean health assessment questionnaire(KHAQ) were estimated and analyzed before and after BVA therapy. Results: Tender joint counts, swollen joint counts, morning stiffness showed significant decrease after BVA therapy. But, as acute inflammatory reactants, ESR showed no significant difference and CRP showed significant increase after BVA therapy. Patient global assessment physician global assessment, and KHAQ index showed significant improvement after BVA therapy. Conclusions: BVA therapy can improve rehabilitation and health-related quality of life RA patients as well as clinical symptom and signs. Further study is required in more population with large scale including acute inflammatory reaction of BVA therapy.
Purpose : In order to study the effectiveness of East-West pain treatment on central poststroke pain(CPSP), we evaluated its effect on alleviation of pain and rehabilitation of CPSP Patients who were treated with electroacupuncture and west pain treatment for four weeks. Methods : Twenty four patients diagnosed by their pain characteristics of central pain from stroke were treated with sympathetic nerve block, gabapentin, amitriptyline, and electroacupuncture for four weeks. Pain intensity through the visual analogue scale(VAS), and improvements of mobility and rehabilitation through the modified Barthel index(MBI) and Rankin scale(RS), respectively, before and after pain treatment were also assessed. Results : VAS pain scores were significantly improved from 7.7±1.7 to 4.4±2.0 with pain treatment(p<0.05). In accordance with improvement of pain scores, RS and MBI scores were also improved from 2.88±0.95 to 2.13± 1.01 and from 83.0± 16.9 to 94.7±9.5(p<0.05), respectively, with pain treatment(p<0.05). Conclusions : It was suggested that the active pain treatment was contributed to the rehabilitation of CPSP patients, resulting in improvement of quality of life of CPSP patients. Futhermore, East pain treatment in combination with West pain treatment may be useful modality to alleviate CPSP.
This study investigated the effect of soybean-curd residues as an ingredient of the formulated diet for juvenile flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Three replicates of juvenile fish (averaging weight 1.5 f 0.04 g) were fed one of four isonitrogenous (50%) diets containing O%, 5%, 10% and 15% soybean-curd residues for 7 weeks. Survival, hepatosomatic index and condition factor of the fish were not affected by dietary soybean-curd residues levels. Weight gain, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio of the fish fed the diet containing 5% soybean-curd residues were not significantly different to those of the fish fed the control diet, however these values decreased in the fish fed the 10% and 15% soybean-curd residues (P<0.05). Daily feed and protein intake increased with increasing dietary soybean-curd residues level. Crude protein and lipid contents in the whole body decreased with increasing dietary soybean-curd residues, but no significant differences were observed among control, 5% and 10% soybean-curd residues diets (P>0.05). Plasma total protein concentration of fish was affected by dietary soybean-curd residues levels (P<0.05). It is concluded that the soybean-curd residues as a substitute for wheat flour can be included up to 5% in the diet for juvenile flounder.
Objective In order to study the effects of bee venom(BV) on the pain, edema, and acute inflammatory reactant of rheumatoid arthritis(RA) patients. Methods Patients with RA who met the ACR(American College of Rheumatology) 1987 revised criteria for the diagnosis of RA were treated with the BV therapy twice a week for 3 months. Tender Joint counts, swollen joint counts, Visual analog scale(VAS), morning stiffness, ESR. C-reactive protein(CRP) were analyzed before and after BV therapy. Results The results as follows. 1. Tender joint counts in patients after BV therapy were significantly lower than those before BV therapy(9.0±7.9 vs 15± 11.4, p=0.002). 2. Swollen joint counts of the patients after BV therapy were significantly lower than those before BV therapy(50±61 vs 15±23, p=0.001). 3. VAS in patients after BV therapy was significantly lower than those before BV therapy(608± 17.6 vs 380± 159, p=0.000). 4. Duration of morning stiffness in patients after BV therapy was significantly reduced compared with that before BV therapy(119.1± 112.6 min vs 59.0±89.7 min, p=0.009). 5. ESR and CRP were not significantly changed before and after BV therapy, suggesting BV itself could make inflammatory reaction as well as therapeutic effect. Conclusions BV therapy improved tender joint counts, swollen joint counts and duration of morning stiffness in this study, and further study is needed on long-term effect of BV therapy.
초고진공에서 공상에피택시(solid-phase epiyaxy, SPE) 방법으로 CoSi₂를 Si(111)기판 위에 에피택시 성장시켰다. 2MeV⁴He++ ion후방산란 분광기와 사중결정 x-선 회절기 및 고분해 투과전자 현미경을 이용하여 성장된 CoSi₂의 상과 조성, 결정성, 그리고 계면의 미시구조를 조사하였다. 초고진공상태의 실온에서 Si(111)-7X7기판에 Co를 약 20 ~50 ?? 중착한 후 SPE에 의하여 실리사이드를 형성시키는 경우 600℃에서는 B-형의 CoSi₂가, 그리고 700℃에서는 A형의 CoSi₂가 선택적으로 에피택시 성장하였으며, 정합성은 B-CoSi₂//Si and CoSi₂(111)//Si(111)이, 그리고 700℃에서는 A-CoSi₂//Si, CoSi₂(002)//Si(002)을 나타내었다. Epitaxial films of CoSi₂were grown on Si(111) substrates by in situ solid-phase epitaxy in a ultrahigh vacuum. The phase, the chemical composition, the crystallinity, and the microstructure of the Silicide/Si interface were investigated by 2-MeV⁴He++ ion-backscattering spectrometry, quadruple crystal X-ray diffractometry, and high-resolution transmission eletron micorscopy. High-quality films of either B-type or A-type CoSi₂ could be grown selectively on Si(111) substrates by depositing ~ 20 ~ 50 ?? of Co on a Si(111)-7X7 substrate followed by in situ annealing at 600℃ or 700℃ for 10 min. The matching face relationships are CoSi₂//Si and CoSi₂(111)//Si(111) by B-type CoSi₂ and CoSi₂//Si//Si and CoSi₂(002)//Si(002) for A-type CoSi₂.
Objective : We had a clinical report in headache but didn't in migraine. We have planned this study in order to get the basic data of migraine in oriental medicine. Methods : The patient of 36 in migraine checked sec, age, onset, family history, severity of pain, influences of life, induced cause, clinical pain characteristics, associated symptom, treatment style, and paescription, frequency, using period of analgesics by a questionnaire and differentiated syndromes in migraine and evaluated autonomic bioelectric response recorder(ABR-2000). Results : There are 23.4% in prevalence rate of migraine. The ratio of sex is M: F=1:17. The age of an attack is the highest in thirties. The patient are the most in forties. The mean duration of illness is 12.0±9.9 years. 83.4% had a family history. 61.1% had a moderate grade in severity of pain. 77.8% selected fatigue in induced cause of migraine. 69.4% had tingling sense, nausea and vomiting in the associated symptoms. 91.7% used analgesics for treatment and 51.5% of them used analgesics voluntarily. 61.9% of them take analgesics less than once in a week. 33.6% had the phlegm syncope headache in differentiation of syndrome. In ABR-2000 results, item of graph showed low tendency mostly. Conclusions : We expected that this re port of clinical progress, differentiation of syndromes and ABR-2000 results in migraine would be used basic data by oriental medicine to treat migraine.
The purpose of the study was 1) to investigate bivariate correlations of obesity indices and cardiopulmonary fitness with blood lipoprotein-lipids and blood pressure and 2) to determine the degree to which obesity and cardiovascular fitness explain individual variations of the atherogenic lipids and blood pressure in the participants of the study. A total of 152 apparently healthy men (mean age 24.64±3.03 yrs) voluntarily participated in the study. Following an overnight fasting, blood samples taken from an antecubital vein were used for the determination of the blood total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), and triglyceride (TG). low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) concentration was calculated by using the Friedewald formula. And VO2max was measured on a motor-driven treadmill using the Bruce protocol. Both obesity indices including body mass index, percent body fat, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio and cardiovascular fitness were significantly correlated with atherogenic blood lipids profile (TC, TG, and LDLC) and blood pressures. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses showed that percent body fat was an independent-prediction factor for TC, HDLC, TG, and TG/HDLG, and body mass index was for LDLC. Similarly, percent body fat was an independent predictor for the variation of diastolic and mean arterial pressure, and body mass index for systolic blood pressure. In addition to the obesity indices, cardiovascular fitness was inversely correlated with not only the atherogenic blood lipids profile. blood pressures but also the obesity indices. Consequently, the results of current study suggest that l) cardiopulmonary fitness may modulate the relationship between obesity and atherogenic blood lipids and blood pressures and 2) lifestyle interventions for the treatment of the atherogenic blood lipids and blood pressure should target on the improvement of both obesity and cardiopulmonary fitness.