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( Byung Ju Kang ),( Kyung Wook Jo ),( Tai Sun Park ),( Jung Wan Yoo ),( Sei Won Lee ),( Chang Min Choi ),( Yeon Mok Oh ),( Sang Do Lee ),( Woo Sung Kim ),( Dong Soon Kim ),( Tae Sun Shim ) 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 2013 Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases Vol.75 No.6
Background: The aim of our study was to evaluate the “diagnosis changed” rate in patients notified as tuberculosis (TB) on the Korean TB surveillance system (KTBS). Methods: A total of 1,273 patients notified as TB cases on the KTBS in one private tertiary hospital in 2011 were enrolled in the present study. Patients were classified into three groups: “diagnosis maintained”, “diagnosis changed” (initially notified as TB, but ultimately diagnosed as non-TB), and “administrative error” (notified as TB due to administrative errors). Results: Excluding 17 patients in the “administrative error” group, the “diagnosis maintained” and “diagnosis changed” groups included 1,097 (87.3%) and 159 patients (12.7%), respectively. Common causes of “diagnosis changed” were nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease (51.7%, 61/118), and pneumonia (17.8%) in cases notified as pulmonary TB, and meningitis (19.5%, 8/41) and Crohn`s disease (12.2%) in cases notified as extrapulmonary TB. Being older than 35 years of age (odds ratio [OR], 2.18) and a positive acid-fast bacilli stain (OR, 1.58) were positive predictors and a TB-related radiological finding (OR, 0.42) was a negative predictor for a “diagnosis changed” result via multivariate logistic regression analysis in pulmonary TB cases. Conclusion: Because of a high “diagnosis changed” rate in TB notifications to the KTBS, the TB incidence rate measured by the KTBS may be overestimated. Considering the worldwide trend toward increased NTM disease, the “diagnosis changed” rate may increase over time. Thus, when reporting the annual TB notification rate in Korea, the exclusion of “diagnosis changed” cases is desirable.
Adaptation of climate change is necessary to avoid unexpected impacts of climate change caused by human activities. Vulnerability refers to the degree to which system cannot cope with impacts of climate change, encompassing physical, social and economic aspects. Therefore the quantification of climate change impacts and its vulnerability is needed to identify vulnerable regions and to setup the proper strategies for adaptation. In this study, climate change vulnerability is defined as a function of climate exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. Also, we identified regions vulnerable to ozone due to climate change in Korea using developed proxy variables of vulnerability of regional level. 18 proxy variables are selected through delphi survey to assess vulnerability over human health sector for ozone concentration change due to climate change. Also, we estimate the weighting score of proxy variables from delphi survey. The results showed that the local regions with higher vulnerability index in the sector of human health are Seoul and Daegu, whereas regions with lower one are Jeollanam-do, Gyeonggi-do, Gwangju, Busan, Daejeon, and Gangwon-do. The regions of high level vulnerability are mainly caused by their high ozone exposure. We also assessed future vulnerability according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A2, A1FI, A1T, A1B, B2, and B1 scenarios in 2020s, 2050s and 2100s. The results showed that vulnerability increased in all scenarios due to increased ozone concentrations. Especially vulnerability index is increased by approximately 2 times in A1FI scenarios in the 2020s. This study could support regionally adjusted adaptation polices and the quantitative background of policy priority as providing the information on the regional vulnerability of ozone due to climate change in Korea.
This study is carried out to examine the effect of applying Feldenkrais method, elastic band training and combined training on trunk muscle. The subjects of this study were 32 modern dance majors and they were divided into four groups which consists of 8 peoples each, Feldenkrais method group(modern dance + Feldenkrais method), elastic band training group(modern dance + elastic band training), combined training group(modern dance + Feldenkrais method + elastic band training), and control group(modern dance). Measurement variables which are trunk muscle were measured before training, and after 4 and 8 weeks training and the results are as follow: In the left muscle strength change at Centaur 0°, Feldenkrais method group, elastic band training group and combined training group showed significant increase after 8 weeks training compared to before training. In the right muscle strength change, Feldenkrais method group and combined training group had significant increase after 8 weeks training. In the left muscle strength change at Centaur 45°, Feldenkrais method group and combined training group showed significant increase after 8 weeks training compared to before training and after 4 weeks training. Also elastic band training group showed significant increase after 8 weeks training compared to before training. In the right muscle strength change, Feldenkrais method group and elastic band training group significantly increased after 8 weeks training compared to before training. In the left muscle strength change at Centaur 90°, Feldenkrais method group and combined training group showed significant increase after 4 and 8 weeks training compared to before training. In the right muscle strength change, Feldenkrais method group showed significant increase after 4 and 8 weeks training compared to before training, and elastic band training group significantly increased after 8weeks training compared to before training. In the left muscle strength change at Centaur 135°, there was no significant changes. In the right muscle strength change, elastic band training group and combined training group showed significant increase after 8 weeks training compared to before training. In the left muscle strength change at Centaur 180°, combined training group showed significant increase after 4 and 8 weeks training compared to before training. In the right muscle strength change, combined training group showed significant increase after 4 and 8 weeks training compared to before training. From above results, applying 8 weeks regular program of Feldenkrais method, elastic band training and combined training to modern dance majors showed positive changes on improvement of trunk muscle strength and physical strength. Also this study implemented to verify the effects of trunk muscle strength and body balance through supplementary training program, and showed the effects in the training group and control group after 8 weeks trunk muscle strengthening program. Feldenkrais method, elastic band training and combined training are very effective to improve trunk muscle strength of modern dance majors so that continuous implementation and application of these effective training program shall be provided for strengthening trunk muscle.
Kang, Byung Ju,Jo, Kyung-Wook,Park, Tai Sun,Yoo, Jung-Wan,Lee, Sei Won,Choi, Chang-Min,Oh, Yeon-Mok,Lee, Sang-Do,Kim, Woo Sung,Kim, Dong Soon,Shim, Tae Sun The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory 2013 Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases Vol.75 No.6
Background: The aim of our study was to evaluate the "diagnosis changed" rate in patients notified as tuberculosis (TB) on the Korean TB surveillance system (KTBS). Methods: A total of 1,273 patients notified as TB cases on the KTBS in one private tertiary hospital in 2011 were enrolled in the present study. Patients were classified into three groups: "diagnosis maintained", "diagnosis changed" (initially notified as TB, but ultimately diagnosed as non-TB), and "administrative error" (notified as TB due to administrative errors). Results: Excluding 17 patients in the "administrative error" group, the "diagnosis maintained" and "diagnosis changed" groups included 1,097 (87.3%) and 159 patients (12.7%), respectively. Common causes of "diagnosis changed" were nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease (51.7%, 61/118), and pneumonia (17.8%) in cases notified as pulmonary TB, and meningitis (19.5%, 8/41) and Crohn's disease (12.2%) in cases notified as extrapulmonary TB. Being older than 35 years of age (odds ratio [OR], 2.18) and a positive acid-fast bacilli stain (OR, 1.58) were positive predictors and a TB-related radiological finding (OR, 0.42) was a negative predictor for a "diagnosis changed" result via multivariate logistic regression analysis in pulmonary TB cases. Conclusion: Because of a high "diagnosis changed" rate in TB notifications to the KTBS, the TB incidence rate measured by the KTBS may be overestimated. Considering the worldwide trend toward increased NTM disease, the "diagnosis changed" rate may increase over time. Thus, when reporting the annual TB notification rate in Korea, the exclusion of "diagnosis changed" cases is desirable.
최철웅(Cheol Ung Choi),나승운(Seung-Woon Rha),김선원(Sun Won Kim),나진오(Jin Oh Na),임홍의(Hong Euy Lim),김진원(Jin Won Kim),김응주(Eung Ju Kim),한성우(Seong Woo Han),박창규(Chang Gyu Park),서홍석(Hong Seog Seo),오동주(Dong Joo Oh) 대한임상노인의학회 2010 대한임상노인의학회지 Vol.11 No.4
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연구배경: 아세틸 콜린 유발 검사시 발생하는 흉통과 허혈성 심전도 변화가 아세틸 콜린에 의해 발생하는 관상동맥의 내피세포 기능에 어떤 영향을 주는지 알아보고자 했다. 방법: 흉통으로 내원하여 관상동맥 조영술과 아세틸 콜린 유발검사를 시행받은 1,085명의 환자를 대상으로 하였다. 아세틸 콜린 유발 검사를 하는 동안 허혈성 심전도 변화 및 흉통의 발생 유무에 따른 관상동맥 내피세포 기능의 특징을 비교하였다. 결과: 539명의 환자에서 아세틸 콜린 검사시 내피세포 기능 장애가 발생 하였다. 허혈성 심전도 변화가 있었던 그룹이 심전도 변화가 없었던 그룹보다 흉통이 더 많았고(78.1% vs. 60.8%, P=0.007), 관상동맥 조영술상 다발성 관상동맥 경련이 빈번하였고(59.4% vs. 40.6%, P=0.004), 관상동맥의 경련 정도도 더 심하였다(64.1% vs. 46.5%, P=0.006). 흉통이 있었던 그룹이 흉통이 없었던 그룹보다 허혈성 심전도 변화의 빈도가 더 높았다(14.7% vs. 7.5%, P=0.007). 또한 흉통이 있었던 그룹이 관상동맥 경련이 다발성으로 발생하는 경우가 많았고 (50.7% vs. 29.5%, P<0.001), 미만성으로 발생하는 경우가 많았고(87.1% vs. 75%, P<0.001), 관상동맥의 경련의 정도도 더 심하였다(51.6% vs. 43.5%, P=0.041). 결론: 아세틸 콜린 유발검사시 발생하는 허혈성 심전도 변화와 흉통은 관상동맥 경련의 정도와 경련이 발생하는 관상동맥 개수와 연관이 있다. Background: ECG changes and chest pain during acetylcholine (Ach) provocation tests may constitute important clinical parameters for Ach-induced endothelial dysfunction. We investigated the association between ischemic ECG changes and chest pain during the Ach-provocation test and angiographic characteristics of Ach-induced endothelial dysfunction. Methods: A total of 1,085 patients with anginal symptoms underwent diagnostic coronary angiography (CAG) and Ach-provocation tests. We compared angiographic characteristics of Ach-induced endothelial dysfunction according to the presence of ECG change and chest pain. Results: A total of 539 patients experienced Ach-induced endothelial dysfunction. Patients who experienced ECG change group suffered more frequent chest pain (78.1% vs. 60.8%, P=0.007), angiographically more frequent multiple coronary artery spasm (59.4% vs. 40.6%, P=0.004), and more severe coronary artery spasm (64.1% vs. 46.5%, P=0.006) than patients without ECG change. However, there was no difference in the length of endothelial dysfunction between the groups. The incidence of ischemic ECG changes in patients with chest pain was higher than in patients without chest pain (14.7% vs. 7.5%, P=0.007). Patients who experienced chest pain more often experienced multiple (50.7% vs. 29.5%, P<0.001), diffuse (87.1% vs. 75%, P<0.001), and severe coronary artery spasm (51.6% vs. 43.5%, P=0.041) than patients without chest pain. Conclusion: Ischemic ECG changes and chest pain during the Ach-provocation test are associated with multi-vessel involvement and severe coronary artery spasm. Chest pain is associated with the length of endothelial dysfunction, but ischemic ECG change is not.
After world war Ⅱ Japanese life expectancy has been improved remarkably, and reached the highest level in the world around late 1970's. The life expectancy of Korean has also shown tremendous improvement in recent years with about 20 year's gap from the Japanese. The reason of rapid improvement of life expectancy can be explained by changes in the structure of cause of death due to health system, living standard, social welfare, health behavior of individuals and so on. Korean in Japan is placed under different situations from both Korean in Korea and Japanese in these regards, and expected to show different picture of cause of death pattern. The objective of this study is the comparision of changing patterns of cause of death of three population groups, Korean in Japan, Korean in Korea and Japanese, and to investigate the reasons which effect to the structural difference of mortality cause with special emphasis on health ecological aspects. One of the major limitations of the Korean causes of death statistics is the under-registration which ranges about 10% of the total events, and inaccuracy of the exact cause of death. Some 20% of registered deaths were unable to classify by ICD. However, it is concluded that the Korean data are evaluated as sufficient to stand for over-viewing of trends of cause of death pattern. The evaluation is done by comparing data from registration and field survey over the same population sample. Population data of Korean in Japan differ between two sources of data; census and foreigner's registration. Correction is done by life table method under the assumption that age-specific mortality pattern would accord with that of the Japanese. The crude death rate was lowest among Korean in Japan, 5.7 deaths per 1,000 population in 1965. The crude death rates of Korean in Japan and Japanese are increasing recently influenced by age structure while Korean in Korea still shows decreasing tendency. The adjusted death rate is lowest among Japnaese, followed by Korean in Japan, and Korean in Korea. The leading causes of death of Korean in Korea until 1960's was infectious diseases including pneumonia and tuberculosis. The causes of death structure changed gradually to accidents, neoplasm, hypertensive disease, cerebro-vascular disease in order. The main difference in cause of death between Korean and Japanese is high rate of liver diseases and diabetes for both Korean in Japan and Korea. A special feature of cause of death among Korean in Korea is remakably high rate of hypertensive disease, which is assumed to be caused by physicians tendency in choosing diagnostic categories. The low ischemic heart disease and high vasculo-cerebral disease are the distinctive characteristic of the three population groups compared to western countries. Specific causes of death were selected for detailed sex, age and ethnic group comparisons based on their high death rates. Cancer is the cause of death which showed most drama tical increase in all three population groups. In Korea 20.1% of all death were caused by cancer in 1990 compared with 10.5% in 1981. Cancer of the liver is the leading cause of cancer death among Korean in Japan for both sexes, followed by cancer of the lung and cancer of the stomach, while that of Korean in Korea is cancer of the stomach, followed by cancer of the liver and cancer of the lung for male. Causes of infant mortality were examined among the three population groups since 1980 on yearly bases. For both Japanese and Korean in Japan, leading cause of death ranks as conditions originating in the perinatal period, congenital anomalies, accidents and other violent causes. Trends since 1980 for these two population groups in the leading cause of infant mortality showed no changes. On the contrary, significant changes in leading cause of death structure in Korea were observed : The ranking of leading cause of death in 1981 were congenital asnomali
In this study, ZnO is evaporated to be coated on n-type Si wafer substrate. Refractive coefficient of thin film that is evaporating TiO₂onto ZnO increases linearly as thickness is getting thinner to have high value and high angle and it satisfies theoretical equation I(x)=Io exp (-αx) theory that represents the strength of photon energy advancing through ZnO thin film. And dielectric constant of TiO₂thin film evaporated onto ZnO is high and ε₂ is smaller than ε₁. The specimen TiO₂thin film evaporated onto ZnO has much higher dielectric constant when photon energy is increased.
This study was to investigate the effects of boxing competition on hematological indices and morphological change of erythrocyte at pre, post- boxing competition and recovery 60 min periods. Ten volunteer male amateur boxer were investigated. Blood samples were collected at prior, immediately after exercise and recovery 60 min. Red blood cell count(RBC), hemoglobin(Hb), and hematocrit(Hct) were measured by an automatic blood cell counter(Abx Micros 60). Blood cell morphological erythrocyte were evaluated in Wright's stained blood films. The present results were as follows: There was significant increase RBC, Hb, and Hct at post-boxing game compared to pre-boxing game and significant decrease at recovery 60 min. There was significant increase ESR and abnormal erythrocyte at post- boxing game compared to pre-boxing game and significant decrease at recovery 60min, however, were significantly higher than pre-boxing game. In the present results, it can be suggested that acute boxing competition can influence hematological variables and induce oxidative damage to erythrocyte.
To investigate the effect and mechanism of caffeine on endurance exercise, two experiments were performed. First, to test caffeine effect on aerobic exercise, 200-300g Sprague-Dawley rats were used and three groups, control group, low caffeine injection group and high caffeine injection group, were divided. Blood smpling by heart puncture were done at rest, after 30 min treadmill exercise, and after maximal exercise. Blood glucose, free fatty acid concentration were detected and following results were obtained. Glucose concentration showed significant difference between groups(p=0.0305) and also significant changes were exhibited between time(p=0.0004). Free fatty acid concentration had no difference between groups. but had significance between times(p=0.00065). Exercise endurance performance time showed significant difference(p=0.02350 in high caffeine injection group compared to control group. In this experiments, endurance exercise capacity was increased by caffeine injection. Therefore, second experiment was performed to investigate the effect of caffeine on ion current induced inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter. GABA and glycine. Single periaqueductal gray neuron was acutely dissociated and nystatin perforated patch clamp was performed under voltage clamping condition. Caffeine evoked outward current in PAG neuron dose dependent manner. 1mM of caffeine application had no response. but 3mM caffeine evoked about 32.5±8.539pA outward ion current and 10mM caffeine evoked about 215.46±19.4pA outward current. 10^-2mM GABA activated Cl￣current and recorded by inward current. Caffeine inhibited GABA activated Cl￣ current concentration dependent manner. 10^-2mM of caffeine had no effect on 1-^-2mM of GABA response. but 10^-1mM caffeine inhibited GABA activated Cl￣ current about 5.74±2.13%, 1mM caffeine inhibited about 17.25±2.70%, 10mM caffeine inhibited GABA response about 45.31±7.71%. 10^-1mM of glycine activated Cl￣ current and also recorded by inward current. Caffeine inhibited glycine activated Cl￣ current concentration dependent manner. 10^-2mM caffeine decreased glycine activated Cl￣ current about 4.61±1.650%, 10^-1mM caffeine decreased about 6.49±2.24%, 1mM caffeine decreased about 26.82±4.27%, and 10mM caffeine decreased glycine response about 94.47±1.39%. These results suggest that caffeine inhibite inhibitory amino acid, GABA and glycine, this response causes excitation of CNS and this seems to be the basic mechanism of increasing effect to aerobic exercise performance by caffeine.
Vitamin D and carotid subclinical atherosclerosis in SLE Chang-Bum Bae, Ju-Yang Jung, Bo-ram Go, Hyun-Ah Kim, Chang-Hee Suh Department of Rheumatology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea Introduction Atherosclerosis develops earlier in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and is the important cause of mortality. It has been suggested that vitamin D deficiency contributed cardiovascular disease and immune dysregulation in SLE. Methods One-hundred two female patients with SLE and 52 normal controls (NC) were recruited. The carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and plague were assessed by B-mode ultrasound at the carotid artery level. Vitamin 25(OH)D3 levels were checked by immunoradiometric assay using the Bio-Line 25(OH)D3-Ria CT kit (Bio-Line S.A., Belgium). Disease activity markers were checked at the time of enrollment. Results The cIMT of SLE is 0.41±0.08mm, which is higher than NC (0.37±0.11 mm, p=0.012). Also, carotid artery plague index (PI) of SLE is higher than NC (0.68±1.39 vs 0.26±0.87, p=0.026). The cIMT was correlated with age (r=0.442, p<0.001), body mass index (r=0.246, p=0.013), waist-hip ratio (r=0.245, p=0.013), SLE disease activity index (r=0.239, p=0.016), taking aspirin (r=0.244, p=0.013), and the carotid artery PI was correlated with renal involvement (r=0.224, p=0.023) in patients with SLE. Vitamin 25(OH)D3 was not showed correlation with cIMT and carotid artery PI. Also, it was not correlated with disease activity markers. Conclusion In patients with SLE, the risk of cardiovascular disease measured by cIMT and carotid artery plaque was higher than NC, which may be derived from systemic inflammation. However, vitamin D levels were not showed significant correlations with carotid subclinical atherosclerosis. It may be not suitable to assess vitamin D as marker of disease activity or subclinical atherosclerosis.