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To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of captopril renal scan for renovascular hypertension, we employed the captopril renal scan in conjunction with renal angiography in 81 patients, 159 kidneys, who were referred to evaluate the cause of hypertension. We defined the renovascular hypertension by the criteria of demonstration of renal artery stenosis by angiography, and improvement or cure of hypertension by revascularization. Visual and quantitative evaluation of Tc-99m-DTPA renal scan was performed pre and post captopril administration. The prevalence rate of renovascular hypertension was 40% in comparing with renal angiography, and 70% in confirmed cases. The causes of renovascular hypertension in 81 patients were Takayasu's arteritis, fibromuscular dysplasia, atherosclerosis, essential hypertension, chronic pyelonephritis etc. The sensitivity and specificity of captopril renal scan in comparing with renal angiography were 80%, 86.5%, respectively and also 84.2%, 72.6% in confirmed cases of renovascular hypertension, respectively. The causes of false negative cases were nonfunctioning kidney due to complete obstruction or long duration of disease in basal scan, segmental branch artery stenosis, unknown causes, and suspicious true negative cases without confirmation. The false positive cases were abdominal aortic stenosis or aneurysm, dehydration, unknown causes, and suspicious true positive cases. We conclude that captopril renal scintigraphy is highly sensitive, reasonably specific diagnostic method and comparable to other techniques very favorably.
Purpose: As vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) could lead to renal functional deterioration when combined with urinary tract infection, we need to decide whether operative anti-reflux treatment should be performed at the time of diagnosis of VUR. Predictive value of radioisotope voiding cystography (RIVCG) for renal outcome was tested. Materials and Methods: In 35 children (18 males, 17 females), radiologic voiding cystourethrography (VCU), RIVCG and DMSA scan were performed. Change in renal function was evaluated using the follow-up DMSA scan, ultrasonography, and clinical information. Discriminant analysis was performed using individual or integrated variables such as reflux amount and extent at each phase of voiding on RIVCG, in addition to age, gender and cortical defect on DMSA scan at the time of diagnosis. Discriminant function was composed and its performance was examined. Results: Reflux extent at the filling phase and reflux amount and extent at postvoiding phase had a significant prognostic value. Total reflux amount was a composite variable to predict prognosis. Discriminant function composed of reflux extent at the filling phase and reflux amount and extent at postvoiding phase showed better positive predictive value and specificity than conventional reflux grading. Conclusion: RIVCG could predict renal outcome by disclosing characteristic reflux pattern during various voiding phases. (Korean J Nucl Med 2000;34:135-143)
Technetium labeled isonitrile analogues are widely used as myocardial perfusion imaging agents. We synthesized and characterized a new isonitrile compound, ethyl 3-isocyanobutyrate (EIB). Proton and 13C NMR spectroscopy and thin layer chromatography with a C18 coat was performed. EIB was easily labeled with 99mTcO4-with sodium dithionite. The labeling efficiency measured by RP-HPLC was over 95%. The labeled product was stable with dilution in normal saline and with prolonged incubation at room temperature. There was no formation of secondary products or free 99mTcO4. In vivo kinetics study of Tc-99m(I) labeled EIB in rabbits showed adequate myocardial uptake, good contrast against lung background, and relatively rapid liver clearance. The heart to lung ratio was over 2.5 and the heart to liver ratio was approximately from 0.4 to 5 at 60 minutes post injection. Hepatic clearance of Tc-99m-MIBI was faster (t1/2,=6 minutes) than that of Tc-99m-MIBI. In vivo kinetics observed in dog was similar to that in rabbit but there was faster gallbladder filling, and thus lower liver background. SPECT imaging of the canine myocardium showed favorable imaging characteristics. However, biodistribution in mice demonstrated a myocardial % injected dose/organ of less than 0.1%. This was thought to be due to interspecies difference in plasma esterase activity. In human plasma, Tc-99m(I) labeled EIB was stable for at least 2 hours, without production of secondary products by HPLC. We conclude that ethyl 3-isocyanobutyrate may be a potential new myocardial perfusion imaging agent and deserves further investigation as to its usefulness for clinical use.
Differentiating the various causes of hydronephrosis from that of obstruction can be very difficult. The decision-marking process for those instances of urinary tract dilatation that require surgical correction and those that do not is based in part on the findings of diuresis renography. The methodology for performing this test has differed among nuclear medicine practitioners and the surgical findings are occasionally discrepant from the diuretic renogram interpretation. Consequently we made an automatic computer software program that calculates the slope of the response curve. The quantitative indices, such as the injection and response t1/2 by linear-fitting and monoexponential-fitting, were compared with the visual assessment of the diuretic cinerenography and clinical outcome in 50 children (62 kidneys) with ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Pooled diuresis renogram data indicated that: (1) Visual evaluation of the diuretic cinerenography is a sensitive (87%, 54/62) tool to differentiate obstruction in suspected ureteropelvic junction obstruction. (2) The cut-off value (maximum washout t1/2 with non- obstruction) of injection and response t1/2 by linear-fitting were 40 min. (3) The sensitivity and specificity using injection and response t1/2 by linear-fitting for obstruction were 89%(23/26) and 100%(30/30), respectively. (4) Response t1/2 as well as injection t1/2 by monoexponential-fitting do not stratify children with possible ureteropelivic junction obstruction. In conclusion, quantitative assessment of diuretic renography as well as visual assessment of diuretic cinerenography correlate well with surgical and clinical outcome of suspected ureteropelvic junction obstruction.
Purpose: Cost-effectiveness of myocardial SPECT f'or the diagniosis of coronary artery disease was investigated considering the present and amended costs of myocardial SPECT and exercise ECG in Korea. Materials and Methods: Four diagnostic tactics such as 1) coronary angiography (CAG) after exercise ECG, 2) CAG after myocardial SPECT, 3) direct CAG, and 4) CAG after myocardial SPECT following exercise ECG were chosen. Costs were calculated using the present costs of various tests and effects represented by Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) were estimated. Difference of QALY (ΔQALY) was calculated by subtracting QALY of diagnosed/treated cases from QALY of undiagnosed cases, Cost/Δ QALY was calculated and compared between four different tactics according to pre-test probability, Results: When pre-test probability was equal to or larger than 0.6, direct CAG was the most cost-effective. When pre-test probability was between 0.2 and 0.6, CAG after myocardial SPECT following exercise ECG was the most cost-effecte. CAG after myocardial SPECT was the second most cost-effective. Cost-effectiveness was similar when the costs of exercise ECG were doubled or quadrupled. CAG after exercise ECG was always the least cost-effective, Conclusion: Myocardial SPECT with or without preceding exercise ECG was the most cost-effective method to diagnose coronary artery disease in the present or expected amended cost system. (Korean J Nucl Med 2000;34:207-21)
We studied 115 patients with seizure who had been performed brain SPECT brain MRI of CT and EEG. To evaluate the pattern of brain SPECT in seizure patients 28 of them had secondary epilepsies, 87 had primary epilepsies. In primary epilepsies, 42 were generalized seizure and 45 were partial seizure. The causes of secondary epilepsies were congenital malformation, cerebromalacia, cerebral infarction ultiple sclerosis, AV-malformation. granuloma and etc, in order. In 28 secondary epilepsies, 25 of them, brain SPECT lesions was concordant with MRI or CT lesions. 3 were disconcordant. The brain SPECT findings of genealized seizure were normal in 22 patients, diffuse irregular decreased perfusion in 8, decreased in frontal cortex in 4. temporal in 5 and frontotemporal in 3. In 45 partial seizure, 19 brain SPECT were concordant with EEG (42.4%).
Dipyridamole is an agent that may be used to noninvasively evaluate coronary artery disease. The effect of dipyridamole infusion its generally related to its induced peripheral vasodilatory effect. In normal person, heart rate is generally increased slightly while blood pressure decrease, but the achieved double product and related myocardial oxygen consumption have no significant change. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect and side effect of dipyridamole, and to compare different response to dipyridamole among the patients. We evaluated 847 patients who underwent dipyridamole stress myocardial SPECT. 93.6% of them had induced hypotension 0.9% showed no change of blood pressure, 5.5% had increased blood pressure 8.3% had no change of pulse rate more than 10% of basal pulse rate. Among diabetes, 16.9% was not change of pulse rate, 6.7% in non-diabetes. There was no significant correlation between age and rate pressure product rest(RPPr), in patients without perfusion defects on SPECT(y=7.1x+48.4r=0.13 p$gt;0.01). As increasing age, RPPs/RPPr was declined(y=-11.6x+68.9 r=0.17 p〈0.01), similar results were obtained in patients with perfusion defect. The size of perfusion defect on myocardial SPECT have no correlation between RPPr and RPPs/RPPr. The side effects of dipyridamole included chest pain and chest tightness, headache, abdominal pain, dizzness, nausea, and dyspnea. As increasing age, dipyridamole-induced cardiac work at rest was increased, cardiac response to dipyridamole was decreased.
Purpose: To investigate the mechanisms related to F-18-FDG uptake by tumors, F-18-FDG accumulation was compared with glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1) expression and hexokinase activity in various human cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: Human colon cancer (SNU-C2A, SNU-C4, SNU-C5), hepatocellular carcinoma (SNU-387, SNU-423, SNU-449), lung cancer (NCI-H522, NCI-H358, NCI- H1299), uterine cervical cancer (HeLa, HeLa 229, HeLa S3) and brain tumor (A172, Hs 683) cell lines were used. After 24 hr incubation of 5×105 cells, 37 kBq F-18-FDG was added and the uptake by cells at 10 min was measured using a gamma counter. Hexokinase activity was measured by continuous spectrophotometric rate determination. To measure mitochondrial hexokinase activity, mitochondrial fraction was separated by a high speed centrifuge. Immunohistochemical staining of Glut-1 was performed, and graded as 0, 1, 2, or 3 according to expression. Results: There was difference among F-18-FDG uptake, total and mitochondrial hexokinase activty, and Glut-1 expression with different cancer cell lines. The correlations of F-18-FDG with total hexokinase and mitochondrial hexokinase activity were low (r=0.27 and 0.26, respectively). Glut-1 expression showed a good correlation with F-18-FDG uptake (ρ=0.81, p=0.0015). Previously, we reported no correlation of F-18-FDG uptake with hexokinase activity in colon cancer cell lines. Thus, when colon cancer cells were excluded, F-18-FDG uptake showed higher correlation with total hexokinase and mitochondrial hexokinase activity (r=0.81, p=0.0027 and r=0.81, p=0.0049, respectively). Conclusion: Both Glut-1 expression and hexokinase activity were contributing factors related to F-18-FDG accumulation in human cancer cell lines. The relative contribution of Glut-1 expression and hexokinase activity, however, was different among different cancer cell types. (Korean J Nucl Med 2000;34:294-302)
Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of radioiodine treatment for metastatic thyroid carcinoma, we reviewed results of radioactive iodine treatment in patients with functional lung or bone metastases. Materials and Methods: Of 760 patients who were treated for differentiated thyroid cancer between 1984 and 1998, we detected pulmonary metastases and bone metastases in 76 patients (10.0%) and 20 patients (2.6%), respectively. Among them, we could evaluate the effectiveness of I-131 therapy in 53 patients with lung metastases and 15 patients with bone metastases. Results: Of 53 patients who received I-131 therapy with a mean cumulative dose of 26.2 GBq (1.1-84.4 GBq) for pulmonary metastases, metastatic lung lesions completely resolved in 19 patients (35.8%) and improved in 22 patients (41.5%). In 13 of 19 patients with complete remission of pulmonary metastases, the total accumulated dose of I-131 was less than 18.5 GBq. We found 43 sites of metastatic bone lesions in 15 patients with bone metastases. Of 29 lesions which received I-131 therapy, metastatic lesions improved in 14 sites (48.3%), but did not change or progress in 15 sites (51.7%) despite the I-131 therapy. Three lesions were completely cured with a combination treatment of surgery(± external radiotherapy) and I-131 therapy, and the other 11 lesions improved. Conclusion: Radioactive iodine treatment gives favorable results for pulmonary metastases. However, for bone metastases, there might be a need to use combination therapy including I-131 and surgery or external irradiation.
Background: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression is recommended for patients who undergo thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). However, the impact of TSH suppression on clinical outcomes in low-risk DTC remains uncertain. Therefore, we investigated the effects of postoperative TSH levels on recurrence in patients with low-risk DTC after thyroid lobectomy. Methods: Patients (n=1,528) who underwent thyroid lobectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma between 2000 and 2012 were included in this study. According to the mean and dominant TSH values during the entire follow-up period or 5 years, patients were divided into four groups (<0.5, 0.5 to 1.9, 2.0 to 4.4, and ≥4.5 mIU/L). Recurrence-free survival was compared among the groups. Results: During the 5.6 years of follow-up, 21 patients (1.4%) experienced recurrence. Mean TSH levels were within the recommended low-normal range (0.5 to 1.9 mIU/L) during the total follow-up period or 5 years in 38.1% or 36.0% of patients. The meanand dominant TSH values did not affect recurrence-free survival. Adjustment for other risk factors did not alter the results. Conclusion: Serum TSH levels did not affect short-term recurrence in patients with low-risk DTC after thyroid lobectomy. TSHsuppression should be conducted more selectively