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Activities of acid deoxyribonuclease (DNase) and neutral ribonuclease (RNase) in liver tissue, serum and ascitic fluid and urinary excretion of the modified ribonucleosides were determined in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (15 cases) and liver cirrhosis (18 cases) hospitalized in the department of internal medicine of Hanyang University Hospital. Comparing these results with those obtained from normal healthy persons (20 cases), the present study pursued whether these parameters could be used as diagnostic and biochemical markers for hepatocellular carcinoma. 1) Serum neutral RNase activity was unchanged in liver cirrhosis, but increased in hepatocellular carcinoma by 70% and the positive rate of the serum enzyme as a marker for hepatocellular carcinoma was 60%. 2) Ascitic fluid neutral RNase activity was increased in hepatocellular carcinoma by 54% as compared with that of liver cirrhosis, and the positive rate of the ascitic fluid enzyme as a marker for hepatocellular carcinoma was 67%. Rnases and proteins in ascitic fluid of hepatocellular carcinoma were isolated by a DEAE-cellulose column chromatography into 5 peaks each, of which two peak proteins and RNases appeared to be unique to the cancer. 3) Liver acid Dnase activity was unchanged in liver cirrhosis, but increased greatly in hepatocellular carcinoma (117% increase), and the positive rate of the liver enzyme as a marker for hepatocellular cancer was 80%. The present study indicate that serum and ascitic fluid RNase activity, liver acid Dnase activity and urinary excretion of modified ribonuclesides can be used for diagnostic and biochemical markers for hepatocellular carcinoma. The combined use of these parameters might be useful for making accurate diagnosis for hepatocellular carcinoma.