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영화 <이끼>는 웹사이트에 연재되었던 만화를 영화화한 것이다. 영화에서는 이영지라는 인물에 좀 더 주목하여 원작 만화에는 없던 장면을 추가함으로써 반전의 효과를 높이고자 하였다. 이와 같이 원작에 비해 달라진 결말에 대해서 여러 견해들이 있는데, 감독의 의도가 어찌되었든 달라진 이야 기에서 읽어낼 수 있는 의미를 밝혀서 그것이 우리 삶에 어떤 영향을 줄 수 있는 것인지를 차분히 생각해 볼 수 있어야 할 것이다. 이를 위해 우선 원작과 영화의 차이를 분석해 보고자 하였다. 이때 ‘권력’을 핵심어로 하였는데 그 이유는 논의의 초점이 된 이영지가 원작과 영화에서 결정적으로 달라지는 지점이 권력 획득의 유무를 기준으로 하여 드러나기 때문이다. 따라서 이 글에서는 이영지라는 인물이 권력을 갖추게 되는 과정을 원작과 비교하고, 이를 토대로 하여 영화 <이끼>에서 드러나는 권력이 갖는 의미를 밝혀 보고자 하였다. 이에 영화와 원작의 줄거리를 모두 정리하고 이를 비교하면서 이영지의 행위나 태도가 달라진 부분과 그 양상을 살펴본 결과 원작의 이영지는 조력자의 역할에 불과한 반면 영화의 이영지는 스스로 주도하여 계획을 실행한 결과 권력을 얻은 주체가 되었다는 점을 밝힐 수 있었다. 이것은 영화의 마지막 장면을 통해서 드러난다. 마을에서 절대 권력을 행사하던 이장이 자신의 비리가 세상에 드러나게 되자 스스로 목숨을 끊었고, 이후에 마을에는 새로운 세상이 만들어지게 되었다. 이때 새로 들어선 마을의 지도자가 이영지가 된다는 설정에서 결국 이영지가 새로운 권력의 주체로 떠오르면서 영화가 마무리되는 것이다. 그런데 이때 영화에서 이영지가 획득한 권력이라는 것은 일차적으로는 이영지라는 인물이 갖는 특수성에서 문제를 갖는 것이고, 이차적으로는 이영지에 의해 마련된 권력을 받아들이는 입장에서 제기된다. 이영지는 마을 남자들의 성적 대상이 되어 살아가고 있었는데 이는 이영지가 믿고 따르던 구원의 대상인 류목형의 허망한 삶과, 자신을 농락하고 폭력적으로 지배해온 천용덕에 대해 복수하기 위해 계획적으로 선택한 삶이었다. 그러나 이것이 복수를 넘어선 구원으로 나아가지 못한 것이라는 점에서 문제가 되는 것이 다. 또한 끈질긴 복수를 통해 결국 모든 권력 관계를 뒤엎고 새로운 권력을 생성하는 모습으로 나타남으로써 권력의 부정적인 속성을 드러내는 것이라고 하겠다. 이와 같은 분석 결과를 토대로 했을 때, 영화 <이끼>는 문제를 해결하거나 건강성을 회복하는 이야기와는 거리가 먼 이야기라고 할 것이다. 굳이 마을에서 유일한 여성이었던 영지를 새로운 주체로 내세우고자 했다면 그녀가 이루는 긍정적인 구원을 이루는 방향으로 나아갈 가능성도 충분히 있었던 것이다. 하지만 이러한 이야기를 분석하여, 우선 그것이 갖는 문제점과 의미를 정확하게 파악하고 이해함으로써 문제적 서사라는 점을 인식하는 것은 그 반대편에 있는 건강한 이야기를 찾는 초석이 될 수 있다는 점에서 의의가 있다고 할 것이다. The movie <Moss> is the film organized from a cartoon work serialized on wet site. The movie focuses the character of Lee, Young-Ji more than her in original cartoon work. So the movie added some new scenes to increase the movie"s reverse effect. Concerning the movie"s different ending from the original cartoon work, there are many assumptions. Whatever the movie director"s intention was, we need to identify the different ending"s meaning and to think over what influences it may affect on our lives. For this purpose, I first tried to analyze the movie"s differences from the original work. At analyzing the both works, I set the "power" as the key word. Lee Young-Ji was the target of this study"s discussion, and she decisively changes at the point when she acquire the power. Therefore, this study compares the original work with the movie about the character of Lee Young-Ji"s power possessing way. And based on it, this study tried to identify the power"s meaning in the movie <Moss>. Summarizing and comparing the movie"s synopsis with the original"s, I intensively focused on Lee Young-Ji"s usual behaviors, attitudes and changing parts in them. As the result of investigating her changes, I could find that Lee Young-Ji in the original cartoon work was an assistant, but in the movie, she became the leader getting the power resulting from having led to execute her plan. It is revealed in the final scene of the movie. The village chief had exercised absolute power in the village but he killed himself when his illegal acts were revealed. After his suicide, a new world was created in the village. The movie ends with informing the fact that Lee, Yoing-Ji eventually emerged as a new power"s leader by being the village"s leader. But the power which Lee, Young-Ji acquired was primarily problematic from the terms of her unique condition. Secondarily the power was problematic concerning her attitude accepting the power by set herself. In the village, she had suffered as a sexual partner for the village men. But her miserable life was planned and selected by herself for revenging against Chun, Yong-Duck, the village chief having making her such miserable life and Ryu, Mok-Hyung"s unreal life and death. But the fact that her power"s acquisition didn"t go into the salvation beyond a revenge became a problem. Also the new power"s creation after upsetting all power relationships via a persistent revenge reveals the power"s negative aspect. Based on this analyzing result, the movie <Moss> may not be a story solving problems or recovering moral health. If the movie"s director tried to make Young-Ji, only women in the village as the new leader, he should have had enough possibility to develop the story"s direction for positive salvation which she wanted to achieve. But the movie is meaningful in that we understand its story"s problems and meanings, get aware of the movie as a problematic epic through its analysis, so the movie can be a cornerstone for searching healthy stories from its opposite side.
Three alloys (Mg–6Zn–1.2Y, Alloy I; Mg–3.65Zn–1.65Y, Alloy II; and Mg–4.3Zn–1.4Y, Alloy III) with same volume fractionand grain size were designed to evaluate the effects of the I-phase (Mg3Zn6Y) and W-phase (Mg3Zn3Y2), which are themajor phases in Mg–Zn–Y alloys, on the mechanical properties. The tensile strength of Alloy I with the I-phase at roomtemperature was the highest among the tested alloys because the coherent interface between the I-phase and the α-Mg phasewas more resistant to cracking than the incoherent interface between the W-phase and the α-Mg phase. A cross-sectionalmicrostructure analysis of a sample that was tensile-tested at 423 K revealed that the morphology of the I-phase remainedrelatively stable. In contrast, the W-phase was broken and fragmented during the tensile test at 423 K because it had higherbrittleness under the test conditions. Therefore, the tensile and creep properties of Alloy I at 423 K were better than thoseof Alloys II and III containing the W-phase. According to the results, the I-phase in the Mg-Zn-Y alloy was more beneficialto the mechanical properties at room temperature and 423 K than the W-phase.
When these analysis put together, urban spatial structure of Kwang Ju has been changed and ultimately formed through urban development project and in the respect of chronological order each characteristics could be summarized as follows : Actual development of downtown was started in 1958, urban spatial structure of Kwang Ju showed similar shape to concentric pattern, sector pattern, multiple nuclei pattern. The urban spatial structure of Kwang Ju has been changing in chronological order like this : concentric pattern → sector pattern → multiple nuclei pattern. Especially, in the process of transforming from sector pattern into multiple nuclei pattern resulted in the division between the east and west part by the airport and Young San river. This is an artificial administrative measure so, appropriate response is absolutely needed. Accordingly, Young San river and Kwang Ju airport play important roles in city development plan in terms of urban spatial structure and it is important to weigh them where making a decision for city plan and political implementation.
In this paper we study the controllability for the nonlinear neutral fuzzy integro-differential equations on E^(n)_(N) by using the concept of fuzzy number of dimension whose values are normal, convex, upper semicontinuous and compactly supported surface in R^(n). E^(n)_(N) be the set of all fuzzy numbers in R^(n) with edges having bases parallel to axis X_(1), X(2),‥,X_(n).
이 글은 “한국의 민족주의는 근대성을 결여한 종족주의에 불과하다”는 『반일 종족주의』(이영훈 외, 2019)의 주장에 대한 이론적 비판이다. 이를 위해 우선 근대사회에서 민족이란 무엇이며, 민족주의란 무엇인가에 대한 일반적 검토를 행한다. 가라타니 고진에 따르면 근대사회에서 네이션이란 폭압적인 자본=국가인 절대왕정(혹은 독재정권)을 타도하고 주권자로 등장한 인민을 지칭하며, 네이션의 등장에 의해 근대사회는 자본=네이션=스테이트라는 일반적 구조를 갖게 된다. 한편 베네딕트 앤더슨에 따르면 민족주의는 식민지 본국의 배제와 차별에 저항하여 아메리카 식민지 주민이 스스로를 하나의 민족으로 상상하는 과정에서 등장하였다. 이러한 일반적 검토 위에서 이글은 한국의 민족주의가 갖는 보편성과 특수성을 확인하고, 한국에서 근대적 민족의 성립과정을 이론적으로 재구성함으로써 한국의 민족 및 민족주의가 갖는 근대성을 확인하고자 한다. This paper is a theoretical critique of the claims of Anti-Japan Tribalism (Young-hoon Lee et al., 2019), which holds that Korean nationalism is nothing but an anti-modern tribalism. First, this paper conducts a general review of what constitutes anation and nationalism in modern society. According to Kojin Karatani, the nation refers to a citizenry that overthrows anabsolute monarchy (or dictatorship) of the oppressive ‘Capital = State’ and emerges as sovereign. With the advent of the nation, modern society achieves a general structure of ‘Capital = Nation = State’. Meanwhile, according to Anderson(2018), nationalism emerged in the process of colonial subjects imagining themselves as a nation by resisting the exclusion and discrimination of the colonizer’s homeland. Second, this paper confirms the universality and specificity of Korean nationalism, and confirms the modernity of Korean nation by theoretically reconstructing the process of its establishment.
This paper is focused on the development of the flexible electrode for disc-type polymer actuators using Segmented Polyurethane(SPU). This paper consists of two parts. The one is about the mechanical property such as elastic modulus. these parameters mainly affect behaviors of polymer actuators and the other is about the electro-chemical property such as the surface resistance of the composite electrode affects the strength of electrostatic force, results in the deformation of polymer actuators. The Young's modulus was measured by UTM. As result, by increasing the modulus of a body of polymer actuators, the maximum displacement of polymer actuators are decreased. The surface resistance of the electrode was measured by 4 point probe system. Compared with the conductive silver grease, the displacement of polymer actuators using carbon black(CB) composite electrodes is comparably small but CB composite electrode should be the practical approach for the improvement of the performance of all-solid actuators, compared with another types of electrode materials.
일반적으로 차량의 주차는 단지 운전자의 시각과 경험에 의해 행하여졌지만, 근래의 주차는 기술 발달로 인해 각종 센서를 통한 정확한 거리 측정과 카메라로 인한 공간 확보가 가능하여, 주차를 보다 신속하고 안전하게 할 수 있게 되었다. 이러한 기술 발달로 무인 주차에 관한 연구는 차량을 기준으로 하여 다양한 측면에서 진행되어지고 있다. 본 연구에서는 공영 주차장이나 대형 주차장에서의 주차구역이 분명하며, 주차 구역에 무인카메라가 설치되어있는 배경에 중점을 두어 실시간 영상 값에 의존하여 자율 주차를 하는데 있다. 주차 구역에 설치된 카메라는 실시간 영상 처리로 주차 공간의 경계와 차량, 물체를 인식하고 영상 정보에 의한 차량궤적 각을 추정하여 이를 퍼지 제어를 통해 산출 값을 얻어 4륜 모바일 로봇에 적용하여 주차를 수행하였다. Generally parking of the vehicle only driver sight and in compliance with an experience comes to do the spatial security which is caused by with judging distance and the camera which are accurate the various sensor, but it in recent times is caused by with technical advancement and leads was possible, parking was quicker and safely there made be a possibility of doing. So about unmanned parking the research vehicle with technical advancement and in standard to be advanced from the side which is various comes. In this paper the parking sector from the public parking lot or the formation parking market is clear and importance in the space where the unmanned camera is established in the parking sector depends in real-time image value and is parks autonomously. The camera which is established in the parking sector guard and the vehicle of parking space, recognized the object with real-time image processing and the vehicle wheel track angle in compliance with a image data and presumed Fuzzy-control led and in the four-wheel mobile robot and parking a production value and got applied accomplished.
배경 : 폐경후 골다공증은 심각한 문제로 대두되고 있다. 현재 Alendronate는 폐경후 골다공증의 치료제로서 널리 쓰이고 있다. 저자는 Alendronate의 골밀도에 효과를 알아보고 골다공증의 위험인자에 따른 Alendronate의 반응 정도를 평가하기 위하여 본 연구를 수행하였다. 방법 : Alendronate를 평균 12개월간 복용한 35명의 폐경후 골다공증환자에서 체질량지수와 폐경후 기간에 따른 치료효과를 조사하였다. 결과 : 전체 대상군에서 Alendronate 10㎎을 12개월간 투여한후 골밀도의 평균 변화율은 요추와 대퇴골 경부에서 각각 7.83±7.39%와 2.99±9.22%이었다. 과체중군에서 평균변화율은 요추와 대퇴골 경부에서 각각 7.15±4.5%와 3.05±2.86%였다. 양군간에 통계적 유의성이 있는 차이는 없었다. 폐경후 7년이 경과되지 않은 군에서의 평균변화율은 요추와 대퇴골 경부에서 각각 6.9±5.3%와 5.71±0.08%였다. 양군간에 통계적인 유의성이 있는 차이는 없었다. 결론 : 마른체형이 골다공증의 발병에는 영향이 있으나, Alendronate 치료효과의 차이는 없는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 더불어 폐경이 있고 7년이 초과된 군과 년이 경과되지 않은 군에서의 Alendronate 치료효과의 차이는 없는 것을 확인할수 있었다. 이는 골흡수가 상당히 진행된 상태에서도 Alendronate가 치료효과를 가지고 있음을 반영한다고 할 수 있겠다. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a serious health problem. The aminophosphonate Alendronate is widely used for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. We studied the effect of l0㎎ of alendronate given daily for mean 12 months on bone mineral density in 35 women(mean age 61yrs. mean BMI 23.24㎏/m^(2)) with osteoporosis. An over weight group is defined such that BMI was above 23㎏/m^(2). All the women received 1500㎎ calcium carbonate daily. The bone mineral density of L-spine and femoral neck was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Alendronate increased BMD at mean 12 months at the L-spine (7.15±4.5%) and femoral neck(3.05±2.86%) in normal women. Alendronate increased bone mineral density at 12 months at the L-spine(6.00±5.3%) and femoral neck(4.17±4.87%) in overweight women. There was no difference between two groups. In the less than 7 years group of postmenopausal duration. alendronate increased bone mineral density at 12 months at the L-spine(6.9±4.9%) and femoral neck(3.18±7.1%). In the more than 7 years group of postmenopausal duration, alendronate increased hone mineral density at 1% months at the L-spine(6.5±5.3%) and femoral neck(5.71±0.08%). There was no difference between two groups. In postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, therapy with alendronate produced significant increases in BMD of the L-spine and femoral neck in both group. There was no difference between normal and over-weight groups. and between less than 7 years group and more than 7 years group of postmenopausal duration.
1) Ortega called his philosophy the Metaphysics of vital reason or ration Vitalism. By Metaphysics he meant the quest for an Ultimate or radical reality in which all else is rooted and from which every particular being derives its measure of reality. He found this ultimate reality in life, a word that he first used in a biological sense, Like the Vitalists, but which soon came to mean "my life" and your Life-the career and destiny of an individual in a given Society and at a certain point in history. In his first philosophical book, "Meditations on Quixote"(1914), Ortega sought to go beyond the Opposition of idealism (which, he claimed, asserted the Ontological Priority of the self) and realism (which asserted the priority of the things the self knows). He asserted that in truth self and things were constitutive of each other, each needing the other in order to exist. 『If the subject exists, so does the object, inseparably and vice versa. If I who think exist, also does the world of which I am thinking. therefore, the fundamental, the radical truth is the coexistence of myself with the world. Existing is first and foremost coexisting-it is I myself seeing something which is not myself, if is I loving another being, it is I suffering from things. The form of relationship by which things are mine is not, then, the unilateral dependence which Idealism believed it had found : it is not only that they are what I think and feel then to be, but also that there is an inverse dependence, also I depend on them, on the world. what we are talking of is an interdependence, a correlation, in short, a coexistence』 (Ortega : what is philosophy. P.P 208∼209) For that reason, the sole reality was the self-with-things : Yo Soy yo y mi Circumstancia (I am I and my circumstances). The things around me, he said in the "Meditationes") are the other half of my personality. The experience-matrix comprising self and things is not simply one of coexistence, because the self acts on things and realizes itself in so doing. This activity is life-the dynamic interaction between self and things in the course which the self carries out a mission of self-fulfillment. experiments, and thus it gave a fundamental idea to the History-philosophy of our own time. The philosophy of Ortega's vital reason original from Dilthey's philosophy of life, and then Ortega made every endeavour to mix Dilthey's philosophy of life with Husserl's phenomenology. It is the basic reality on which physico-mathe-matical reason does not shed light. Ortega asserted that the life is not understood by the physico-mathematical reason and Hegel's dialectical reason, but only by historical reason or vital reason. The physico-mathematical reason in the past revealed its own limits in the presence of the human life which paved the way for the vital reason. Ortega believed that the physico-mathematical reason, whether in its crude form of naturalism on in its beatfic form of spiritualism, was in no state to front human problems. By its very constitution it could do other than search for man's nature. And, naturally, it did not find it. For man has no nature. According to Ortega, man is not his body, which is a thing, nor his soul, psche, conscience or spirit, which is also thing. Ortega thinks : 『Man is nothing, but a drama-his life, a pure and universal happening which happens to each one of us and in which each one in his turn is nothing but happening.』The physico-mathematical reason has shown it's own superpower in the traditional idealism in the terms of which human being is only an entity which has nature, but it is only a fiction in Ortega's "Lebensphilosophie", for Ortega held the thought that man, in a word, has no nature, but only history. According to Ortega, man "goes on being" and "unbeing"-living. He goes on an accumulating being-the past : he goes on making for himself a being through his dialectical series of experiments. In short, Ortega assented that man's life only takes on measure of transparency in the light of vital reason. The fundamental reality in Ortega's philosophy is, in a word, a life. The Historicity of life in Ortega's philosophy is a dialectical series of man's 2) According to ortega, this human Life is strange reality concerning which the first thing to be said is that it is the basic reality, in the sense that to it we must refer all others, since all others, effective or persumptive, must in one way or another appears within it. 3)Ortega's interest in Husserl's phenomenology was only a phase in his philsophical development. In the posthumous Leibniz book, Ortega, quotes literally a formulation which he apparently presented to his Madrid students and which reads as follows : 『(A) It is necessary to renew the traditional problem of Being from its roots : (B) This must be done with the phenomenological method insofar and only insofar as it means synthetic or intuitive thinking, not merely conceptually abstract thinking like the traditional logical thinking : (C) But it is necessary to integrate the phenomenological method by adding to it a dimension of systematic thinking, which, as is known, it does not possess : (D) And finally, in order for systematic phenomenological thinking to be possible, it is necessary to start from a phenomenon which is by itself a system. This systematic phenomenon is human life, and it is necessary to start with its intuition and analysis』(cited by spiegelberg. the phenomenological Movement Ⅱ. P.616) Spiegelberg's comment on Ortega's attitued toward phenomenology is as follows : 『Ortega adds : In this manner I abandoned phenomenology at the very moment of adopting it. what this paradox seems to say is that from the very start Ortega bent the intuitive method of phenomenology in the direction of a systematic analysis guided by his conception of human life, hence that he adopted it only in a very conditional manner‥‥ Thus to Ortega phenomenology was a stage rather than a goal on the way toward the formulation of his metaphysics of vital reason : but it was certainly not his only method』(Ibid.PP.616∼617) 4) Ortega's doubts about the absolute essence of man and his collateral assertion that to live is to create life from the raw materials of time and circumstance would seem to lead him close to existentialism. Even the terminology of such existentialists as Sartre and Heidegger reveals similarities to Ortega's thought. when Sartre says in 1943.,"I am condemned to be free," he is repeating what Ortega had written in 1945 : " I am necessarily free whether I like it or not." And in 1946, when Sartre says, "Man is nothing other than that which he makes himself. such is the first principle of existentialism." He echoes Ortega's words of 1935 : "Man not only must create himself, but rather what is more important, he must decide what he is going to be." In a more metaphorical vein, he goes on to say also : "Man is the novelist of his own life and he is either original or a plagiarist." Ortega has often been described as a propagator of the existential ideas of Martin Heidegger. This is clearly not the case. As in the case of Sartre, on those points where their thought coincides, Ortega is predecessor. As he points out in 1932. five years after the publication of 「Sein und Zeit」(Being and Time), Heidegger's most celebrated work : 『 I must make clear that I owe a very slight debt to this writer, There are scarcely more than two on three important concepts of Heidegger which do not appear in my books-preceding them at times by as much as thirteen years. For instance the idea of Life as restlessness, concern, and insecurity, and that of culture as security and concern for security, are found literally in my first work : Meditations on Quixote published in 1914!』〈Cited by Raley : Ortega P.399〉 Parenthetically it might be pointed out that Heidegger like, Sartre, did not bother to Ortega's earlier works. yet when Heidegger says in 1927 : 『Life exhibits this characteristic : it is always life in a world』, he repeats in its essential from Ortega's notion of circumstantial reality All the similarities are too numerous to mention. Like Sartre and Heidegger-actually as their predecessor, whether either of them knew it or not-Ortega accepts the validity of the view that life is auto-creation and that man must busy himself with the circumstance around him in order to create his being, since there is no essential human nature.