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Isofemale lines of Drosophila melanogaster were established from Daejon in Korea and were examined in order to investigate the changes of cytotype or strain type by P-M system through 1∼15 generations. The results are as follows: 1. Using π_2 (strong P) strains and bw;st (true M) strains as standard strains, the mean sterility frequencies from Cross A were 20.8%∼34.6% for each generations and the mean sterility frequencies from Cross B were 0.0%∼0.3%. 2. Frequency of strain with P cytotype for each generation was analyzed to be 44.8%(G₁), 59.2%(G₂), 43.7%(G₄), 36.7%(G_7), 29.2%(G_10) and 36.7%(G_15). Therefore it was tend to be low as increased with generation number, but the differencies in percentage of GD sterility between each generation are non-significant statistically. 3. Among the isofemale lines, type conversions were observed. Q→M', M'→Q and M'→M changes have occured with frequency of 18.4%, 8.2% and 4.1%, respectively. The remaining lines (69.3%) were unchanged through several generations. 4. The results suggest that Drosophila melanogaster are appeared temporally as a certain strain type in natural population, but the type conversions were represented by interactions between P elements in each genome and cytoplasm for each generation.
In housing design, the possession of many kinds of electric home appliances EHA and the supply of home automation(HA) are considered as new additional design criteria to develop the shape and area of kitchen and working space. This study attempts to findout the character of the possessins and usage of EHA and the HA. For this purpose, the field survey with the questionnaire and observation has been carried out based on 77 households by housing types (apartment and detached house). Findings are as follows : (1) The households have many kinds of EHA and the possession rate of them is very high. Also, the user preference for larger size of EHA such as refrigerater and washing machine is one of the usage characters of EHA. But, these characters of the possession and usage of EHA have not been considered on the design of kitchen and working area, so the misfits have many problems which are the narrow working space, the lack of storage space, the dead space and the inefficient working circulation in those areas. (2) The households require and recognize the HA as the important home equipment for the home security, the home control and the home management. But the practical usage rate is very low because of the supply system that the HA has been furnished by housing developer not user. So, the user education to give the information and instruction about HA is needed.
These studies were carried out to investigate the characteristics of alluvial clay deposits distributed in the main coastal areas. Also we can use their outcomes which were analyzed from the soil test results surveyed during the latest for the purpose of design, construction and maintenance of civil engineering structures to be built in these areas in the future. Samples of clay minerals were analyzed using an X-ray diffraction test. Also, the geotechnical properties of the distribution of clay minerals were evaluated after collection physical and mechanical soil data. The results of Siroquant analysis though X-ray diffraction analysis show that natural water content, liquid limit., initial void ratio, compression index, and compression ratio are positively proportional th the amount of montmorillonite, whereas they are inversely proportional to those of illite and kaolinite. In addition, dry unit weight, unconfined compressive strength, and cohesion are inversely proportional to the amount of montmorillonite, and positively proportional to the amount of illite and kaolinite. In particular, the amount of montmorillonite is closely related to geotechnical characteirstics. However, it is considered that the relative composition ratio, physical and chemical characteristics of other clay minerals have influence on marine soil characteristics with montmorillonite, since the amount of montmorillonite is less than other clay minerals.
본 연구는 조건부수급자증 자활사업 불참자의 특성을 자활사업 참여자와 비교하여 분석함으로써 어떠한 요인들이 이 두 집단을 구분짓게 마는지 실증적으로 규명하는데 그 목적이 있다. 조건부수급자중 정당한 사유 없이 자활사업에 불참한 사람들의 특성에 대한 과학적인 분석은 자활사업이 안고 있는 참여율 저조 문제에 대한 원인을 이해하고, 향후 성공적인 자활사업 시행을 위한 정책수립에 기초자료가 될 것으로 사료된다. 이를 위해 『2003 자활정책평가와 개선과제 실태조사』 의 자료를 이용하여 조건 부수급자증 자활사업 참여자와 불참자에 대찬 설문분석과 함께 자활사업 참여결정에 영향을 미치는 요인을 계량적으로 분석하였다. 설문분석 결과 자활사업 불참자는 참여자에 비해 상대적으로 남성의 비율이 높고, 연령은 낮고, 동거 가구원수가 많으며, 학력이 높고, 소득수준이 놓으며, 담당공무원이 자신의 소득수준을 정확히 파악하지 못한다고 생각하는 편으로 나타났다. 자활사업 참여결정에 영창을 미치는 요인을 probit model로 추정한 결과 역시 설문분석 결과의 타당성을 뒷받침하였다. 그리고 자활사업 불참자의 소득 추정식을 분석한 결과 수급자 가구가 근근이 생활하는데 필요하다고 생각하는 금액이 클수록, 즉 기본적인 생활수준을 높이고 싶은 욕구가 강할수록 민간 노동시장에서 얻는 소득수준도 높아지는 것으로 나타났다. The main purpose of the study is to identify the differences in socio-economic variables between participants and non-participants of the public self-reliant program. Under the 『Law of the Guaranteeing Basic Livelihood』, those who are physically fit to work, are classified as conditional recipients. One of the condition applied to them is to participate in the public self-reliant program when they can't find job. By analyzing the survey data of 2003, we found out that there are differences in socio-economic variables between two groups. Other things controlled, men are more likely to not to participate in public self-reliant program rather they chose to work in private labor market. Age is another factor influencing decision on participation of the program. The younger recipients are more likely to work in private labor market rather than public self-reliance program. We also found out that those who believe that real incomes are less likely to be revealed by government social workers are more likely to participate private labor market rather than government program. Finally, we predicted income level that non-participants could earn in the private labor market by utilizing Heckman selection model(two-stage). Even though average income of the non-participants' of the public program was about to 420,000 Won the predicted private market income of the total conditional recipients are close to only 200,000 Won. It implies that public self-reliant program is vital source of income for the recipients who possess labor capacity but are unfit to competitive private labor market.
Samples of clay minerals were analyzed using an X-ray diffraction test. Also, the geotechnical properties of the distribution of clay minerals were evaluated after collecting physical and mechanical soil data from Korea Land Corporation, Korea Highway Corporation and the Rural Development Corporation. The results of the X-ray diffraction analysis showed that Korean soft marine clay exists in mixed caly mineral conditions, predominantly illite and muscovite (muscovite causing the formation of illite) existed in all investigated areas. Kaolinite is prevalent in the estuary of the Han River, the estuary of the Kum River, as well as the Asan Bay area. Illite is prevalent in Noksan and Yangsan·Mulkum along the estuary of the Nakdong River. In the estuary of the Han River, montmorillonite is prevalent. These montmorillonites are carried to those areas from the Yellow Sea or they were formed and carried down from China. In order to find out the engineering characteristics based in clay mineral distribution, soil indexes were compared to one another. As a result, the condition of particle size distribution affects the physical and mechanical properties rather than the type of the clay minerals found, because of the small amount of clay minerals detected within Korean marine clay.
When time series data have the non-probabilistic uncertainty and the nonlinear characteristics, time series forecasting using traditional techniques is very difficult. Especially, traditional methods, which use past data directly in prediction procedure, cannot properly handle non-stationary data whose long-term mean is floating. To cope with this problem, a fuzzy forecasting method combined with the data preprocessing and model selection procedure is suggested in this paper. The proposed method is divided into the two phase. One is modeling phase, and the other is prediction phase. First of all in modeling phase, based on correlation analysis, we determine which sequences of differences of original time series data is more suitable for forecasting. Then, for each sequence of differences chosen from data preprocessing, fuzzy predictor with TS rule base is constructed. Finally an optimal predictor which yields the minimal MSE is selected. In prediction phase, we perform forecasting by a fuzzy predictor selected in modeling phase. Computer simulations show that the proposed method have better performance than traditional method for nonlinear time serves data.
This paper deals with simplification of classification rules for data mining and rule bases for control systems, Data mining that extracts useful information from such a large amount of data is one of important issues. There are various ways in classification methodologies for data mining such as the decision trees and neural networks, but the result should be explicit and understandable and the classification rules be short and clear. The rough sets theory is an effective technique in extracting knowledge from incomplete and inconsistent data and provides a good solution for classification and approximation by using various attributes effectively. This paper investigates granularity of knowledge for reasoning of uncertain concepts by using rough set approximations and uses a hierarchical classification structure that is more effective technique for classification by applying core to upper level. The proposed classification methodology makes analysis of an information system easy and generates minimal classification rules.
간질발작을 포함한 전형적인 삼징후가 동반된 결절성경화증 환자를 대상으로 뇌파검사, 뇌전산화단층촬영술 및 단일광자방출단층촬영술을 시행하였다. 뇌전산화단층촬영술에서는 상의하석회화병소와 조영제증강이 뚜렷하지 않은 피질에 연한 저음영 소견이 관찰되었으며 이어서 시행한 단일광자방출단층촬영술에서는 뇌전산화단층촬영술 소견보다 더 광범위한 부위에 관류결손이 관찰되었다. 단일광자방출단층촬영술은 결절성경화증 환자에서 간질발현 병소인 피질결절을 발견하는데 있어서 전산화단층촬영술 및 뇌파검사보다 더 유용한 방법이며 치료방침 결정이나 예후판정에 있어서도 큰 도움을 줄 것으로 기대된다. Two patients with a well-established diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis and epilepsies as their principal clinical symptom were examined by conventional surface electroencephalography(EEG), computed tomography, and single photon emission computed tomography(SPECT) using the 99mTc hexamethyl prophyleneamine oxime(99mTc-HMPAO). The interictal EEG showed various abnormalities of poor localizing value. Brain computed tomography surely demonstrated subependymal calcifications, although the cortical lesions were not so conspicuous. However, the SPECT images of each patient clearly demonstrated decreased cerebral perfusion in cortical areas. It may be assumed that such perfusion defect areas represent the epileptic cortical tubers or those of altered myelination, which are characteristics of the disease.
Various modes of load transfer may exist in rockfill dams. If the core is softer than the shells, load is transferred from the core onto the shells as a result of greater downward displacement of the core with respect to the shells. But if the core is stiffer than the shells, load transfer occurs from the shells onto the core. In this study, the mechanisms of load transfer in rockfill dams have been outlined and load transfer of Juam main and regulation dam with central core are evaluated by load transfer ratio. The load transfer ratio is defined as the ratio of computed values of major principal stresses in the core to the core overburden stresses. The vertical stresses are determined by the FEM, which use hyperbolic model and incremental method to simulate placement of successive layers of fill. The hyperbolic paramaters for the core was estimated from a series of conventional triaxial tests carried out during construction. From the results of this analyses and its comparison with the values measured by soil pressure meters, it has been shown that significant load transfer from the core to the shells was observed in two dams and that the load transfer ratios predicted are higher than the values measured.