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Most industrial wastewater containing organic material is deficient in nitrogen and/or phosphorus. These nutrients must be added to nutrient-deficient wastewater. It is important to determine the optimum of nutrients that must be added because of various effects to wastewater treatment plants and receiving streams(eg. Eutrophication) and economic reasons. The objective of this paper is to provide a procedure for determining the amount of nutrients that must be added to a given example of wastewater as a function of operating conditions. In order to approach the purpose of this study of wastewater, synthetic resin waste in inflent COD 2,500㎎/ℓ is selected as an example. As the results, the amount of nutrients that must be added depend upon sludge retention time, and decrease as sludge retention time increases.
Laboratory studies were carried out to find out the characteristics of humic acid treatment by activated carbon and ionized gas. In order to increase oxidation power of ionized gas for treating organic matter, we used granular activated carbon. By using UV_(254), easy analysis method, we calculated humic acid concentration and SCODcr concentration. For an initial concentration of humic acid, 10, 50 and 100ppm, the reaction rate constant by UV_(254) was 8.98×10 /min, 5.62×10^(-3) /min and 4.8×10^(-3)/min respectively due to the same flow rate of ionized gas. When we added activated carbon to the ionized gas for humic acid treatment, the reaction rate constant increased in 4.13, 3.65 and 3.15 times. So, by using activated carbon in treating humic acid by ionized gas, oxidation power of organic matter by ionized gas was increased. The hydrophobic fraction constitutes 98% of organic matter for humic acid at the beginning. After the treatment using ionized gas for humic acid, the hydrophobic fraction decreased by 63 -65% and the hydrophilic one increased by 35 -37%. So, it was proved that the treatment increased the hydrophilic fraction in organic matter.
This paper was studied about the characteristics of treatment by ionized gas for livestock wastewater, aiming at the effects of ionized gas on organic matter, hydrophobic and hydrophilic organic matter in lviestock wastewater when the new process of advanced oxidation process was applied for meeting the improved the quality of effluent. The organic matter within treated livestock wastewater by ionized gas was partially mineralized according to the time increasement. The TCOD_(Mn) in the livestock wastewater was decreased from 840㎎/L to 340㎎/L when treated by ionized gas by the enhancement of time. We occupied the equations of TCOD_(Cr), SCOD_(Cr), TCOD_(Mn) as ti uibuzed gas treated time. As TCOD_(Mn) increasing ionized gas treated time, the concentration did not meet the water quality. COD_(Mn) 40㎎/L. So, for removing of the remaining organic matter in the effluent after ionized gas following process is necessary. After treating the livestock wastewater by ionized gas, coagulation was considerable for organic matter removal up to regulation water quality. From UV scans of the treated livestock wastewater by ionized gas, the wastewater has low aromaticity and good colour.
A wide variety of research concerning the functions about biological reactor has been performed in many practical area. Besides these functions, a particular interest is the selection of activated sludge which comes into the final clarifiers. It has been found that microorganisms which prevent the setting and it can be controlled with this method. As a result, the influence a bulking can be reduced. On the other hand, bulking controls by microorganisms of selective setting character have been rarely studied at the activated sludges aeration basin. Our present study, is focus to, see how much effective the series operation(S-1) is compared to the parallel(P-1) one by studying the management of the final clarifiers functioning in the two different ways : parallel and series. There were mainly three stage for the operating period. First stage(Run-1 ; was the bulking which is induce, in particular period and the settleability in each reactor was compared at second stage(Run-2) when the sludge bulking was produced. Finally, P-1 and S-1 which is experimented in Run-2 were switched at third stage(Run-3). When microorganisms, which is cause the bulking, grew massively, sludge settleability of S-1 is superior to that P-1. This outcome stemmed from the fact that only by microorganisms, which have a good settleability were returned to the clarifiers of S-1 reactor at the first stage. In addition, although microorganisms grew massively, as well as a good sludge settleability was kept at the second stage because microorganisms, which are the cause of bulking were wasted.
The water quality of the Han river which has been serving as a major water source for 'the Seoul Metropolitan area is discussed in this paper in terms of D0, BOD and others. The water quality upstream of the Jungryang-chun junction to Paldang was favorable during the investigation period: June 6 to July 27, 1977 with a flow range from 175 to 648㎥/sec. However, DO and BOD values were increased toward the downstream from the Jungryang-chun junction. The water quality downstream of the 2nd Han river bridge could not be simply interpreted due to the tidal effect.
Massive amount of float are produced at water treatment plants adopting conventional gravity sedimentation. Not only does the float give bad aesthetic impression to public but also do sometimes serious operational problems occur in water treatment process. In this study, sodium alginate (Sa), a coagulant-aid which may increase specific gravity of flocs, was added to the conventional coagulation/flocculation using common coagulants, alum, PAC or PACS. The results revealed that the amount of float was reduced by 20%, 19.5%, and 77.5% (dry weight basis) for alum, PAC, PACS, respectively.