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Histochemistry of carbohydrate residues and morphohistological changes and/with their correlation during the process of the drug-induced limb dysmorphogenesis, following single intragastric dose of etretinate (100mg/kg, body wt.) in DDY mice on day either 10 or 11 of gestation, were analysed. Deformities were largely stage-depedent as, exposure to etretinate on gestational day (GD) 11 with paddle-shaped buds resulted in meromelic defects in 100%, whereas on GD 10 with semilunar buds, slightly retarded morphogenesis ; the drug distrubed mainly on core mesenchymal condensation-formation of precartilaginous zone, thus it appears that the most susceptible period to the etretinate in the limb development is the stage of mesenchymal condensation and the drug-induced cell death in the core mesenchyme was associated with the zones of programmed or phygiological cell death (PCD) but expanded even to the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and the phenomena lasted longer. PAS·PAPS reactivities and lectin binding of glycoconjugates and CHO residues were differently expressed depend on tissue/stage-specific ; PAS·PAPS positive materials and bindings of Con A, RCA, WGA were gradually increased in epithelia and AER with the development proceed and in chondrogenesis, PAS·PAPS reactivity persisted strongly, while Con A, WGA and RCA expression were temporarily rised in initiation of condensation but decreased thereafter ; etretinate increased Con A bindings in epithelia but reduced expressions of other lectins and glycoconjugates especially in chondrogenesis. Although the drug affected the expression of lectin bindings and glycoconjugates, it seems that these results are caused by in consequence of the morphohistological changes. The results suggest that inhibition of chondrogenesis with subsequent malformation has a primary association with the excessive cell death in the regions of PCD but initial role that caused PCD to expand, accelerate and last longer could be consequence of cytotoxicity, inhibited extracellular matrix production, a combination of these effects or some other effect such as change of gene expression which remains a question.
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This study was to develope low-calorie Yak-kwa by using oligosaccharides instead of honey. Sensory and instrumental textur properties of Yak-kwa were examined. The calorie of oligosaccharide Yak-kwa was 31% lower than honey Yak-kwa. Color of oligosaccharide Yak-kwa was lighter than that of honey Yak-kwa. Results of nstrumental test of texural proporties showed that hardness increased and cutting decreased as soaking time increased without significant differences between oligosaccharide Yak-kwa and honey Yak-kwa. Accepance test by sensoty panel showed no significant differences between oligosaccharid Yak-kwa and honey Yak-kwa.
The purpose of this study is to examine the actual states of the handicapped people living in Yeongdo and to investigate the present conditions and future tasks of public welfare services or progroams of the Yeongdo ward office, an asylum(Chonsung), and five community welfare centers(Yeongdo, Snaglee, Dongsam, Watchee, Jeolyoung) for the handicapped people in this community. The representative services of the ward office are supplement of the artificial instruments for the handicapped people, payment of the costs of living and medical care, and the school expenses for their children. The ward office also supports a medical center in the asylum financially. The programs of the asylum and community centers for the handicapped are classified as physical, emotional, educational, social, occupational restoration programs. For the enhancement of public social welfare services for the handicapped people, more various services or programs based upon the needs of divergent subjects should be executed, and financial support from the local government should be increased. Systematic evaluation processes for the present programs should be developed, and collaborative approaches to the integration of services and community resources including volunteers are required.
The purpose of this study was to find out the appropriate conditions and programs of community-based public welfare services for the youth of Youngdo-Gu. A structured questionnaire was used for 1013 teenagers. A semi-structured questionnaire was used and data were obtained from 3 ward officials and 6 social workers of public social welfare centers in this area. The representative programs of the public centers are counseling, education, volunteer work, leisure, and festival programs. There was also a financial support program for a ward office for financially disadvantaged teenagers. Only a few adolescents participated in the programs of the public centers, and they were hardly satisfied with the programs. Many adolescents want cultural events, divergent educations, and leisure programs. For the enhancement of these social welfare services for the youth of the Youngdo community, the needs of divergent subjects especially from the lower and neglected class should be considered, a systematic evaluation process for the present programs should be developed, and the collaborative approaches to the integration of services and community resources are required.
Purpose: The objective of the study was to identify the effects of the meridian massage therapy on hand edema and hand functions in patients with hemiplegia. Method: The experiment was conducted in the Oriental Medical ward of "K" hospital during the period of 2000. 12. 15 - 2001. 03. 15. Fifty five subjects with hemiplegia following a stroke participated in the study. Volumetric size of the hand and the circumference of the index finger of each patient was measured and functional points were recorded for pre and post experiment. Result: 1. Apparent decrease in volumetric size of the hand and the circumference of the index finger(p= ,022. p= .021), and higher functional points(p=.003) in the experimental group in comparison to the control group. 2.Volume of hands & their functions appeared to be ,irrelevant(r =-.195, p=.154). 3. Circumference of the index finger & their functions also turned out to be irrelevant (r =-.110. p= .424). Conclusion: Meridian massage is an effective nursing interventional therapy to relieve hand edema and improve hand functions in hemiplegic patients and has great potential for use in a wide range of medical fields as an efficient supplementary treatment for stroke rehabilitation.
The reason why to migrate a large gallbladder stone into the common bile duct (CBD) remains to be established, but among various reasons the diameter of cystic duct appears to be the most important. None of the gallbladder stones with diameters greater than the cystic duct could be passed through it. However, pre-existing CBD stone increases biliary pressure that consequently dilates the cystic duct system retrogradely, allowing larger stones to migrate into the gut. Furthermore, sphincterotomy may actually prevent formation of gallbladder stone and enhance the removal of pre-existing stones from the gallbladder. We recently have experienced a case of a large CBD stone migrated from the gallbladder through the cystic duct after endoscopic sphincterotomy. The cholangitic symptoms were caused by the stone migrated from gallbladder, but several days later got well. So far any side effects related to this removed stone are not found out since we have successfully extracted a large CBD stone (3.5 x 2cm) with mechanical lithotripsy.
Purpose: Urinary tract infections are common in childhood and are most frequent in those under 1 year of age. In these children, however, differentiation of the pyelonephritis from cystitis is clinically difficult. We investigated the utility of color doppler image ultrasound in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis(APN) in children. Results were compared with renal cortical scintigraphy using 99mTC-DMSA. Materials and Methods : 99mTc-DMSA SPECT and color doppler ultrasound were performed within 1 week intervals in 14 patients with clinically suspected APN. (aged 4months to 15years: mean 6.1 year, 7 girls and 7boys). Urine culture was considered positive if greater than 100.000 colonied of a single organism were isolated. CDI was performed with 3.5NHz convex linear probe Ultramark 9(ATL., Bothell, Washington, USA) following a standard gray scale sonogram of the kidneys. Renal cortical scintigraphy was performed with 99mTc DMSA SPeCT(PRISM 2000, Picker, USA), Axial, coronal, both sagittal pinhole images were obtained 1.5-2 hour after 1mCi isotope was injected. Renal scan was considered to be abnormal and indicative of APN when there was a focal, wedged shaped defect in radionuclide accumulation extending from the periphery of the kidney to centrally or if there was diffuse abnormality in renal tubular function. Renal scarring was defined when defects were shallow lesions along the periphery of the kidney with evidence of volume loss, or if they could be shown from prior examination to pre-date of the acute episode. The color doppler image were interpreted to be consistent with APN if there was decrease flows in the renal cortex. Results: Of the 28 kidneys were examined, renal scan showed 5 cases of abnomal findings, 3 cases were APN, 2 cases were chronic scarring. Two fo the three cases of APN showed decreased blood flow on CDI and positive culture, for a sensitivy 67%. Two cases of renal scarring due to grade V bilateral vesicoureteral reflux show decreased blood flow at right upper pole kidney on CDI, however DMSA scan had diffculties finding the new lesion due to underlying irregularity of scarred kidney. Color doppler US correctly identified 4 of 5 renal poles with APN and 21 of 23with no APN including 2 patients with false positive. The DMSA scan was used as the standard of comparison the study; the CDI has a sensitivity 67%, specificity 84%, positive predictive value 33%, negative predictive value 95%. 84% The lesion showed decreased blood flow and on one follow up case increased blood flow. The presence of prior renal scarring made interpretation of asymmetric vascularity difficult on DMSA, the use of CDI may increase the diabnostic sensitivity of sonography in pediatric pyelonephritis.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of meridian massage on facial paralysis status, pain and stress of Bell's palsy patients. Method: The subjects for study were Bell's palsy patients who were in the D medical center in Busan, and they were divided into two groups : one was the experimental group of 25 patients and the other was the control group of 22 patients. The data were collected from 24 August, 2004 to 30 March, 2005. The patients who were in the experimental group were given a 10 minute long facial maridian massage once a day during a week. Result: There was significant decrease of pain and stress after providing facial meridian massage. There was no significant difference of facial paralysis status after providing facial meridian massage. Conclusion: The facial meridian massage is effective for decrease pain and stress of Bell's palsy patients as an effective nursing intervention.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is t o investigate fatigue and its related factors in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. Method: The subjects of this study consisted of 98 patients receiving radiotherapy. Subjects were recruited from C University Hospital radiation oncology unit located in Gwangju from March to May, 2001. Questionnaire and medical records were used for data collection. The obtained data was analyzed using SAS program that included descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Post-hoc test(Fisher's LSD) and Pearson's correlation coefficients. Result: The fatigue perceived by the subjects was middle level (5.59 ± 1.59) and 72.4% of them reported greater than 5 points. The subjects in no religion. low income, and spouse caregiver groups experienced the higher fatigue than another groups, respectively. The subjects in nasopharyngeal cancer, head & neck radiation site, and analgesics medication groups did, experience fatigue as well. The fatigue not only positively correlated with symptom distress, disruption of usual activity, sleep dissatisfaction, and mood state, but also negatively with less family support. Conclusion: Cancer patients receiving radiotherapy experience the middle level of fatigue and it correlates with the multi-dimensional factors. However, further research is needed t o identify the changes in fatigue over the radiotherapy period through longitudinal design and to develop nursing intervention for fatigue decrease.