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      • Agrobacterium tumefaciens 와 Cellvibrio gilvus를 이용한 Chimeric β-glucosidase의 창출

        김종덕 麗水大學校 産業基術硏究所 1999 産業基術硏究所 論文集 Vol.8 No.-

        β-glucosidase를 생산하는 두 균주 Agrobacterium tumefaciens 및 Cellvibrio gilvus는 최적 pH, 최적온도, 기질의 특이성이 모두 다르지만 amino acid의 homology를 검토한 결과 상당히 높은 homology를 갖고 있었다. 따라서 두 균주가 생산하는 β-glucosidase의 특성, 그리고 N-terminal 및 C-terminal 영역의 역할을 규명하고, 부모의 특성과 다른 효소를 창출할 목적으로 영역치환법으로 chimeric enzyme을 창출하였다. 또한 CG의 단편 유전자가 vector plasmid에 단편의 크기와 방향이 정확하게 삽입되었는지의 colony PCR로써 단시간에 확인 할 수 있는 방법을 창안하였다. 그리고 pET28a vector를 사용하여 plasmid의 발현 효율을 증가시켜 일반 vector보다 생산성을 높였으며, chaperonin plasmid(GroELS system)를 co-transformation하여 unfolding된 효소의 수용성 증대를 시도하여 큰 효과는 없었다. 앞으로 chaperon system을 이용하여 다른 unfolding 및 inclusion body를 해결할 수 있을 것으로 생각된다. 그리고, point mutation방법의 한계를 많은 수의 DNA를 영역치환 방법으로 효소의 특이성이 완전히 다른 새로운 변이주를 만들 수 있는 방법을 제공한다는데 큰 의의를 둘 수 있을 것으로 생각된다. β-glucosidase producting two different bacteria, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Cellvibrio gilvus show high homology each other, but the pH/temperature optima and stabilities and substrate specificities of the two enzymes are quite different. To analyse these properties further, chimeric β-glucosidase was constructed by substituting segements form the C-terminal homologus region of Agrobacterium tumefaciens β-glucosidase gene with that of Cellvibrio gilvus. To confirm directly the junctions and the orientation of the AT vector and CG fragments at the same time, colony PCR was used. And chaperonin system was used for the refolding and increasing the solubility of the chimeric enzyme which was overproduced by pET28a vector.

      • KCI등재

        Expressions for Shrinkage Factors of PLS Estimator

        김종덕 한국데이터정보과학회 2006 한국데이터정보과학회지 Vol.17 No.4

        Partial least squares regression (PLS) is a biased, non-least squares regression method and is an alternative to the ordinary least squares regression (OLS) when predictors are highly collinear or predictors outnumber observations. One way to understand the properties of biased regression methods is to know how the estimators shrink the OLS estimator. In this paper, we introduce an expression for the shrinkage factor of PLS and develop a new shrinkage expression, and then prove the equivalence of the two representations. We use two near-infrared (NIR) data sets to show general behavior of the shrinkage and in particular for what eigendirections PLS expands the OLS coefficients.

      • KCI등재

        침자극이 흰쥐 뇌줄기 및 소뇌의 NADPH-diaphorase와 nNOS 신경세포에 미치는 영향

        김종덕,김창환,강성길 대한침구의학회 2004 대한침구의학회지 Vol.21 No.5

        Objective : This study was to investigate the effect of acupuncture on NADPH-diaphorase and nNOS in the brain stem and cerebellum of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Methods : The experimental groups were divided into four groups : Normal, Choksamni(ST36), Kokchi(LI11), arbitrary group. Thereafter we evaluated changes in NADPH-diaphorase positive neurons histochemically and changes in nNOS neurons immunohistochemically. Results : 1. The optical densities of NADPH-diaphorase positive neurons of all the Choksamni & Kokchi groups were significantly different in SuG, DLPAG, IP, Pr, Gi areas of brain stem and cerebellum as compared to normal & arbitrary groups. In PPTg only Choksamni group was significantly different as compared to normal and arbitrary groups. 2. The optical densities of nNOS-positive neurons of Choksamni & Kokchi groups were significantly different in SuG, DLPAG areas of brain stem as compared to normal group. In IP, Pr only Kokchi group was significantly different as compared to normal group. The optical densities of nNOS-positive neurons of Choksamni & Kokchi groups were significantly different in SuG, DLPAG, PPTg, Pr, Gi areas of brain stem as compared to arbitrary group. In IP, Pr only Kokchi group was significantly different as compared to arbitrary group. 3. The optical densities of nNOS-positive neurons of all the Choksamni & Kokchi groups were not significantly different in cerebellum as compared to normal & arbitrary groups. Conclusion : We found out that acupuncture have effects on NADPH-diaphorase and nNOS in the brain stem and cerebellum of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

      • KCI등재

        갑상선 저하증

        김종덕 대한소아청소년과학회 2005 Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics (CEP) Vol.48 No.8

        Hypothyroidism is a deficiency in thyroid hormone secretion by the thyroid gland and a defect in thyroid hormonal receptor activity. It is categorized by the two major forms in children, the one is congenital hypothyroidism and the other is acquired hypothyroidism. Congenital hypothyroidism is one of the commonest treatable causes of mental retardation and occurs in 1 in 3,000-4,000 infants worldwide. Acquired hypothyroidism is a diseases that have an onset usually after 6 months of age and it may be relate to deceleration in linear growth. The objectives of this article are obtain general and practical concepts of congenital and acquired hypothyroidism during infancy, childhood, and adolescence

      • KCI등재후보

        Curling no.backswing Delivery 동작의 운동학적 분석

        김종덕,김현경,김미영 한국체육과학회 2004 한국체육과학회지 Vol.13 No.2

        The purpose of this study is to analyze on the Curling nobackswing delivery motion. The 10 video view of the expert curling player's delivery were filmed, with the white marks pointing on the joint of the body. One of those player's films was analized with the motion analyzer. The DLT method was used to obtain the 3-dimentional coordinates of the landmarks. The recoarded images were subject to digitizing with KWON3D(Version 3.1) Motion Analysis package. The result was as follow: ⅰ) Trace of the body joint is the <Fig. 1> and <Fig. 2>. At the raw position, the trajectory of the shoulder, hip, and Knee was inclined proportionable linear line through 2.0 sec. to 8.5 sec. ⅱ) The angle of body joint was 25 degree for Left hip, L.knee(22), L. shoulder(17), R.knee and R.hip(15), and R. Shoulder(14) at the raw position. ⅲ) There was not changeable difference of the point velocity at the Left and Right Knee joint. It was 4.0cm/sec.~ 4.0cm/sec., from 2.0 sec. to 8.5 sec. ⅳ) The range of the point velocity at the joint of shoulder and hip was 2.0cm/s to 9.0cm/s, through 2.0 sec. to 8.5 sec.. It was increased slowly.

      • KCI등재후보

        여자 태권도 선수의 요추 및 대퇴부위 골밀도 고찰

        김종덕 한국체육과학회 2007 한국체육과학회지 Vol.16 No.2

        The Bone Mineral Density of 12 college women's Spine and Legs were mesured with Dual Energy X-ray absorptiometry(Lunar) to define the influence of Taekwondo training. They were divided into Taekwondo and control group, each comprising 6 women. The bone mineral density of the Spine and Legs were measured. The results were as follows.

      • KCI등재

        Combining Ridge Regression and Latent Variable Regression

        김종덕 한국데이터정보과학회 2007 한국데이터정보과학회지 Vol.18 No.1

        Ridge regression (RR), principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLS) are among popular regression methods for collinear data. While RR adds a small quantity called ridge constant to the diagonal of to stabilize the matrix inversion and regression coefficients, PCR and PLS use latent variables derived from original variables to circumvent the collinearity problem. One problem of PCR and PLS is that they are very sensitive to overfitting. A new regression method is presented by combining RR and PCR and PLS, respectively, in a unified manner. It is intended to provide better predictive ability and improved stability for regression models. A real-world data from NIR spectroscopy is used to investigate the performance of the newly developed regression method.

      • KCI등재
      • KCI등재

        Shrinkage Structure of Ridge Partial Least Squares Regression

        김종덕 한국데이터정보과학회 2007 한국데이터정보과학회지 Vol.18 No.2

        Ridge partial least squares regression (RPLS) is a regression method which can be obtained by combining ridge regression and partial least squares regression and is intended to provide better predictive ability and less sensitive to overfitting. In this paper, explicit expressions for the shrinkage factor of RPLS are developed. The structure of the shrinkage factor is explored and compared with those of other biased regression methods, such as ridge regression, principal component regression, ridge principal component regression, and partial least squares regression using a near infrared data set. 다중공선성의 데이터에 사용되는 대표적인 편향회귀방법은 능형회귀(RR), 주성분회귀(PCR), 부분최소제곱회귀(PLS) 등이다. 이 회귀방법들은 계수벡터 추정량의 놈(norm)이 모두 보통 최소제곱회귀(OLS)의 추정량의 놈보다 작아진다는 의미에서 축소회귀라 부른다. 새로운 회귀방법으로 RR과 PCR을 결합한 능형주성분회귀(RPCR)가 있고 RR과 PLS를 결합한 능형부분최소제곱회귀(RPLS)가 있으며 이들도 또한 축소회귀이다. 이들 추정량은 의 고유벡터들의 선형결합으로 나타낼 수 있고 따라서 각 고유방향에서 OLS에 비해 얼마나 축소되는지를 연구할 수 있다. 본 논문에서는 먼저 이들 추정량을 일반적인 축소인자의 식으로 나타내고 이를 이용하여 MSE의 일반식을 구하였으며 PLS 추정량의 MSE 식도 구하였다. 그리고 RPLS의 축소인자 식을 두 가지 다른 형태로 유도하였다. RPLS의 경우도 이 축소인자 식을 MSE의 일반식에 대입하면 MSE 식이 바로 얻어진다. 그러나 PLS나 RPLS의 축소인자는 의 복잡한 비선형이 되어 결정적이 아니므로 이들 추정량의 MSE는 근사적인 식이라 할 수 있다. 따라서 PLS나 RPLS를 평가하기 위해 이 MSE를 사용하는 것은 제한적이며, 경험적인 방법으로 이들 회귀의 수행성을 평가하는 것이 필요하다. 다중공선성의 대표적인 데이터인 근적외선 분광 데이터를 이용하여 이 유도된 회귀의 축소인자 값이 인자수에 따라 어떻게 변화하는지와 전체적인 축소 비율도 살펴보았다. 이들의 축소 형태를 잘 이해하면 회귀방법들의 예측력과 안정성을 파악하는데 많은 도움이 되리라 판단된다.

      • KCI등재후보

        특별검사제에 관한 소고

        김종덕 한국법학회 2004 법학연구 Vol.0 No.15

        The disbelief in Korean public prosecutor is caused by historical, structural, systematic and will shortage of prosecutor about independence from political power because of political powers' intention to control prosecutors specially. The independent counsel is presented as the attempt to reform the problems. In this paper, definition, functions, history, contents, problems and directions for Reforming of independent counsel system are deal with. The major findings are as follows.1) In the definition of notion about special prosecutor, it is composed of independent counsel and special counsel, broad sense and narrow sense. It usually is signified independent counsel and narrow sense in this paper. 2) This paper has main contents and history of independent counsel in America and Korea. And it study inquire into the a few problems of independent counsel and also reform devices of the problems.

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