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본 연구에서는 선진국의 주요 자연사 박물관에서 제공하는 교육 프로그램의 유형 및 특징을 살펴보았다. 미국(AMNH, FM, SM), 영국(NHM), 호주(AU), 캐나다(RIH)의 자연사 박물관의 웹사이트에 소개되어 있는 교육 프로그램, 박물관 간행 책자, 홍보자료, 연간 보고서를 수집하여 분석에 사용하였다. 연구 결과, 자연사 박물관의 교육 프로그램을 크게 열 가지 유형-이동식 박물관, 워크샵, 강좌/강연, 페스티발/(특별)이벤트, 탐구활동, 과학적 활동/연구 프로젝트, 필드트립, 청소년 학예원/인턴 과정, 대여 자료, 캠프/투어-로 나누고, 각 유형에 따른 프로그램의 예를 제시하였다. 또한 개별 프로그램을 교육적 측면에서 볼 수 있는 몇 가지 특징인 주제, 참여 수준, 전시와의 연관성, 학교교육과의 연계, 활동 수준에 관하여 살펴보았다. 본 연구의 결과는 세 가지 측면에서 과학교사, 박물관 교육담당자 및 학예원에게 도움이 될 것으로 보인다: (1) 교육 프로그램 유형과 내용을 개발하고 실행하는데 유용하며, (2) 교육 프로그램을 평가하고 개선하는 지침으로 이용될 수 있고, (3) 일반 대중에게 다양한 과학적 측면과 소장품을 소개하거나 학교 교육과정과 연관한 과학 교수 학습에 효과적으로 활용될 수 있다. This paper described the types and characteristics of educational programs in major natural history museums of the world. Data were collected from the websites, annual reports, and written materials of the Natural History Museum at London, Australian Museum at Sydney, Field Museum of Natural History at Chicago, Smithsonian Museum at Washington D.C, Royal Tyrrell Museum at Canada and American Museum of Natural History at New York. As the result of this study, we presented ten types of educational programs, which were moveable museums, workshops, lecture/courses, festival/events, discovery activities, scientific exploration/research projects, field trips, youth curators/internship, loan materials and camp/tours. We also described the examples equivalent to each program type. The characteristics of educational programs provided by museums as informal learning settings were analyzed in terms of their themes, participation levels, connection with exhibition, relation to curriculum, and learning activity levels. Information in this paper will assist science teachers, museum educators and curators: (1) to design and implement various types and contents of educational programs; (2) to use characteristics of educational programs to assess and develop them; (3) to make important contributions to science education that involves the introduction of various scientific aspects and collections to the public, and the use of programs for science learning and teaching coherent to existing curricula.
This article examines the juvenile desiring mechanism of Light Novel centered on the analysis of Isin Nisio's works. Given the prolific Light Novel creating almost 20 years, Nisio's works are emblematic of Light Novel and its mechanism. Light Novel, one of the representative genres of Otaku subculture, is operated by two desire in regard to juveniles: one is the desire to stay the position of juvenile as a subject and the other is to posses the other juveniles as objects. What's important here is that the gender identity of juvenile subject of Otaku subculture is male, in other words, they desire to be boys to obtain girls. Even if they are no longer juveniles in actual ages, they would like to stay the position of boys as ever. Within the mechanism in regard to juveniles, Otaku subculture has secured their contents users almost 40 years. From the psychoanalytical point of view, especially in terms of the Melanie Klein's theory, Light Novel may be viewed that they stay the early stage of Oedipus, to be concrete, between the paranoid-schizoid position and the depressive position. The juvenile subjects repeat the progress and the regression between those two positions. In Nisio's Light Novel, the progress to the depressive position is presented by misogyny: the cliché sexualising of girls, which is a sort of literacy of Otaku subculture, reproduces at Nisio's works. Meanwhile, the regression towards the paranoid-schizoid position is expressed as desire for degrowth and they show solidarity in their Otaku community. At the same time, however, they express anxiety about being adults and being influenced by their older generation, especially the influence by their senior writers. That anxious identity revels the position of Light Novel as a new form of Literature.
Benzofuran-7-carboxamide was identified as a novel scaffold of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibitor. A series of compounds with various 2-substituents including (tertiary amino)methyl moieties substituted with aryl ring and aryl groups containing tertiary amines, were synthesized and biologically evaluated to elucidate the structure-activity relationships and optimize the potency. 2-[4-(Pyrrolidin-1-ylmethyl)phenyl]- benzofuran-7-carboxamide (42) was the most potent as an IC50 value of 40 nM among those.
The regulator of calcineurin (RCAN) was first reported as a novel gene called DSCR1, encoded in a region termed the Down syndrome critical region (DSCR) of human chromosome 21. Genome sequence comparisons across species using bioinformatics revealed three members of the RCAN gene family, RCAN1, RCAN2, and RCAN3, present in most jawed vertebrates, with one member observed in most invertebrates and fungi. RCAN is most highly expressed in brain and striated muscles, but expression has been reported in many other tissues, as well, including the heart and kidneys. Expression levels of RCAN homologs are responsive to external stressors such as reactive oxygen species, Ca2+, amyloid β, and hormonal changes and upregulated in pathological conditions, including Alzheimer's disease, cardiac hypertrophy, diabetes, and degenerative neuropathy. RCAN binding to calcineurin, a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase, inhibits calcineurin activity, thereby regulating different physiological events via dephosphorylation of important substrates. Novel functions of RCANs have recently emerged, indicating involvement in mitochondria homeostasis, RNA binding, circadian rhythms, obesity, and thermogenesis, some of which are calcineurin-independent. These developments suggest that besides significant contributions to DS pathologies and calcineurin regulation, RCAN is an important participant across physiological systems, suggesting it as a favorable therapeutic target.