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본 연구의 목적은 자연사 및 자연사박물관에 대한 학생, 교사, 학부모들의 인식을 연구하는 것이다. 이를 위해 첫째, 자연사와 자연사박물관에 대한 개념의 특징을 알아보기 위해 인지도, 친숙도, 연상되는 것, 느낌, 포함될 분야 등을 알아보고, 둘째 개념의 접촉통로를 알아보기 위해 접촉매체, 교육경험, 관람경험 등을 조사한 후 마지막으로 관심도를 알아보기 위해 학습에 대한 흥미, 관람에 대한 흥미 등을 조사하였다. 그 결과 첫째, 사람들은 자연이나 환경에 대한 관심이 의외로 높지 않았다. 둘째, 사람들에게 자연사와 자연사박물관은 둘 다 들어본 경험이 드문 것은 아니지만, 친숙한 개념은 아니었다. 셋째, 사람들은 자연사와 자연사박물관이란 말을 들었을 때 공룡을 가장 먼저 연상했고, 자연사란 말은 '낯설지만 관심 있고 신비로운' 느낌을 주며, 자연사박물관은 '낯설지만 교육적이고 관심을 갖게 하튼 대상으로 지각하였다. 넷째, 자연사와 자연사박물관이란 말은 TV를 통해 가장 많이 접했다. 다섯째, 대부분의 사람들은 자연사를 학교에서 배운적이 없었지만, 배워보고 싶은 요구가 높았고, 마찬가지로 자연사박물관을 경험한 사람이 드물었지만, 관람해 보고 싶은 요구는 높았다. The aim of this study is to acquire a better understanding of how natural history(NH) and natural history museums(NHM) are perceived among students, teachers and parents by administering a questionnaire. A total of over 2500 people participated in this survey. We developed the questionnaire which was categorized by three specific areas: 1) people 's overall perceptions of natural history and natural history museums; 2)the way of people's getting such perceptions and knowledge; 3) people's possessing interests in NH and NHM. The summary of survey results included; firstly people had paid attention to nature and natural environments; secondly NH and NHM were not familiar to people, but they expressed their eagerness to learn about them; thirdly the first image occurred to people was dinosaur, when they recalled NH and NHM with describing them to be mysterious and education.; on the fourth, NH and NHM were informed through TV programs; lastly, most people responded that they never learned about NH and NHM in schools but they wanted to learn them.
Conventional hydrophobic binders (e.g., PvdF, Nafion) used in seawater batteries can cause various problems such as unstable charge-discharge reaction and low performance due to low wettability toward seawater. The hydrophilic adhesive polymer binder is achieved via using three moieties; (i) dopamine methacrylamide (DMA) as an adhesive moiety, (ii) Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as a hydrophilic moiety, and (iii) Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) to prevent polymer binder from dissolving into seawater. The synthesized polymer showed outstanding adhesion against carbon felt and Pt surface, which was also confirmed by molecular dynamics simulation. Moreover, the seawater battery with the polymer binder showed higher power and cycle stability compared to that of PvdF binder. The cross-section of carbon felt was imaged with TEM, which directly showed that the synthesized polymer binder prevents Pt/C from detachment during the charge-discharge cycle.
Foreign bodies in the sinus are rare entities that are often associated with trauma. This paper presents a case of a metallic foreign body that was retained without any symptoms for over 40 years. A skull X-ray and computed tomography scans showed blades of scissors inside the maxillary sinus, extending to the middle meatus without affecting vital structures. The foreign body was successfully removed by an endoscopic approach. There were no complications during and after the surgery. The presence of retained foreign bodies in the maxillofacial region is rarely discussed in previous publications. This manuscript focuses on the asymptomatic period of this foreign body and aims to discuss the necessity and feasibility of a wait-and-see approach in selected cases.
The purpose of the present study was to identify the visual images of physical environment type which the creative students perceived as stimulating to their creativity. The target setting was confined to the galleries in Natural History Mu-seums. The creative students were selected based on their own scores on the Invention Test by Finke (1990) and asked to rate the creative potential of a photo-graph. Physical characteristics of a photograph were rated according to 11 sub-categories within the framework of the physical environment. Cluster analysis identified the six different types of physical environment. We evaluated what type of physical environment received the highest score on the creative potential. The profiles of the highest two types were described as ‘dynamic, complex, and large images’, and ‘ordered, sophisticated, and large images’. In contrast, the lowest two types were characterized as ‘closed, static, and small images’ and ‘monotonous and outdated images’. These descriptions suggest that the interaction between internal organizations and spatial forms in the physical environment categories led to the difference in the perceived creative potential. The other categories, light and color, didn’t seem to contribute to the difference.
Inflammation is known to participate in the mediation of a growing number of acute and chronic neurological disorders. Even so, the involvement of inflammation in the pathogenesis of epilepsy and seizure-induced brain damage has only recently been appreciated. Inflammatory processes, including activation of microglia and astrocytes and production of proinflammatory cytokines and related molecules, have been described in human epilepsy patients as well as in experimental models of epilepsy. For many decades, a functional role for brain inflammation has been implied by the effective use of anti-inflammatory treatments, such as steroids, in treating intractable pediatric epilepsy of diverse causes. Conversely, common pediatric infectious or autoimmune diseases are often accompanied by seizures during the course of illness. In addition, genetic susceptibility to inflammation correlated with an increased risk of epilepsy. Mounting evidence thus supports the hypothesis that inflammation may contribute to epileptogenesis and cause neuronal injury in epilepsy. We provide an overview of the current knowledge that implicates brain inflammation as a common predisposing factor in epilepsy, particularly childhood epilepsy.
치아의 크기는 유전적으로나 비교해부학적, 치과 임상적인 면에서도 중요하다. 치아의 크기는 주로 복합적인 유전에 의해 결정되며, 다른 인종간에 차이가 나므로 인류학적 조사를 하는 데에도 사용된다. 특히 유치의 크기는 치과 임상적인 면에서 중요한데, 교합의 변화와 공간분석에 큰 역할을 한다. 소아치과 임상에서 사용하는 유구치의 수복에 주로 사용되는 금속관은 대부분 기성 제품이므로 수복시에는 치아 크기에 맞추어 선택해 사용한다 유치 치관 크기는 인종에 따른 차이가 많은데 현재 임상에서 사용중인 기성금속관은 한국인 기준으로 만들어진 것이 아니므로,기성 제품을 사용하기 위해서는 한국 아동 유치의 형태학적 특성을 정립하는 것이 우선되어야 한다. 한국 아동의 유구치의 인종적 특성과 좌우 비교,성별을 비교하고,소아치과 임상에서 많이 사용하는 기성 금속관의 크기와의 비교를 위한 기초 자료를 얻기 위하여 부산 ·경남지역 아동 235명의 경석고 모형을 채득하여 유구치의 근원심경과 협설경을 digital calipers로 측정하였다. 또 시판중인 2종의 기성금속관의 근원심경과 협설경을 측정하여 , 모형에서 계측한 유구치의 측정치와 비교하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 1. 유구치 치관의 크기에 있어서 좌우 차이는 인정되지 않았으나.모든 유구치에서 남아의 경우가 여아보다 큰 것으로 나타났다(P<0.05) . 2. 회귀분석을 통한 비교결과 상, 하 제1유구치와 그 기성금속관간에는 다른 유구치에 비해 상대적으로 큰 차이를 보였다. Data derived from odontometric studies are useful in many areas. Especially crown diameter of primary teeth is important in not only anthropology but also clinical dentistry. The purposes of this study were to compare diameters of primary molars of Korean children with those of preformed stainless steel crown, and examine racial characteristics of primary molars of Korean children. The mesiodistal and buccolingual diameters of primary molars were measured on dental casts taken from 235 children(male 105, female 131), with digital calipers. And the data were compared with those of preformed stainless steel crowns. The results were as fo11ows ; 1. No significant difference was observed between the right and left members of antimeric teeth. and all primary molars of male were larger than those of female 2. The diameters of primary molars of Korean are smaller than those of Austrailian aborigines and there was significant differance between diameters of primary molars of Korean and those of other populations. 3. There were size differences between diameters of maxillary. mandibular first molar and preformed stainless steel crown than other primary molars, relatively
We consider block bootstrappings for panel mean change test of the squared CUSUM test of Horváth and Hušková (J Time Ser Anal 33:631–648, 2012): the circular block bootstrapping and stationary bootstrapping. First order asymptotic null validity of the test is proved under serial and/or cross-sectional correlation. Consistency of the test under an alternative hypothesis is also proved. A Monte-Carlo experiment reveals that the existing tests of Horváth and Hušková (2012) and others have severe size distortions for serially and/or cross-sectionally correlated panels, and the block bootstrappings remedy this size distortion problem. A real data analysis illustrates the proposed method.