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Parabens, the esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, have been widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetic products, drugs, and processed foods and beverages. However, some parabens have been shown to have weak estrogenic effects through in vivo and in vitro studies. Because such widespread use has raised concerns about the potential human health risks associated with exposure to parabens, we developed a simultaneous analytical method to quantify 4 parabens (methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl) in human urine, by using solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. This method showed good specificity, linearity (R2 > 0.999), accuracy (92.2-112.4%), precision (0.9-9.6%, CV), and recovery (95.7-102.0%). The LOQs for the 4 parabens were 1.0, 0.5, 0.2, and 0.5 ng/mL, respectively. This method could be used for quick and accurate analysis of a large number of human samples in epidemiological studies to assess the prevalence of human exposure to parabens.
The diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for a 10-year-old patient were established for the most common types of general radiography in this study, using a glass dosimeter and a phantom corresponding to the international standards. The DRLs are set by measuring the entrance surface doses (ESD) at 211 medical institutions. The ESD of the skull posterior-anterior (PA) projection is between 0.11 and 5.59 mGy, with the average dose at 1.03 mGy, and the third quartile value at 1.17 mGy. The ESD of the skull lateral (LAT) projection is between 0.08 and 5.20 mGy, with the average dose at 0.78 mGy, and the third quartile value at 0.96 mGy. The ESD of the chest PA projection is between 0.01 and 1.38 mGy, with the average dose at 0.18 mGy, and the third quartile value at 0.20 mGy. The ESD of the chest LAT projection is between 0.04 and 3.36 mGy, with the average dose at 0.42 mGy, and the third quartile value at 0.46 mGy. The ESD of the abdomen AP projection is between 0.09 and 4.64 mGy, with the average dose at 0.85 mGy, and the third quartile value at 1.13 mGy. The ESD of the pelvis AP projection is between 0.1 and 5.26 mGy, with the average dose at 0.85 mGy, and the third quartile value at 1.06 mGy. Based on third quartile values and through clinical expert consultation, the DRLs for 10-year-olds in Korea were established at 1.1 mGy for skull PA, 0.9 mGy for skull LAT, 0.2 mGy for chest PA, 0.4 mGy for chest LAT, 1.1 mGy for abdomen AP, and 1.0 mGy for pelvis AP.
The market size of Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) and the number of its approvals by Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS) has increased along with increasing needs in skin treatment and aesthetic and antiageing field. Since there are no detailed and optimal domestic and international standards for IPL, it is need to develop the safety and performance guideline for IPL which is directly used to the skin. To develop the guideline for IPL, technical information was collected and applicable internal standards and related foreign standards were surveyed and analyzed. And then essential test items in the guideline were derived to evaluate the safety and performance of IPL; output accuracy and stability, pulse profile (pulse duration, pulse delay), beam size, wavelength, uniformity of output beam and cooling test. As a result, this guideline could help civil petitioners in progress of an approval and review, improvement public health by securing medical devices with consistent quality, and strengthen the competitiveness of the domestic medical device industry.
The separation characteristics of hydrogen from a gas mixture were investigated by using a single and two-stage inorganic membrane. Three palladium impregnated membranes were prepared by using the sol-gel, hydrolysis, and soaking-and-vapor deposition (SVD) techniques. A two-stage gas separation system without a recycling stream was constructed to see how much the hydrogen separation factor would be increased. Numerical simulation for the separation system was conducted to predict the separation behavior for the multi-stage separation system and to determine the optimal operating conditions at which the highest separation factor is obtained. Gas separation through each prepared membrane was achieved mainly by Knudsen diffusion. The real separation factor for the H₂/ N₂ mixture was increased with the pressure difference and temperature for a single stage, respectively. For the two-stage separation system, there was a maximum point at which the highest separation factor was obtained and the real hydrogen separation factor for H₂/N₂ mixture was increased about 40 % compared with a single stage separation. The numerical simulation for the single and two-stage separation system was in a good agreement with the experimental results. By numerical simulation for the three-stage separation system, which has a recycle stream and three membranes that have the same permeability and hydrogen selectivity near to the Knudsen value, it is clear that the hydrogen separation factors for H₂/N₂ mixture are increased from 1.8 to 3.65 and hydrogen can be concentrated up to about 80 %. The separation factors increased with increasing recycle ratio. Optimal operating conditions exist at which the maximum real separation factor for the gas mixture can be obtained for three-stage gas separation and they can be predicted successfully by numerical simulation.